Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Yaakub Z, Kamaruddin K, Singh R, Mustafa S, Marjuni M, Ting NC, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2020 Jul 29;20(1):356.
    PMID: 32727448 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-020-02563-5
    BACKGROUND: Molecular breeding has opened new avenues for crop improvement with the potential for faster progress. As oil palm is the major producer of vegetable oil in the world, its improvement, such as developing compact planting materials and altering its oils' fatty acid composition for wider application, is important.

    RESULTS: This study sought to identify the QTLs associated with fatty acid composition and vegetative traits for compactness in the crop. It integrated two interspecific backcross two (BC2) mapping populations to improve the genetic resolution and evaluate the consistency of the QTLs identified. A total 1963 markers (1814 SNPs and 149 SSRs) spanning a total map length of 1793 cM were integrated into a consensus map. For the first time, some QTLs associated with vegetative parameters and carotene content were identified in interspecific hybrids, apart from those associated with fatty acid composition. The analysis identified 8, 3 and 8 genomic loci significantly associated with fatty acids, carotene content and compactness, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Major genomic region influencing the traits for compactness and fatty acid composition was identified in the same chromosomal region in the two populations using two methods for QTL detection. Several significant loci influencing compactness, carotene content and FAC were common to both populations, while others were specific to particular genetic backgrounds. It is hoped that the QTLs identified will be useful tools for marker-assisted selection and accelerate the identification of desirable genotypes for breeding.

  2. Bahari MNA, Sakeh NM, Abdullah SNA, Ramli RR, Kadkhodaei S
    BMC Plant Biol, 2018 Dec 29;18(1):377.
    PMID: 30594134 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-018-1594-9
    BACKGROUND: Basal stem rot (BSR) caused by hemibiotroph Ganoderma boninense is a devastating disease resulting in a major loss to the oil palm industry. Since there is no physical symptom in oil palm at the early stage of G. boninense infection, characterisation of molecular defense responses in oil palm during early interaction with the fungus is of the utmost importance. Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) seedlings were artificially infected with G. boninense inoculums and root samples were obtained following a time-course of 0, 3, 7, and 11 days-post-inoculation (d.p.i) for RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs).

    RESULTS: The host counter-attack was evidenced based on fungal hyphae and Ganoderma DNA observed at 3 d.p.i which became significantly reduced at 7 and 11 d.p.i. DEGs revealed upregulation of multifaceted defense related genes such as PR-protein (EgPR-1), protease inhibitor (EgBGIA), PRR protein (EgLYK3) chitinase (EgCht) and expansin (EgEXPB18) at 3 d.p.i and 7 d.p.i which dropped at 11 d.p.i. Later stage involved highly expressed transcription factors EgERF113 and EgMYC2 as potential regulators of necrotrophic defense at 11 d.p.i. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) elicitor: peroxidase (EgPER) and NADPH oxidase (EgRBOH) were upregulated and maintained throughout the treatment period. Growth and nutrient distribution were probably compromised through suppression of auxin signalling and iron uptake genes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Based on the analysis of oil palm gene expression, it was deduced that the biotrophic phase of Ganoderma had possibly occurred at the early phase (3 until 7 d.p.i) before being challenged by the fungus via switching its lifestyle into the necrotrophic phase at later stage (11 d.p.i) and finally succumbed the host. Together, the findings suggest the dynamic defense process in oil palm and potential candidates that can serve as phase-specific biomarkers at the early stages of oil palm-G. boninense interaction.

  3. Salleh FM, Mariotti L, Spadafora ND, Price AM, Picciarelli P, Wagstaff C, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2016;16(1):77.
    PMID: 27039085 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-016-0766-8
    In many species floral senescence is coordinated by ethylene. Endogenous levels rise, and exogenous application accelerates senescence. Furthermore, floral senescence is often associated with increased reactive oxygen species, and is delayed by exogenously applied cytokinin. However, how these processes are linked remains largely unresolved. Erysimum linifolium (wallflower) provides an excellent model for understanding these interactions due to its easily staged flowers and close taxonomic relationship to Arabidopsis. This has facilitated microarray analysis of gene expression during petal senescence and provided gene markers for following the effects of treatments on different regulatory pathways.
  4. Sherman A, Rubinstein M, Eshed R, Benita M, Ish-Shalom M, Sharabi-Schwager M, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2015;15:277.
    PMID: 26573148 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0663-6
    Germplasm collections are an important source for plant breeding, especially in fruit trees which have a long duration of juvenile period. Thus, efforts have been made to study the diversity of fruit tree collections. Even though mango is an economically important crop, most of the studies on diversity in mango collections have been conducted with a small number of genetic markers.
  5. Low ET, Alias H, Boon SH, Shariff EM, Tan CY, Ooi LC, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2008;8:62.
    PMID: 18507865 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-8-62
    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) is one of the most important oil bearing crops in the world. However, genetic improvement of oil palm through conventional breeding is extremely slow and costly, as the breeding cycle can take up to 10 years. This has brought about interest in vegetative propagation of oil palm. Since the introduction of oil palm tissue culture in the 1970s, clonal propagation has proven to be useful, not only in producing uniform planting materials, but also in the development of the genetic engineering programme. Despite considerable progress in improving the tissue culture techniques, the callusing and embryogenesis rates from proliferating callus cultures remain very low. Thus, understanding the gene diversity and expression profiles in oil palm tissue culture is critical in increasing the efficiency of these processes.
  6. Tiwari GJ, Liu Q, Shreshtha P, Li Z, Rahman S
    BMC Plant Biol, 2016 08 31;16(1):189.
    PMID: 27581494 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-016-0881-6
    BACKGROUND: The bran from polished rice grains can be used to produce rice bran oil (RBO). High oleic (HO) RBO has been generated previously through RNAi down-regulation of OsFAD2-1. HO-RBO has higher oxidative stability and could be directly used in the food industry without hydrogenation, and is hence free of trans fatty acids. However, relative to a classic oilseed, lipid metabolism in the rice grain is poorly studied and the genetic alteration in the novel HO genotype remains unexplored.

    RESULTS: Here, we have undertaken further analysis of role of OsFAD2-1 in the developing rice grain. The use of Illumina-based NGS transcriptomics analysis of developing rice grain reveals that knockdown of Os-FAD2-1 gene expression was accompanied by the down regulation of the expression of a number of key genes in the lipid biosynthesis pathway in the HO rice line. A slightly higher level of oil accumulation was also observed in the HO-RBO.

    CONCLUSION: Prominent among the down regulated genes were those that coded for FatA, LACS, SAD2, SAD5, caleosin and steroleosin. It may be possible to further increase the oleic acid content in rice oil by altering the expression of the lipid biosynthetic genes that are affected in the HO line.

  7. Wang T, Yang B, Guan Q, Chen X, Zhong Z, Huang W, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2019 May 14;19(1):198.
    PMID: 31088368 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-019-1803-1
    BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica Thunb. flower has been used for the treatment of various diseases for a long time and attracted many studies on its potential effects. Transcription factors (TFs) regulate extensive biological processes during plant development. As the restricted reports of L. japonica on TFs, our work was carried out to better understand the TFs' regulatory roles under different developmental stages in L. japonica.

    RESULTS: In this study, 1316 TFs belonging to 52 families were identified from the transcriptomic data, and corresponding expression profiles during the L. japonica flower development were comprehensively analyzed. 917 (69.68%) TFs were differentially expressed. TFs in bHLH, ERF, MYB, bZIP, and NAC families exhibited obviously altered expression during flower growth. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed TFs (DETFs), TFs in MYB, WRKY, NAC and LSD families that involved in phenylpropanoids biosynthesis, senescence processes and antioxidant activity were detected. The expression of MYB114 exhibited a positive correlation with the contents of luteoloside; Positive correlation was observed among the expression of MYC12, chalcone synthase (CHS) and flavonol synthase (FLS), while negative correlation was observed between the expression of MYB44 and the synthases; The expression of LSD1 was highly correlated with the expression of SOD and the total antioxidant capacity, while the expression of LOL1 and LOL2 exhibited a negative correlation with them; Many TFs in NAC and WRKY families may be potentially involved in the senescence process regulated by hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The expression of NAC19, NAC29, and NAC53 exhibited a positive correlation with the contents of ABA and H2O2, while the expression of WRKY53, WRKY54, and WRKY70 exhibited a negative correlation with the contents of JA, SA and ABA.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided a comprehensive characterization of the expression profiles of TFs during the developmental stages of L. japonica. In addition, we detected the key TFs that may play significant roles in controlling active components biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and flower senescence in L. japonica, thereby providing valuable insights into the molecular networks underlying L. japonica flower development.

  8. Teh CK, Lee HL, Abidin H, Ong AL, Mayes S, Chew FT, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2019 Nov 05;19(1):470.
    PMID: 31690276 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-019-2062-x
    BACKGROUND: Legitimacy in breeding and commercial crop production depends on optimised protocols to ensure purity of crosses and correct field planting of material. In oil palm, the presence of three fruit forms permits these assumptions to be tested, although only after field planting. The presence of incorrect fruit forms in a cross is a clear sign of illegitimacy. Given that tenera forms produce 30% more oil for the same weight of fruit as dura, the presence of low levels of dura contamination can have major effect during the economic lifespan of an oil palm, which is around 25 years. We evaluated two methods for legitimacy test 1) The use of SHELL markers to the gene that determines the shell-thickness trait 2) The use of SNP markers, to determine the legitimacy of the cross.

    RESULTS: Our results indicate that the SHELL markers can theoretically reduce the major losses due to dura contamination of tenera planting material. However, these markers cannot distinguish illegitimate tenera, which reduces the value of having bred elite tenera for commercial planting and in the breeding programme, where fruit form is of limited utility, and incorrect identity could lead to significant problems. We propose an optimised approach using SNPs for routine quality control.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both dura and tenera contamination can be identified and removed at or before the nursery stage. An optimised legitimacy assay using SNP markers coupled with a suitable sampling scheme is now ready to be deployed as a standard control for seed production and breeding in oil palm. The same approach will also be an effective solution for other perennial crops, such as coconut and date palm.

  9. Redwan RM, Saidin A, Kumar SV
    BMC Plant Biol, 2015;15:196.
    PMID: 26264372 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0587-1
    Pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus) is known as the king of fruits for its crown and is the third most important tropical fruit after banana and citrus. The plant, which is indigenous to South America, is the most important species in the Bromeliaceae family and is largely traded for fresh fruit consumption. Here, we report the complete chloroplast sequence of the MD-2 pineapple that was sequenced using the PacBio sequencing technology.
  10. Lau SE, Schwarzacher T, Othman RY, Harikrishna JA
    BMC Plant Biol, 2015;15:194.
    PMID: 26260631 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0577-3
    The R2R3-MYB genes regulate pigmentation and morphogenesis of flowers, including flower and cell shape, and therefore have importance in the development of new varieties of orchids. However, new variety development is limited by the long breeding time required in orchids. In this study, we identified a cDNA, DhMYB1, that is expressed during flower development in a hybrid orchid, Dendrobium hybrida (Dendrobium bobby messina X Dendrobium chao phraya) then used the direct application of dsRNA to observe the effect of gene silencing on flower phenotype and floral epidermal cell shape.
  11. Rai KM, Balasubramanian VK, Welker CM, Pang M, Hii MM, Mendu V
    BMC Plant Biol, 2015;15:187.
    PMID: 26232118 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-015-0576-4
    The plant cell wall serves as a primary barrier against pathogen invasion. The success of a plant pathogen largely depends on its ability to overcome this barrier. During the infection process, plant parasitic nematodes secrete cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) apart from piercing with their stylet, a sharp and hard mouthpart used for successful infection. CWDEs typically consist of cellulases, hemicellulases, and pectinases, which help the nematode to infect and establish the feeding structure or form a cyst. The study of nematode cell wall degrading enzymes not only enhance our understanding of the interaction between nematodes and their host, but also provides information on a novel source of enzymes for their potential use in biomass based biofuel/bioproduct industries. Although there is comprehensive information available on genome wide analysis of CWDEs for bacteria, fungi, termites and plants, but no comprehensive information available for plant pathogenic nematodes. Herein we have performed a genome wide analysis of CWDEs from the genome sequenced phyto pathogenic nematode species and developed a comprehensive publicly available database.
  12. Singh R, Tan SG, Panandam JM, Rahman RA, Ooi LC, Low ET, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2009;9:114.
    PMID: 19706196 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2229-9-114
    Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) is well suited to a perennial crop like oil palm, in which the economic products are not produced until several years after planting. The use of DNA markers for selection in such crops can greatly reduce the number of breeding cycles needed. With the use of DNA markers, informed decisions can be made at the nursery stage, regarding which individuals should be retained as breeding stock, which are satisfactory for agricultural production, and which should be culled. The trait associated with oil quality, measured in terms of its fatty acid composition, is an important agronomic trait that can eventually be tracked using molecular markers. This will speed up the production of new and improved oil palm planting materials.
  13. Sakeh NM, Abdullah SNA, Bahari MNA, Azzeme AM, Shaharuddin NA, Idris AS
    BMC Plant Biol, 2021 Jan 22;21(1):59.
    PMID: 33482731 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-020-02812-7
    BACKGROUND: Hemibiotrophic pathogen such as the fungal pathogen Ganoderma boninense that is destructive to oil palm, manipulates host defense mechanism by strategically switching from biotrophic to necrotrophic phase. Our previous study revealed two distinguishable expression profiles of oil palm genes that formed the basis in deducing biotrophic phase at early interaction which switched to necrotrophic phase at a later stage of infection.

    RESULTS: The present report is a continuing study from our previous published transcriptomic profiling of oil palm seedlings against G. boninense. We focused on identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) encoding transcription factors (TFs) from the same RNA-seq data; resulting in 106 upregulated and 108 downregulated TFs being identified. The DEGs are involved in four established defense-related pathways responsible for cell wall modification, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling, programmed cell death (PCD) and plant innate immunity. We discovered upregulation of JUNGBRUNNEN 1 (EgJUB1) during the fungal biotrophic phase while Ethylene Responsive Factor 113 (EgERF113) demonstrated prominent upregulation when the palm switches to defense against necrotrophic phase. EgJUB1 was shown to have a binding activity to a 19 bp palindromic SNBE1 element, WNNYBTNNNNNNNAMGNHW found in the promoter region of co-expressing EgHSFC-2b. Further in silico analysis of promoter regions revealed co-expression of EgJUB1 with TFs containing SNBE1 element with single nucleotide change at either the 5th or 18th position. Meanwhile, EgERF113 binds to both GCC and DRE/CRT elements promoting plasticity in upregulating the downstream defense-related genes. Both TFs were proven to be nuclear-localized based on subcellular localization experiment using onion epidermal cells.

    CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated unprecedented transcriptional reprogramming of specific TFs potentially to enable regulation of a specific set of genes during different infection phases of this hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen. The results propose the intricacy of oil palm defense response in orchestrating EgJUB1 during biotrophic and EgERF113 during the subsequent transition to the necrotrophic phase. Binding of EgJUB1 to SNBE motif instead of NACBS while EgERF113 to GCC-box and DRE/CRT motifs is unconventional and not normally associated with pathogen infection. Identification of these phase-specific oil palm TFs is important in designing strategies to tackle or attenuate the progress of infection.

  14. van der Ent A, Nkrumah PN, Aarts MGM, Baker AJM, Degryse F, Wawryk C, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2021 Sep 27;21(1):437.
    PMID: 34579652 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-021-03190-4
    BACKGROUND: Some subspecies of Dichapetalum gelonioides are the only tropical woody zinc (Zn)-hyperaccumulator plants described so far and the first Zn hyperaccumulators identified to occur exclusively on non-Zn enriched 'normal' soils. The aim of this study was to investigate Zn cycling in the parent rock-soil-plant interface in the native habitats of hyperaccumulating Dichapetalum gelonioides subspecies (subsp. pilosum and subsp. sumatranum). We measured the Zn isotope ratios (δ66Zn) of Dichapetalum plant material, and associated soil and parent rock materials collected from Sabah (Malaysian Borneo).

    RESULTS: We found enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes in the topsoil (δ66Zn 0.13 ‰) relative to deep soil (δ66Zn -0.15 ‰) and bedrock (δ66Zn -0.90 ‰). This finding suggests that both weathering and organic matter influenced the Zn isotope pattern in the soil-plant system, with leaf litter cycling contributing significantly to enriched heavier Zn in topsoil. Within the plant, the roots were enriched in heavy Zn isotopes (δ66Zn ~ 0.60 ‰) compared to mature leaves (δ66Zn ~ 0.30 ‰), which suggests highly expressed membrane transporters in these Dichapetalum subspecies preferentially transporting lighter Zn isotopes during root-to-shoot translocation. The shoots, mature leaves and phloem tissues were enriched in heavy Zn isotopes (δ66Zn 0.34-0.70 ‰) relative to young leaves (δ66Zn 0.25 ‰). Thisindicates that phloem sources are enriched in heavy Zn isotopes relative to phloem sinks, likely because of apoplastic retention and compartmentalization in the Dichapetalum subspecies.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study reveal Zn cycling in the rock-soil-plant continuum within the natural habitat of Zn hyperaccumulating subspecies of Dichapetalum gelonioides from Malaysian Borneo. This study broadens our understanding of the role of a tropical woody Zn hyperaccumulator plant in local Zn cycling, and highlights the important role of leaf litter recycling in the topsoil Zn budget. Within the plant, phloem plays key role in Zn accumulation and redistribution during growth and development. This study provides an improved understanding of the fate and behaviour of Zn in hyperaccumulator soil-plant systems, and these insights may be applied in the biofortification of crops with Zn.

  15. Gao X, Chai HH, Ho WK, Mayes S, Massawe F
    BMC Plant Biol, 2023 May 30;23(1):287.
    PMID: 37248451 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-023-04293-w
    BACKGROUND: Assessment of segregating populations for their ability to withstand drought stress conditions is one of the best approaches to develop breeding lines and drought tolerant varieties. Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) is a leguminous crop, capable of growing in low-input agricultural systems in semi-arid areas. An F4 bi-parental segregating population obtained from S19-3 × DodR was developed to evaluate the effect of drought stress on photosynthetic parameters and identify QTLs associated with these traits under drought-stressed and well-watered conditions in a rainout shelter.

    RESULTS: Stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis rate (A), transpiration rate (E) and intracellular CO2 (Ci) were significantly reduced (p 

  16. Alhusayni S, Roswanjaya YP, Rutten L, Huisman R, Bertram S, Sharma T, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol, 2023 Nov 24;23(1):587.
    PMID: 37996841 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-023-04594-0
    BACKGROUND: Nitrogen-fixing nodules occur in ten related taxonomic lineages interspersed with lineages of non-nodulating plant species. Nodules result from an endosymbiosis between plants and diazotrophic bacteria; rhizobia in the case of legumes and Parasponia and Frankia in the case of actinorhizal species. Nodulating plants share a conserved set of symbiosis genes, whereas related non-nodulating sister species show pseudogenization of several key nodulation-specific genes. Signalling and cellular mechanisms critical for nodulation have been co-opted from the more ancient plant-fungal arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis. Studies in legumes and actinorhizal plants uncovered a key component in symbiotic signalling, the LRR-type SYMBIOSIS RECEPTOR KINASE (SYMRK). SYMRK is essential for nodulation and arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis. To our surprise, however, despite its arbuscular endomycorrhizal symbiosis capacities, we observed a seemingly critical mutation in a donor splice site in the SYMRK gene of Trema orientalis, the non-nodulating sister species of Parasponia. This led us to investigate the symbiotic functioning of SYMRK in the Trema-Parasponia lineage and to address the question of to what extent a single nucleotide polymorphism in a donor splice site affects the symbiotic functioning of SYMRK.

    RESULTS: We show that SYMRK is essential for nodulation and endomycorrhization in Parasponia andersonii. Subsequently, it is revealed that the 5'-intron donor splice site of SYMRK intron 12 is variable and, in most dicotyledon species, doesn't contain the canonical dinucleotide 'GT' signature but the much less common motif 'GC'. Strikingly, in T. orientalis, this motif is converted into a rare non-canonical 5'-intron donor splice site 'GA'. This SYMRK allele, however, is fully functional and spreads in the T. orientalis population of Malaysian Borneo. A further investigation into the occurrence of the non-canonical GA-AG splice sites confirmed that these are extremely rare.

    CONCLUSION: SYMRK functioning is highly conserved in legumes, actinorhizal plants, and Parasponia. The gene possesses a non-common 5'-intron GC donor splice site in intron 12, which is converted into a GA in T. orientalis accessions of Malaysian Borneo. The discovery of this functional GA-AG splice site in SYMRK highlights a gap in our understanding of splice donor sites.

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