RESULTS: This study sought to identify the QTLs associated with fatty acid composition and vegetative traits for compactness in the crop. It integrated two interspecific backcross two (BC2) mapping populations to improve the genetic resolution and evaluate the consistency of the QTLs identified. A total 1963 markers (1814 SNPs and 149 SSRs) spanning a total map length of 1793 cM were integrated into a consensus map. For the first time, some QTLs associated with vegetative parameters and carotene content were identified in interspecific hybrids, apart from those associated with fatty acid composition. The analysis identified 8, 3 and 8 genomic loci significantly associated with fatty acids, carotene content and compactness, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Major genomic region influencing the traits for compactness and fatty acid composition was identified in the same chromosomal region in the two populations using two methods for QTL detection. Several significant loci influencing compactness, carotene content and FAC were common to both populations, while others were specific to particular genetic backgrounds. It is hoped that the QTLs identified will be useful tools for marker-assisted selection and accelerate the identification of desirable genotypes for breeding.
RESULTS: The host counter-attack was evidenced based on fungal hyphae and Ganoderma DNA observed at 3 d.p.i which became significantly reduced at 7 and 11 d.p.i. DEGs revealed upregulation of multifaceted defense related genes such as PR-protein (EgPR-1), protease inhibitor (EgBGIA), PRR protein (EgLYK3) chitinase (EgCht) and expansin (EgEXPB18) at 3 d.p.i and 7 d.p.i which dropped at 11 d.p.i. Later stage involved highly expressed transcription factors EgERF113 and EgMYC2 as potential regulators of necrotrophic defense at 11 d.p.i. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) elicitor: peroxidase (EgPER) and NADPH oxidase (EgRBOH) were upregulated and maintained throughout the treatment period. Growth and nutrient distribution were probably compromised through suppression of auxin signalling and iron uptake genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the analysis of oil palm gene expression, it was deduced that the biotrophic phase of Ganoderma had possibly occurred at the early phase (3 until 7 d.p.i) before being challenged by the fungus via switching its lifestyle into the necrotrophic phase at later stage (11 d.p.i) and finally succumbed the host. Together, the findings suggest the dynamic defense process in oil palm and potential candidates that can serve as phase-specific biomarkers at the early stages of oil palm-G. boninense interaction.
RESULTS: Here, we have undertaken further analysis of role of OsFAD2-1 in the developing rice grain. The use of Illumina-based NGS transcriptomics analysis of developing rice grain reveals that knockdown of Os-FAD2-1 gene expression was accompanied by the down regulation of the expression of a number of key genes in the lipid biosynthesis pathway in the HO rice line. A slightly higher level of oil accumulation was also observed in the HO-RBO.
CONCLUSION: Prominent among the down regulated genes were those that coded for FatA, LACS, SAD2, SAD5, caleosin and steroleosin. It may be possible to further increase the oleic acid content in rice oil by altering the expression of the lipid biosynthetic genes that are affected in the HO line.
RESULTS: In this study, 1316 TFs belonging to 52 families were identified from the transcriptomic data, and corresponding expression profiles during the L. japonica flower development were comprehensively analyzed. 917 (69.68%) TFs were differentially expressed. TFs in bHLH, ERF, MYB, bZIP, and NAC families exhibited obviously altered expression during flower growth. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed TFs (DETFs), TFs in MYB, WRKY, NAC and LSD families that involved in phenylpropanoids biosynthesis, senescence processes and antioxidant activity were detected. The expression of MYB114 exhibited a positive correlation with the contents of luteoloside; Positive correlation was observed among the expression of MYC12, chalcone synthase (CHS) and flavonol synthase (FLS), while negative correlation was observed between the expression of MYB44 and the synthases; The expression of LSD1 was highly correlated with the expression of SOD and the total antioxidant capacity, while the expression of LOL1 and LOL2 exhibited a negative correlation with them; Many TFs in NAC and WRKY families may be potentially involved in the senescence process regulated by hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The expression of NAC19, NAC29, and NAC53 exhibited a positive correlation with the contents of ABA and H2O2, while the expression of WRKY53, WRKY54, and WRKY70 exhibited a negative correlation with the contents of JA, SA and ABA.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provided a comprehensive characterization of the expression profiles of TFs during the developmental stages of L. japonica. In addition, we detected the key TFs that may play significant roles in controlling active components biosynthesis, antioxidant activity and flower senescence in L. japonica, thereby providing valuable insights into the molecular networks underlying L. japonica flower development.
RESULTS: Our results indicate that the SHELL markers can theoretically reduce the major losses due to dura contamination of tenera planting material. However, these markers cannot distinguish illegitimate tenera, which reduces the value of having bred elite tenera for commercial planting and in the breeding programme, where fruit form is of limited utility, and incorrect identity could lead to significant problems. We propose an optimised approach using SNPs for routine quality control.
CONCLUSIONS: Both dura and tenera contamination can be identified and removed at or before the nursery stage. An optimised legitimacy assay using SNP markers coupled with a suitable sampling scheme is now ready to be deployed as a standard control for seed production and breeding in oil palm. The same approach will also be an effective solution for other perennial crops, such as coconut and date palm.
RESULTS: The present report is a continuing study from our previous published transcriptomic profiling of oil palm seedlings against G. boninense. We focused on identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) encoding transcription factors (TFs) from the same RNA-seq data; resulting in 106 upregulated and 108 downregulated TFs being identified. The DEGs are involved in four established defense-related pathways responsible for cell wall modification, reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling, programmed cell death (PCD) and plant innate immunity. We discovered upregulation of JUNGBRUNNEN 1 (EgJUB1) during the fungal biotrophic phase while Ethylene Responsive Factor 113 (EgERF113) demonstrated prominent upregulation when the palm switches to defense against necrotrophic phase. EgJUB1 was shown to have a binding activity to a 19 bp palindromic SNBE1 element, WNNYBTNNNNNNNAMGNHW found in the promoter region of co-expressing EgHSFC-2b. Further in silico analysis of promoter regions revealed co-expression of EgJUB1 with TFs containing SNBE1 element with single nucleotide change at either the 5th or 18th position. Meanwhile, EgERF113 binds to both GCC and DRE/CRT elements promoting plasticity in upregulating the downstream defense-related genes. Both TFs were proven to be nuclear-localized based on subcellular localization experiment using onion epidermal cells.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated unprecedented transcriptional reprogramming of specific TFs potentially to enable regulation of a specific set of genes during different infection phases of this hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen. The results propose the intricacy of oil palm defense response in orchestrating EgJUB1 during biotrophic and EgERF113 during the subsequent transition to the necrotrophic phase. Binding of EgJUB1 to SNBE motif instead of NACBS while EgERF113 to GCC-box and DRE/CRT motifs is unconventional and not normally associated with pathogen infection. Identification of these phase-specific oil palm TFs is important in designing strategies to tackle or attenuate the progress of infection.
RESULTS: We found enrichment in heavy Zn isotopes in the topsoil (δ66Zn 0.13 ‰) relative to deep soil (δ66Zn -0.15 ‰) and bedrock (δ66Zn -0.90 ‰). This finding suggests that both weathering and organic matter influenced the Zn isotope pattern in the soil-plant system, with leaf litter cycling contributing significantly to enriched heavier Zn in topsoil. Within the plant, the roots were enriched in heavy Zn isotopes (δ66Zn ~ 0.60 ‰) compared to mature leaves (δ66Zn ~ 0.30 ‰), which suggests highly expressed membrane transporters in these Dichapetalum subspecies preferentially transporting lighter Zn isotopes during root-to-shoot translocation. The shoots, mature leaves and phloem tissues were enriched in heavy Zn isotopes (δ66Zn 0.34-0.70 ‰) relative to young leaves (δ66Zn 0.25 ‰). Thisindicates that phloem sources are enriched in heavy Zn isotopes relative to phloem sinks, likely because of apoplastic retention and compartmentalization in the Dichapetalum subspecies.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study reveal Zn cycling in the rock-soil-plant continuum within the natural habitat of Zn hyperaccumulating subspecies of Dichapetalum gelonioides from Malaysian Borneo. This study broadens our understanding of the role of a tropical woody Zn hyperaccumulator plant in local Zn cycling, and highlights the important role of leaf litter recycling in the topsoil Zn budget. Within the plant, phloem plays key role in Zn accumulation and redistribution during growth and development. This study provides an improved understanding of the fate and behaviour of Zn in hyperaccumulator soil-plant systems, and these insights may be applied in the biofortification of crops with Zn.
RESULTS: Stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis rate (A), transpiration rate (E) and intracellular CO2 (Ci) were significantly reduced (p
RESULTS: We show that SYMRK is essential for nodulation and endomycorrhization in Parasponia andersonii. Subsequently, it is revealed that the 5'-intron donor splice site of SYMRK intron 12 is variable and, in most dicotyledon species, doesn't contain the canonical dinucleotide 'GT' signature but the much less common motif 'GC'. Strikingly, in T. orientalis, this motif is converted into a rare non-canonical 5'-intron donor splice site 'GA'. This SYMRK allele, however, is fully functional and spreads in the T. orientalis population of Malaysian Borneo. A further investigation into the occurrence of the non-canonical GA-AG splice sites confirmed that these are extremely rare.
CONCLUSION: SYMRK functioning is highly conserved in legumes, actinorhizal plants, and Parasponia. The gene possesses a non-common 5'-intron GC donor splice site in intron 12, which is converted into a GA in T. orientalis accessions of Malaysian Borneo. The discovery of this functional GA-AG splice site in SYMRK highlights a gap in our understanding of splice donor sites.