The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase.
Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA) in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1) and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w) and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L(-1) to 15.45 g L(-1), respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7) monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (T m) of 42.0 (± 0.2) °C, glass transition temperature (T g) of -1.0 (± 0.2) °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf) of 110.3 (± 0.1) J g(-1). The molecular weight (M w) range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa.
A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from < 3 up to > 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.
The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways has been implicated in the pathogenicity of various pathogenic fungi and plays important roles in regulating pathogenicity-related morphogenesis. This work describes the isolation and characterization of MAP kinase gene, Cgl-SLT2, from Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. A DNA sequence, including 1,633 bp of Cgl-SLT2 open-reading frame and its promoter and terminator regions, was isolated via DNA walking and cloned. To analyze gene function, a gene disruption cassette containing hygromycin-resistant gene was constructed, and Cgl-SLT2 was inactivated via gene deletion. Analysis on Cgl-slt2 mutant revealed a defect in vegetative growth and sporulation as compared to the wild-type strain. When grown under nutrient-limiting conditions, hyperbranched hyphal morphology was observed in the mutant. Conidia induction for germination on rubber wax-coated hard surfaces revealed no differences in the percentage of conidial germination between the wild-type and Cgl-slt2 mutant. However, the percentage of appressorium formation in the mutant was greatly reduced. Bipolar germination in the mutant was higher than in the wild-type at 8-h post-induction. A pathogenicity assay revealed that the mutant was unable to infect either wounded or unwounded mangoes. These results suggest that the Cgl-SLT2 MAP kinase is required for C. gloeosporioides conidiation, polarized growth, appressorium formation and pathogenicity.
This study aimed to isolate and identify Lactobacillus in the honey stomach of honeybee Apis dorsata. Samples of honeybee were collected from A. dorsata colonies in different bee trees and Lactobacillus bacteria isolated from honey stomachs. Ninety two isolates were Gram-stained and tested for catalase reaction. By using bacterial universal primers, the 16S rDNA gene from DNA of bacterial colonies amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Forty-nine bacterial 16S rDNA gene were sequenced and entrusted in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis showed they were different phylotypes of Lactobacillus. Two of them were most closely relevant to the previously described species Lactobacillus plantarum. Other two phylotypes were identified to be closely related to Lactobacillus pentosus. However, only one phylotype was found to be distantly linked to the Lactobacillus fermentum. The outcomes of the present study indicated that L. plantarum, L. pentosus, and L. fermentum were the dominant lactobacilli in the honey stomach of honeybee A. dorsata collected during the dry season from Malaysia forest area - specifically "Melaleuca in Terengganu".
Crown disease (CD) is infecting oil palm in the early stages of the crop development. Previous studies showed that Fusarium species were commonly associated with CD. However, the identity of the species has not been resolved. This study was carried out to identify and characterize through morphological approaches and to determine the genetic diversity of the Fusarium species. 51 isolates (39%) of Fusarium solani and 40 isolates (31%) of Fusarium oxysporum were recovered from oil palm with typical CD symptoms collected from nine states in Malaysia, together with samples from Padang and Medan, Indonesia. Based on morphological characteristics, isolates in both Fusarium species were classified into two distinct morphotypes; Morphotypes I and II. Molecular characterization based on IGS-RFLP analysis produced 27 haplotypes among the F. solani isolates and 33 haplotypes for F. oxysporum isolates, which indicated high levels of intraspecific variations. From UPGMA cluster analysis, the isolates in both Fusarium species were divided into two main clusters with the percentage of similarity from 87% to 100% for F. solani, and 89% to 100% for F. oxysporum isolates, which was in accordance with the Morphotypes I and II. The results of the present study indicated that F. solani and F. oxysporum associated with CD of oil palm in Malaysia and Indonesia were highly variable.
An in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reaction was established and evaluated for sensitivity and specificity in detecting the presence of Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates from Kelantan, Malaysia. Three sets of primers consisting of two outer and 4 inner were designed based on locus STBHUCCB_38510 of chaperone PapD of S. Typhi genes. The reaction was optimised using genomic DNA of S. Typhi ATCC7251 as the template. The products were visualised directly by colour changes of the reaction. Positive results were indicated by green fluorescence and negative by orange colour. The test was further evaluated for specificity, sensitivity and application on field samples. The results were compared with those obtained by gold standard culture method and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). This method was highly specific and -10 times more sensitive in detecting S. Typhi compared to the optimised conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
The present study proposed the isolation of arsenic resistant bacteria from wastewater. Only three bacterial isolates (MNZ1, MNZ4 and MNZ6) were able to grow in high concentrations of arsenic. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of arsenic against MNZ1, MNZ4 and MNZ6 were 300 mg/L, 300 mg/L and 370 mg/L respectively. The isolated strains showed maximum growth at 37 °C and at 7.0 pH in control but in arsenite stress Luria Bertani broth the bacterial growth is lower than control. All strains were arsenite oxidizing. All strains were biochemically characterized and ribotyping (16S rRNA) was done for the purpose of identification which confirmed that MNZ1 was homologous to Enterobacter sp. while MNZ4 and MNZ6 showed their maximum homology with Klebsiella pneumoniae. The protein profiling of these strains showed in arsenic stressed and non stressed conditions, so no bands of induced proteins appeared in stressed conditions. The bacterial isolates can be exploited for bioremediation of arsenic containing wastes, since they seem to have the potential to oxidize the arsenite (more toxic) into arsenate (less toxic) form.
Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 1-10% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 °C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 °C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 °C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress.
Bioconverting glycerol into various valuable products is one of glycerol's promising applications due to its high availability at low cost and the existence of many glycerol-utilizing microorganisms. Bioethanol and biohydrogen, which are types of renewable fuels, are two examples of bioconverted products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate ethanol production from different media by local microorganism isolates and compare the ethanol fermentation profile of the selected strains to use of glucose or glycerol as sole carbon sources. The ethanol fermentations by six isolates were evaluated after a preliminary screening process. Strain named SS1 produced the highest ethanol yield of 1.0 mol: 1.0 mol glycerol and was identified as Escherichia coli SS1 Also, this isolated strain showed a higher affinity to glycerol than glucose for bioethanol production.
Nosocomial infections are major clinical threats to hospitalised patients and represent an important source of morbidity and mortality. It is necessary to develop rapid detection assays of nosocomial pathogens for better prognosis and initiation of antimicrobial therapy in patients. In this study, we present the development of molecular methods for the detection of six common nosocomial pathogens including Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Conventional multiplex PCR and SYBR Green based real time PCR assays were performed using genus and species specific primers. Blind testing with 300 clinical samples was also carried out. The two assays were found to be sensitive and specific. Eubacterial PCR assay exhibited positive results for 46 clinical isolates from which 43 samples were detected by real time PCR assay. The sensitivity of the assay is about 93.7% in blind test isolates. The PCR results were reconfirmed using the conventional culture method. This assay has the potential to be a rapid, accurate and highly sensitive molecular diagnostic tool for simultaneous detection of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. This assay has the potential to detect nosocomial pathogens within 5 to 6 hours, helping to initiate infection control measures and appropriate treatment in paediatric and elderly (old aged) patients, pre-and post surgery patients and organ transplant patients and thus reduces their hospitalization duration.
This study aimed to investigate the impact of nonionic surfactants on the efficacy of fluorine degradation by Polyporus sp. S133 in a liquid culture. Fluorene was observed to be degraded in its entirety by Polyporus sp. S133 subsequent to a 23-day incubation period. The fastest cell growth rate was observed in the initial 7 days in the culture that was supplemented with Tween 80. The degradation process was primarily modulated by the activity of two ligninolytic enzymes, laccase and MnP. The highest laccase activity was stimulated by the addition of Tween 80 (2443U/L) followed by mixed surfactant (1766U/L) and Brij 35 (1655U/L). UV-vis spectroscopy, TLC analysis and mass spectrum analysis of samples subsequent to the degradation process in the culture medium confirmed the biotransformation of fluorene. Two metabolites, 9-fluorenol (λmax 270, tR 8.0min and m/z 254) and protocatechuic acid (λmax 260, tR 11.3min and m/z 370), were identified in the treated medium.
The aim of this study was obtain a model that maximizes growth and production of inulinase and invertase by Aspergillus niger ATCC 20611, employing response surface methodology (RSM). The RSM with a five-variable and three-level central composite design (CCD) was employed to optimize the medium composition. Results showed that the experimental data could be appropriately fitted into a second-order polynomial model with a coefficient of determination (R2) more than 0.90 for all responses. This model adequately explained the data variation and represented the actual relationships between the parameters and responses. The pH and temperature value of the cultivation medium were the most significant variables and the effects of inoculum size and agitation speed were slightly lower. The intra-extracellular inulinase, invertase production and biomass content increased 10-32 fold in the optimized medium condition (pH 6.5, temperature 30°C, 6% (v/v), inoculum size and 150rpm agitation speed) by RSM compared with medium optimized through the one-factor-at-a-time method. The process development and intensification for simultaneous production of intra-extracellular inulinase (exo and endo inulinase) and invertase from A. niger could be used for industrial applications.
This study was carried out to express human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) in Pichia pastoris GS115. For this aim, the hEGF gene was cloned into the pPIC9K expression vector, and then integrated into P. pastoris by electroporation. ELISA-based assay showed that the amount of hEGF secreted into the medium can be affected by the fermentation conditions especially by culture medium, pH and temperature. The best medium for the optimal hEGF production was BMMY buffered at a pH range of 6.0 and 7.0. The highest amount of hEGF with an average yield of 2.27μg/mL was obtained through an induction of the culture with 0.5% (v/v) methanol for 60h. The artificial neural network (ANN) analysis revealed that changes in both pH and temperature significantly affected the hEGF production with the pH change had slightly higher impact on hEGF production than variations in the temperature.
As the largest genus in Actinobacteria family, Streptomyces species have the ability to synthesize numerous compounds of diverse structures with bioactivities. Streptomyces mangrovisoli MUSC 149T was previously isolated as a novel streptomycete from mangrove forest in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The high quality draft genome of MUSC 149T comprises 9,165,825bp with G+C content of 72.5%. Through bioinformatics analysis, 21 gene clusters identified in the genome were associated with the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. The presence of these biosynthetic gene clusters in MUSC 149T suggests the potential exploitation of the strain for production of medically important compounds.
Vitellibacter aquimaris D-24T (=KCTC 42708T=DSM 101732T), a halophilic marine bacterium, was isolated from seawater collected from Desaru beach, Malaysia. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of D-24T with a genome size of approximately 3.1Mbp and G+C content of 39.93%. The genome of D-24T contains genes involved in reducing a potent greenhouse gas (N2O) in the environment and the degradation of proteinaceous compounds. Genome availability will provide insights into potential biotechnological and environmental applications of this bacterium.
Streptomycetes remain as one of the important sources for bioactive products. Isolated from the mangrove forest, Streptomyces gilvigriseus MUSC 26T was previously characterised as a novel streptomycete. The high quality draft genome of MUSC 26T contained 5,213,277bp with G+C content of 73.0%. Through genome mining, several gene clusters associated with secondary metabolites production were revealed in the genome of MUSC 26T. These findings call for further investigations into the potential exploitation of the strain for production of pharmaceutically important compounds.
Antibacterial activity of cell-free supernatant from Escherichia coli E against selected pathogenic bacteria in food and aquaculture was the highest against Edwardsiella tarda 3, a significant aquaculture pathogen. Biochemical properties of the bacteriocins were studied and bacteriocin was found to be sensitive to proteinase K, demonstrating its proteinaceous nature. In addition, pH and temperature affected bacteriocin activity and stability. The bacteriocins were partially purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The antibacterial activity was only detected in 20% ammonium sulfate fraction and direct detection of its activity was performed by overlaying on the indicator strains. The inhibition zone associated with the antibacterial activity was detected in the sample overlaid by E. tarda 3 and Staphylococcus aureus DMST8840 with the relative molecular mass of about 27 kDa and 10 kDa, respectively. Bacteriocin showed no cytotoxic effect on NIH-3T3 cell line; however, two virulence genes, aer and sfa, were detected in the genome of E. coli E by PCR. The characteristics of bacteriocins produced by E. coli E exhibited the antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria and the safe use determined by cytotoxicity test which may have interesting biotechnological applications.
Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria can take up exogenous DNA when they are in a competent state either naturally or artificially. However, the thick peptidoglycan layer in Gram-positive bacteria's cell wall is considered as a possible barrier to DNA uptake. In the present work, two transformation techniques have been evaluated in assessing the protocol's ability to introduce foreign DNA, pBBRGFP-45 plasmid which harbors kanamycin resistance and green fluorescent protein (GFP) genes into a Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus cereus EB2. B. cereus EB2 is an endophytic bacterium, isolated from oil palm roots. A Gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa EB35 was used as a control sample for both transformation protocols. The cells were made competent using respective chemical treatment to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and kanamycin concentration in the selective medium was also optimized. Preliminary findings using qualitative analysis of colony polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-GFP indicated that the putative positive transformants for B. cereus EB2 were acquired using the second transformation protocol. The positive transformants were then verified using molecular techniques such as observation of putative colonies on specific media under UV light, plasmid extraction, and validation analyses, followed by fluorescence microscopy. Conversely, both transformation protocols were relatively effective for introduction of plasmid DNA into P. aeruginosa EB35. Therefore, this finding demonstrated the potential of chemically prepared competent cells and the crucial step of heat-shock in foreign DNA transformation process of Gram-positive bacterium namely B. cereus was required for successful transformation.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with nosocomial infections have caused serious problems in antibiotic management with limited therapeutic choices. This study aimed to determine the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae strains isolated from a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Ninety-seven clinical K. pneumoniae strains were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, all of which were sensitive to amikacin and colistin (except one strain), while 31.9 % and 27.8 % were MDR and ESBL producers, respectively. PCR and DNA sequencing of the amplicons indicated that the majority of MDR strains (26/27) were positive for blaTEM, followed by blaSHV (24/27), blaCTX-M-1 group (23/27), blaCTX-M-9 group (2/27), and mcr-1 (1/27). Thirty-seven strains were hypervirulent and PCR detection of virulence genes showed 38.1 %, 22.7 %, and 16.5 % of the strains were positive for K1, wabG, and uge genes, respectively. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that these strains were genetically diverse and heterogeneous. Sequence types, ST23, ST22, and ST412 were the predominant genotypes. This is the first report of colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae among clinical strains associated with mcr-1 plasmid in Malaysia. The findings in this study have contributed to the effort in combating the increase in antimicrobial resistance by providing better understanding of genotypic characteristics and resistance mechanisms of the organisms.