Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Bamia C, Lagiou P, Jenab M, Aleksandrova K, Fedirko V, Trichopoulos D, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Mar 31;112(7):1273-82.
    PMID: 25742480 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2014.654
    BACKGROUND: Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations.

    METHODS: In 486,799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes.

    RESULTS: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11.

    CONCLUSIONS: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.
  2. Bhoo-Pathy N, Subramaniam S, Taib NA, Hartman M, Alias Z, Tan GH, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2014 Apr 29;110(9):2187-94.
    PMID: 24736587 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2014.183
    Within a setting without organised breast cancer screening, the characteristics and survival of very early breast cancer were determined.
  3. Lu Y, Kham SK, Ariffin H, Oei AM, Lin HP, Tan AM, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2014 Mar 18;110(6):1673-80.
    PMID: 24434428 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2014.7
    Host germline variations and their potential prognostic importance is an emerging area of interest in paediatric ALL.
  4. Sen A, Tsilidis KK, Allen NE, Rinaldi S, Appleby PN, Almquist M, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Sep 01;113(5):840-7.
    PMID: 26313664 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2015.280
    BACKGROUND: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered.

    METHODS: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: Compared with participants consuming 0.1-4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1-1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60-0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas.

  5. Bešević J, Gunter MJ, Fortner RT, Tsilidis KK, Weiderpass E, Onland-Moret NC, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Dec 01;113(11):1622-31.
    PMID: 26554655 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2015.377
    BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors influence the risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but little is known about their association with survival. We tested whether prediagnostic reproductive factors influenced EOC-specific survival among 1025 invasive EOC cases identified in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, which included 521,330 total participants (approximately 370,000 women) aged 25-70 years at recruitment from 1992 to 2000.

    METHODS: Information on reproductive characteristics was collected at recruitment. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and multivariable models were adjusted for age and year of diagnosis, body mass index, tumour stage, smoking status and stratified by study centre.

    RESULTS: After a mean follow-up of 3.6 years (±3.2 s.d.) following EOC diagnosis, 511 (49.9%) of the 1025 women died from EOC. We observed a suggestive survival advantage in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) users (ever vs never use, HR=0.80, 95% CI=0.62-1.03) and a significant survival benefit in long-term MHT users (⩾5 years use vs never use, HR=0.70, 95% CI=0.50-0.99, P(trend)=0.04). We observed similar results for MHT use when restricting to serous cases. Other reproductive factors, including parity, breastfeeding, oral contraceptive use and age at menarche or menopause, were not associated with EOC-specific mortality risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are warranted to investigate the possible improvement in EOC survival in MHT users.

  6. Jennings CJ, Murer B, O'Grady A, Hearn LM, Harvey BJ, Kay EW, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Jun 30;113(1):69-75.
    PMID: 26057448 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2015.187
    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and essentially incurable malignancy most often linked with occupational exposure to asbestos fibres. In common with other malignancies, the development and progression of MPM is associated with extensive dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoint proteins that modulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, DNA repair and senescence.
  7. Koh CH, Bhoo-Pathy N, Ng KL, Jabir RS, Tan GH, See MH, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2015 Jun 30;113(1):150-8.
    PMID: 26022929 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2015.183
    Peripheral blood-derived inflammation-based scores such as the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have recently been proposed as prognostic markers in solid tumours. Although evidence to support these markers as unfavourable prognostic factors is more compelling in gastrointestinal cancers, very little is known of their impact on breast cancer. We investigated the association between the NLR and PLR, and overall survival after breast cancer.
  8. Vimala S, Norhanom AW, Yadav M
    Br. J. Cancer, 1999 Apr;80(1-2):110-6.
    PMID: 10389986
    Zingiberaceae rhizomes commonly used in the Malaysian traditional medicine were screened for anti-tumour promoter activity using the short-term assay of inhibition of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells. The inhibition of TPA-induced EBV-EA was detected using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and Western blot technique. The indirect IFA detected the expression/inhibition of EBV-EA-D (diffused EA antigen), whereas the Western blot technique detected the expression/inhibition of both EBV-EA-D and EA-R (restricted EA antigen). Seven rhizomes were found to possess inhibitory activity towards EBV activation, induced by TPA; they are: Curcuma domestica, C. xanthorrhiza, Kaempferia galanga, Zingiber cassumunar, Z. officinale, Z. officinale (red variety), and Z. zerumbet. A cytotoxicity assay was carried out to determine the toxicity of the Zingiberaceae rhizome extracts. The rhizome extracts that exhibited EBV activation inhibitory activity had no cytotoxicity effect in Raji cells. Therefore, the present study shows that several Zingiberaceae species used in Malaysian traditional medicine contain naturally occurring non-toxic compounds that inhibit the EBV activation, which, if further investigated, could contribute in the development of cancer prevention methods at the tumour-promoting stage.
  9. Ablashi D, Chatlynne L, Cooper H, Thomas D, Yadav M, Norhanom AW, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 1999 Nov;81(5):893-7.
    PMID: 10555764
    Seroprevalence of HHV-8 has been studied in Malaysia, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Trinidad, Jamaica and the USA, in both healthy individuals and those infected with HIV. Seroprevalence was found to be low in these countries in both the healthy and the HIV-infected populations. This correlates with the fact that hardly any AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma has been reported in these countries. In contrast, the African countries of Ghana, Uganda and Zambia showed high seroprevalences in both healthy and HIV-infected populations. This suggests that human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) may be either a recently introduced virus or one that has extremely low infectivity. Nasopharyngeal and oral carcinoma patients from Malaysia, Hong Kong and Sri Lanka who have very high EBV titres show that only 3/82 (3.7%) have antibody to HHV-8, demonstrating that there is little, if any, cross-reactivity between antibodies to these two gamma viruses.
  10. Naidu R, Yadav M, Nair S, Kutty MK
    Br. J. Cancer, 1998 Nov;78(10):1385-90.
    PMID: 9823984
    Expression of c-erbB3 protein was investigated in 104 primary breast carcinomas comprising nine comedo ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 91 invasive ductal carcinomas and four invasive lobular carcinomas using two monoclonal antibodies, RTJ1 and RTJ2. Of the 91 invasive ductal carcinomas, seven contained the comedo DCIS component adjacent to the invasive component. An immunohistochemical technique was used to evaluate the association between expression of c-erbB3 and clinical parameters and tumour markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-erbB2, cathepsin-D and p53 in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumour tissues. Our results indicated that RTJ1 and RTJ2 gave identical staining patterns and concordant results. It was found that the overexpression of c-erbB3 protein was observed in 67% (6/9) of comedo DCIS, 52% (44/84) of invasive ductal carcinomas, 71% (5/7) of carcinomas containing both the in situ and invasive lesions and 25% (1/4) of invasive lobular carcinomas. A significant relationship (P < 0.05) was observed between strong immunoreactivity of c-erbB3 protein and histological grade, EGFR and cathepsin-D, but not with expression of c-erbB2, p53, oestrogen receptor status, lymph node metastases or age of patient. However, we noted that a high percentage of oestrogen receptor-negative tumours (59%), lymph node-positive tumours (63%) and c-erbB2 (63%) were strongly positive for c-erbB3 protein. We have also documented that a high percentage of EGFR (67%), c-erbB2 (67%), p53 (75%) and cathepsin-D-positive DCIS (60%) were strongly positive for c-erbB3. These observations suggest that overexpression of c-erbB3 protein could play an important role in tumour progression from non-invasive to invasive and, also, that it may have the potential to be used as a marker for poor prognosis of breast cancer.
  11. Norhanom AW, Yadav M
    Br. J. Cancer, 1995 Apr;71(4):776-9.
    PMID: 7710943
    Herbal medication has been practised by the rural Malaysian Malays for a long time. However, the long-term side-effects have never been studied. In the present study, 48 species of Euphorbiaceae were screened for tumour-promoter activity by means of an in vitro assay using a human lymphoblastoid cell line harbouring the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome. Twenty-seven per cent (13 out of 48) of the species tested were found to be positive, and in four species, namely Breynia coronata Hk.f, Codiaeum variegatum (L) Bl, Euphorbia atoto and Exocoecaria agallocha, EBV-inducing activity was observed when the plant extracts were tested at low concentrations of between 0.2 and 1.2 micrograms ml-1 in cell culture. This observation warrants attention from the regular users of these plants because regular use of plants with tumour-promoting activity could well be an aetiological factor for the promotion of tumours among rural Malaysian Malays.
  12. Grulich AE, McCredie M, Coates M
    Br. J. Cancer, 1995 Feb;71(2):400-8.
    PMID: 7841061
    Cancer incidence during 1972-90 in Asian migrants to New South Wales, Australia, is described. Overall cancer incidence was lower than in the Australia born in most migrant groups, and this reached significance in migrants born in China/Taiwan, the Philippines, Vietnam and India/Sri Lanka, and in male migrants born in Indonesia. For the majority of cancers, rates were more similar to those in the Australia born than to those in the countries of birth. For cancers of the breast, colorectum and prostate, rates were relatively low in the countries of birth, but migrants generally exhibited rates nearer those of the Australia born. For cancers of the liver and cervix and, in India/Sri Lanka-born migrants, of the oral cavity, incidence was relatively high in the countries of birth but tended to be lower, nearer Australia-born rates, in the migrants. For these cancers, environmental factors related to the migrant's adopted country, and migrant selection, appeared to have a major effect on the risk of cancer. For certain other cancers, incidence was more similar to that in the countries of birth. Nasopharyngeal cancer, and lung cancer in females, had high rates in both the countries of birth and in migrants to Australia. Nasopharyngeal cancer rates were highest in China/Taiwan and Hong Kong-born migrants, and were also significantly high in migrants from Malaysia/Singapore, Vietnam and the Philippines. Rates of lung cancer were significantly high in women born in China/Taiwan, and the excess was greater for adenocarcinoma than for squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma had low rates in both the migrants and in the countries of birth. For these cancers, it was probable that genetic factors, or environmental factors acting prior to migration, were important in causation.
  13. Lim LY, Vidnovic N, Ellisen LW, Leong CO
    Br. J. Cancer, 2009 Nov 3;101(9):1606-12.
    PMID: 19773755 DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6605335
    p53 is the most commonly mutated tumour-suppressor gene in human cancers. Unlike other tumour-suppressor genes, most p53 cancer mutations are missense mutations within the core domain, leading to the expression of a full-length mutant p53 protein. Accumulating evidence has indicated that p53 cancer mutants not only lose tumour suppression activity but also gain new oncogenic activities to promote tumourigenesis.
  14. Armstrong RW, Kannan Kutty M, Dharmalingam SK, Ponnudurai JR
    Br. J. Cancer, 1979 Oct;40(4):557-67.
    PMID: 497106
    A record of all known cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Malaysia is complete for 10 years from 1968 to 1977. Special efforts in case-finding were made in the State of Selangor where conditions are optimal. Age-adjusted incidence rates among Chinese males and females were 16.5 and 7.2 per 100,000, among Malay males and females 2.3 and 0.7 and among Indian males, 1.0. There were no significant changes in incidence rates over the 10-year period for sex and ethnic groups, or for Chinese subethnic groups. In Chinese subethnic groups, rates were highest among Cantonese, moderate among Khek and lowest among Hokkien and Teochiu. Standardized incidence ratios using Selangor as the standard population indicate considerable under-reporting in the less urban states of Malaysia, particularly among females. In Selangor, incidence rates were similar for urban and rural residents, but the frequency of cases was higher among Chinese working in industry and living in poor neighbourhoods.
  15. Chan SH, Chew CT, Prasad U, Wee GB, Srinivasan N, Kunaratnam N
    Br. J. Cancer, 1985 Mar;51(3):389-92.
    PMID: 3855643
    HLA associations were observed in unrelated Malay patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). HLA-B18 was observed in 18/45 (40%) Malay NPC patients compared to 22/167 (13%) Malay normals (P = 0.0001; Pc = 0.0027, RR = 4.4). The frequency of HLA-B17, one of the antigens associated with Chinese NPC, was also increased among Malay NPC (13/45 29%) compared to controls (18/167 11%; P = 0.003, Pc = 0.07 RR = 3.4). Similar to the findings among Chinese NPC, the frequency of B17 was higher in early onset (less than or equal to 30 years) Malay NPC resulting in a higher relative risk (RR = 5.0).
  16. Molina-Montes E, Sánchez MJ, Buckland G, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB, Weiderpass E, Amiano P, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2017 Mar 14;116(6):811-820.
    PMID: 28170373 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.14
    BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean diet (MD) has been proposed as a means for cancer prevention, but little evidence has been accrued regarding its potential to prevent pancreatic cancer. We investigated the association between the adherence to the MD and pancreatic cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: Over half a million participants from 10 European countries were followed up for over 11 years, after which 865 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases were identified. Adherence to the MD was estimated through an adapted score without the alcohol component (arMED) to discount alcohol-related harmful effects. Cox proportional hazards regression models, stratified by age, sex and centre, and adjusted for energy intake, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake and diabetes status at recruitment, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) associated with pancreatic cancer and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    RESULTS: Adherence to the arMED score was not associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (HR high vs low adherence=0.99; 95% CI: 0.77-1.26, and HR per increments of two units in adherence to arMED=1.00; 95% CI: 0.94-1.06). There was no convincing evidence for heterogeneity by smoking status, body mass index, diabetes or European region. There was also no evidence of significant associations in analyses involving microscopically confirmed cases, plausible reporters of energy intake or other definitions of the MD pattern.

    CONCLUSIONS: A high adherence to the MD is not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in the EPIC study.

  17. Stepien M, Hughes DJ, Hybsier S, Bamia C, Tjønneland A, Overvad K, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2017 Feb 28;116(5):688-696.
    PMID: 28152549 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.1
    BACKGROUND: Copper and zinc are essential micronutrients and cofactors of many enzymatic reactions that may be involved in liver-cancer development. We aimed to assess pre-diagnostic circulating levels of copper, zinc and their ratio (Cu/Zn) in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic bile duct (IHBD) and gall bladder and biliary tract (GBTC) cancers.

    METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Serum zinc and copper levels were measured in baseline blood samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence in cancer cases (HCC n=106, IHDB n=34, GBTC n=96) and their matched controls (1:1). The Cu/Zn ratio, an indicator of the balance between the micronutrients, was computed. Multivariable adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR; 95% CI) were used to estimate cancer risk.

    RESULTS: For HCC, the highest vs lowest tertile showed a strong inverse association for zinc (OR=0.36; 95% CI: 0.13-0.98, Ptrend=0.0123), but no association for copper (OR=1.06; 95% CI: 0.45-2.46, Ptrend=0.8878) in multivariable models. The calculated Cu/Zn ratio showed a positive association for HCC (OR=4.63; 95% CI: 1.41-15.27, Ptrend=0.0135). For IHBC and GBTC, no significant associations were observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: Zinc may have a role in preventing liver-cancer development, but this finding requires further investigation in other settings.

  18. Freisling H, Arnold M, Soerjomataram I, O'Doherty MG, Ordóñez-Mena JM, Bamia C, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2017 May 23;116(11):1486-1497.
    PMID: 28441380 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.106
    BACKGROUND: We evaluated the associations of anthropometric indicators of general obesity (body mass index, BMI), an established risk factor of various cancer, and body fat distribution (waist circumference, WC; hip circumference, HC; and waist-to-hip ratio, WHR), which may better reflect metabolic complications of obesity, with total obesity-related and site-specific (colorectal and postmenopausal breast) cancer incidence.

    METHODS: This is a meta-analysis of seven prospective cohort studies participating in the CHANCES consortium including 18 668 men and 24 751 women with a mean age of 62 and 63 years, respectively. Harmonised individual participant data from all seven cohorts were analysed separately and alternatively for each anthropometric indicator using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 12 years, 1656 first-incident obesity-related cancers (defined as postmenopausal female breast, colorectum, lower oesophagus, cardia stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, endometrium, ovary, and kidney) had occurred in men and women. In the meta-analysis of all studies, associations between indicators of adiposity, per s.d. increment, and risk for all obesity-related cancers combined yielded the following summary hazard ratios: 1.11 (95% CI 1.02-1.21) for BMI, 1.13 (95% CI 1.04-1.23) for WC, 1.09 (95% CI 0.98-1.21) for HC, and 1.15 (95% CI 1.00-1.32) for WHR. Increases in risk for colorectal cancer were 16%, 21%, 15%, and 20%, respectively per s.d. of BMI, WC, HC, and WHR. Effect modification by hormone therapy (HT) use was observed for postmenopausal breast cancer (Pinteraction<0.001), where never HT users showed an ∼20% increased risk per s.d. of BMI, WC, and HC compared to ever users.

    CONCLUSIONS: BMI, WC, HC, and WHR show comparable positive associations with obesity-related cancers combined and with colorectal cancer in older adults. For postmenopausal breast cancer we report evidence for effect modification by HT use.

  19. Islam M, Mohamed EH, Esa E, Kamaluddin NR, Zain SM, Yusoff YM, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2017 Nov 07;117(10):1551-1556.
    PMID: 28898234 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.316
    BACKGROUND: Although aberrant expression of cytokines and small molecules (analytes) is well documented in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), their co-expression patterns are not yet identified. In addition, plasma baselines for some analytes that are biomarkers for other cancers have not been previously reported in AML.

    METHODS: We used multiplex array technology to simultaneously detect and quantify 32 plasma analyte (22 reported analytes and 10 novel analytes) levels in 38 patients.

    RESULTS: In our study, 16 analytes are found to be significantly deregulated (13 higher, 3 lower, Mann-Whitney U-test, P-value <0.005), where 5 of them have never been reported before in AML. We predicted a seven-analyte-containing multiplex panel for diagnosis of AML and, among them, MIF could be a possible therapeutic target. In addition, we observed that circulating analytes show five co-expression signatures.

    CONCLUSIONS: Circulating analyte expression in AML significantly differs from normal, and follow distinct expression patterns.

  20. Mikropoulos C, Selkirk CGH, Saya S, Bancroft E, Vertosick E, Dadaev T, et al.
    Br. J. Cancer, 2018 01;118(2):266-276.
    PMID: 29301143 DOI: 10.1038/bjc.2017.429
    BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort.

    METHODS: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV.

    RESULTS: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml-l, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers.

    CONCLUSIONS: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.

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