Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Bates T, Kennedy M, Diajil A, Goodson M, Thomson P, Doran E, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2016 06;25(6):927-35.
    PMID: 27197272 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0949
    BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a global healthcare problem associated with poor clinical outcomes. Early detection is key to improving patient survival. OSCC may be preceded by clinically recognizable lesions, termed oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD). As histologic assessment of OPMD does not accurately predict their clinical behavior, biomarkers are required to detect cases at risk of malignant transformation. Epidermal growth factor receptor gene copy number (EGFR GCN) is a validated biomarker in lung non-small cell carcinoma. We examined EGFR GCN in OPMD and OSCC to determine its potential as a biomarker in oral carcinogenesis.

    METHODS: EGFR GCN was examined by in situ hybridization (ISH) in biopsies from 78 patients with OPMD and 92 patients with early-stage (stages I and II) OSCC. EGFR ISH signals were scored by two pathologists and a category assigned by consensus. The data were correlated with patient demographics and clinical outcomes.

    RESULTS: OPMD with abnormal EGFR GCN were more likely to undergo malignant transformation than diploid cases. EGFR genomic gain was detected in a quarter of early-stage OSCC, but did not correlate with clinical outcomes.

    CONCLUSION: These data suggest that abnormal EGFR GCN has clinical utility as a biomarker for the detection of OPMD destined to undergo malignant transformation. Prospective studies are required to verify this finding. It remains to be determined if EGFR GCN could be used to select patients for EGFR-targeted therapies.

    IMPACT: Abnormal EGFR GCN is a potential biomarker for identifying OPMD that are at risk of malignant transformation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 927-35. ©2016 AACR.

  2. Obón-Santacana M, Lujan-Barroso L, Travis RC, Freisling H, Ferrari P, Severi G, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2016 Jan;25(1):127-34.
    PMID: 26598536 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0822
    BACKGROUND: Acrylamide was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans (group 2A)" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the fourth cause of cancer mortality in women. Five epidemiological studies have evaluated the association between EOC risk and dietary acrylamide intake assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and one nested case-control study evaluated hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide (HbAA) and its metabolite glycidamide (HbGA) and EOC risk; the results of these studies were inconsistent.

    METHODS: A nested case-control study in nonsmoking postmenopausal women (334 cases, 417 controls) was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between HbAA, HbGA, HbAA+HbGA, and HbGA/HbAA and EOC and invasive serous EOC risk.

    RESULTS: No overall associations were observed between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure analyzed in quintiles and EOC risk; however, positive associations were observed between some middle quintiles of HbGA and HbAA+HbGA. Elevated but nonstatistically significant ORs for serous EOC were observed for HbGA and HbAA+HbGA (ORQ5vsQ1, 1.91; 95% CI, 0.96-3.81 and ORQ5vsQ1, 1.90; 95% CI, 0.94-3.83, respectively); however, no linear dose-response trends were observed.

    CONCLUSION: This EPIC nested case-control study failed to observe a clear association between biomarkers of acrylamide exposure and the risk of EOC or invasive serous EOC.

    IMPACT: It is unlikely that dietary acrylamide exposure increases ovarian cancer risk; however, additional studies with larger sample size should be performed to exclude any possible association with EOC risk.

  3. Kong SY, Takeuchi M, Hyogo H, McKeown-Eyssen G, Yamagishi S, Chayama K, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2015 Dec;24(12):1855-63.
    PMID: 26404963 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0422
    BACKGROUND: A large proportion of colorectal cancers are thought to be associated with unhealthy dietary and lifestyle exposures, particularly energy excess, obesity, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. It has been suggested that these processes stimulate the production of toxic reactive carbonyls from sugars such as glyceraldehyde. Glyceraldehyde contributes to the production of a group of compounds known as glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end-products (glycer-AGEs), which may promote colorectal cancer through their proinflammatory and pro-oxidative properties. The objective of this study nested within a prospective cohort was to explore the association of circulating glycer-AGEs with risk of colorectal cancer.

    METHODS: A total of 1,055 colorectal cancer cases (colon n = 659; rectal n = 396) were matchced (1:1) to control subjects. Circulating glycer-AGEs were measured by a competitive ELISA. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), adjusting for potential confounding factors, including smoking, alcohol, physical activity, body mass index, and diabetes status.

    RESULTS: Elevated glycer-AGEs levels were not associated with colorectal cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quartile, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82-1.49). Subgroup analyses showed possible divergence by anatomical subsites (OR for colon cancer, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.57-1.22; OR for rectal cancer, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14-3.19; Pheterogeneity = 0.14).

    CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study, circulating glycer-AGEs were not associated with risk of colon cancer, but showed a positive association with the risk of rectal cancer.

    IMPACT: Further research is needed to clarify the role of toxic products of carbohydrate metabolism and energy excess in colorectal cancer development.

  4. Szulkin R, Karlsson R, Whitington T, Aly M, Gronberg H, Eeles RA, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2015 Nov;24(11):1796-800.
    PMID: 26307654 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0543
    BACKGROUND: Unnecessary intervention and overtreatment of indolent disease are common challenges in clinical management of prostate cancer. Improved tools to distinguish lethal from indolent disease are critical.

    METHODS: We performed a genome-wide survival analysis of cause-specific death in 24,023 prostate cancer patients (3,513 disease-specific deaths) from the PRACTICAL and BPC3 consortia. Top findings were assessed for replication in a Norwegian cohort (CONOR).

    RESULTS: We observed no significant association between genetic variants and prostate cancer survival.

    CONCLUSIONS: Common genetic variants with large impact on prostate cancer survival were not observed in this study.

    IMPACT: Future studies should be designed for identification of rare variants with large effect sizes or common variants with small effect sizes.

  5. Guo X, Long J, Zeng C, Michailidou K, Ghoussaini M, Bolla MK, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2015 Nov;24(11):1680-91.
    PMID: 26354892 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0363
    BACKGROUND: A recent association study identified a common variant (rs9790517) at 4q24 to be associated with breast cancer risk. Independent association signals and potential functional variants in this locus have not been explored.

    METHODS: We conducted a fine-mapping analysis in 55,540 breast cancer cases and 51,168 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

    RESULTS: Conditional analyses identified two independent association signals among women of European ancestry, represented by rs9790517 [conditional P = 2.51 × 10(-4); OR, 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.07] and rs77928427 (P = 1.86 × 10(-4); OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07). Functional annotation using data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project revealed two putative functional variants, rs62331150 and rs73838678 in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with rs9790517 (r(2) ≥ 0.90) residing in the active promoter or enhancer, respectively, of the nearest gene, TET2. Both variants are located in DNase I hypersensitivity and transcription factor-binding sites. Using data from both The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium (METABRIC), we showed that rs62331150 was associated with level of expression of TET2 in breast normal and tumor tissue.

    CONCLUSION: Our study identified two independent association signals at 4q24 in relation to breast cancer risk and suggested that observed association in this locus may be mediated through the regulation of TET2.

    IMPACT: Fine-mapping study with large sample size warranted for identification of independent loci for breast cancer risk.

  6. Mariapun S, Ho WK, Kang PC, Li J, Lindström S, Yip CH, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2016 Feb;25(2):327-33.
    PMID: 26677210 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0746
    Mammographic density is an established risk factor for breast cancer and has a strong heritable component. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for mammographic density conducted in women of European descent have identified several genetic associations, but none of the studies have been tested in Asians. We sought to investigate whether these genetic loci, and loci associated with breast cancer risk and breast size, are associated with mammographic density in an Asian cohort.
  7. Bei JX, Su WH, Ng CC, Yu K, Chin YM, Lou PJ, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2016 Jan;25(1):188-192.
    PMID: 26545403 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0144
    BACKGROUND: Genetic loci within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated cancer, in several GWAS. Results outside this region have varied.

    METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of four NPC GWAS among Chinese individuals (2,152 cases; 3,740 controls). Forty-three noteworthy findings outside the MHC region were identified and targeted for replication in a pooled analysis of four independent case-control studies across three regions in Asia (4,716 cases; 5,379 controls). A meta-analysis that combined results from the initial GWA and replication studies was performed.

    RESULTS: In the combined meta-analysis, rs31489, located within the CLPTM1L/TERT region on chromosome 5p15.33, was strongly associated with NPC (OR = 0.81; P value 6.3 × 10(-13)). Our results also provide support for associations reported from published NPC GWAS-rs6774494 (P = 1.5 × 10(-12); located in the MECOM gene region), rs9510787 (P = 5.0 × 10(-10); located in the TNFRSF19 gene region), and rs1412829/rs4977756/rs1063192 (P = 2.8 × 10(-8), P = 7.0 × 10(-7), and P = 8.4 × 10(-7), respectively; located in the CDKN2A/B gene region).

    CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a novel association between genetic variation in the CLPTM1L/TERT region and NPC. Supporting our finding, rs31489 and other SNPs in this region have been reported to be associated with multiple cancer sites, candidate-based studies have reported associations between polymorphisms in this region and NPC, the TERT gene has been shown to be important for telomere maintenance and has been reported to be overexpressed in NPC, and an EBV protein expressed in NPC (LMP1) has been reported to modulate TERT expression/telomerase activity.

    IMPACT: Our finding suggests that factors involved in telomere length maintenance are involved in NPC pathogenesis.

  8. Kong SY, Tran HQ, Gewirtz AT, McKeown-Eyssen G, Fedirko V, Romieu I, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2016 Feb;25(2):291-301.
    PMID: 26823475 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0798
    BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in colorectal cancer development. These processes may contribute to leakage of bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, across the gut barrier. The objective of this study, nested within a prospective cohort, was to examine associations between circulating LPS and flagellin serum antibody levels and colorectal cancer risk.

    METHODS: A total of 1,065 incident colorectal cancer cases (colon, n = 667; rectal, n = 398) were matched (1:1) to control subjects. Serum flagellin- and LPS-specific IgA and IgG levels were quantitated by ELISA. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for multiple relevant confouding factors.

    RESULTS: Overall, elevated anti-LPS and anti-flagellin biomarker levels were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. After testing potential interactions by various factors relevant for colorectal cancer risk and anti-LPS and anti-flagellin, sex was identified as a statistically significant interaction factor (Pinteraction < 0.05 for all the biomarkers). Analyses stratified by sex showed a statistically significant positive colorectal cancer risk association for men (fully-adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartile for total anti-LPS + flagellin, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51; Ptrend, 0.049), whereas a borderline statistically significant inverse association was observed for women (fully-adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47-1.02; Ptrend, 0.18).

    CONCLUSION: In this prospective study on European populations, we found bacterial exposure levels to be positively associated to colorectal cancer risk among men, whereas in women, a possible inverse association may exist.

    IMPACT: Further studies are warranted to better clarify these preliminary observations.

  9. Kar SP, Tyrer JP, Li Q, Lawrenson K, Aben KK, Anton-Culver H, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2015 Oct;24(10):1574-84.
    PMID: 26209509 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1270
    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have so far reported 12 loci associated with serous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. We hypothesized that some of these loci function through nearby transcription factor (TF) genes and that putative target genes of these TFs as identified by coexpression may also be enriched for additional EOC risk associations.

    METHODS: We selected TF genes within 1 Mb of the top signal at the 12 genome-wide significant risk loci. Mutual information, a form of correlation, was used to build networks of genes strongly coexpressed with each selected TF gene in the unified microarray dataset of 489 serous EOC tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genes represented in this dataset were subsequently ranked using a gene-level test based on results for germline SNPs from a serous EOC GWAS meta-analysis (2,196 cases/4,396 controls).

    RESULTS: Gene set enrichment analysis identified six networks centered on TF genes (HOXB2, HOXB5, HOXB6, HOXB7 at 17q21.32 and HOXD1, HOXD3 at 2q31) that were significantly enriched for genes from the risk-associated end of the ranked list (P < 0.05 and FDR < 0.05). These results were replicated (P < 0.05) using an independent association study (7,035 cases/21,693 controls). Genes underlying enrichment in the six networks were pooled into a combined network.

    CONCLUSION: We identified a HOX-centric network associated with serous EOC risk containing several genes with known or emerging roles in serous EOC development.

    IMPACT: Network analysis integrating large, context-specific datasets has the potential to offer mechanistic insights into cancer susceptibility and prioritize genes for experimental characterization.

  10. Ose J, Schock H, Tjønneland A, Hansen L, Overvad K, Dossus L, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2015 Jun;24(6):951-61.
    PMID: 25855626 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1279-T
    BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests an etiologic role for inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis and heterogeneity between tumor subtypes and anthropometric indices. Prospective studies on circulating inflammatory markers and epithelial invasive ovarian cancer (EOC) have predominantly investigated overall risk; data characterizing risk by tumor characteristics (histology, grade, stage, dualistic model of ovarian carcinogenesis) and anthropometric indices are sparse.

    METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate C-reactive protein (CRP), IL6, and EOC risk by tumor characteristics. A total of 754 eligible EOC cases were identified; two controls (n = 1,497) were matched per case. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to assess associations.

    RESULTS: CRP and IL6 were not associated with overall EOC risk. However, consistent with prior research, CRP >10 versus CRP ≤1 mg/L was associated with higher overall EOC risk [OR, 1.67 (1.03-2.70)]. We did not observe significant associations or heterogeneity in analyses by tumor characteristics. In analyses stratified by waist circumference, inflammatory markers were associated with higher risk among women with higher waist circumference; no association was observed for women with normal waist circumference [e.g., IL6: waist ≤80: ORlog2, 0.97 (0.81-1.16); waist >88: ORlog2, 1.78 (1.28-2.48), Pheterogeneity ≤ 0.01].

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that high CRP is associated with increased risk of overall EOC, and that IL6 and CRP may be associated with EOC risk among women with higher adiposity.

    IMPACT: Our data add to global evidence that ovarian carcinogenesis may be promoted by an inflammatory milieu.

  11. Lang Kuhs KA, Anantharaman D, Waterboer T, Johansson M, Brennan P, Michel A, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2015 Apr;24(4):683-9.
    PMID: 25623733 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1217
    BACKGROUND: The increasing incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in many developed countries has been attributed to human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infections. Recently, HPV16 E6 serology has been identified as a promising early marker for oropharyngeal cancer. Therefore, characterization of HPV16 E6 seropositivity among individuals without cancer is warranted.

    METHODS: A total of 4,666 controls were pooled from several studies of cancer and HPV seropositivity, all tested within the same laboratory. HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were classified as having (i) moderate [mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) ≥ 484 and <1,000] or (ii) high seroreactivity (MFI ≥ 1,000). Associations of moderate and high HPV16 E6 seroreactivity with (i) demographic risk factors; and seropositivity for (ii) other HPV16 proteins (E1, E2, E4, E7, and L1), and (iii) E6 proteins from non-HPV16 types (HPV6, 11, 18, 31, 33, 45, and 52) were evaluated.

    RESULTS: Thirty-two (0.7%) HPV16 E6 seropositive controls were identified; 17 (0.4%) with moderate and 15 (0.3%) with high seroreactivity. High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity was associated with former smoking [odds ratio (OR), 5.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-51.8], and seropositivity against HPV16 L1 (OR, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.3-15.4); E2 (OR, 7.7; 95% CI, 1.4-29.1); multiple HPV16 proteins (OR, 25.3; 95% CI, 2.6-119.6 for three HPV16 proteins beside E6) and HPV33 E6 (OR, 17.7; 95% CI, 1.9-81.8). No associations were observed with moderate HPV16 E6 seroreactivity.

    CONCLUSIONS: High HPV16 E6 seroreactivity is rare among individuals without diagnosed cancer and was not explained by demographic factors.

    IMPACT: Some HPV16 E6 seropositive individuals without diagnosed HPV-driven cancer, especially those with seropositivity against other HPV16 proteins, may harbor a biologically relevant HPV16 infection.

  12. Merritt MA, Tzoulaki I, Tworoger SS, De Vivo I, Hankinson SE, Fernandes J, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2015 Feb;24(2):466-71.
    PMID: 25662427 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0970
    Data on the role of dietary factors in endometrial cancer development are limited and inconsistent. We applied a "nutrient-wide association study" approach to systematically evaluate dietary risk associations for endometrial cancer while controlling for multiple hypothesis tests using the false discovery rate (FDR) and validating the results in an independent cohort. We evaluated endometrial cancer risk associations for dietary intake of 84 foods and nutrients based on dietary questionnaires in three prospective studies, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC; N = 1,303 cases) followed by validation of nine foods/nutrients (FDR ≤ 0.10) in the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII; N = 1,531 cases). Cox regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). In multivariate adjusted comparisons of the extreme categories of intake at baseline, coffee was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk (EPIC, median intake 750 g/day vs. 8.6; HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.68-0.97, Ptrend = 0.09; NHS/NHSII, median intake 1067 g/day vs. none; HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70-0.96, Ptrend = 0.04). Eight other dietary factors that were associated with endometrial cancer risk in the EPIC study (total fat, monounsaturated fat, carbohydrates, phosphorus, butter, yogurt, cheese, and potatoes) were not confirmed in the NHS/NHSII. Our findings suggest that coffee intake may be inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. Further data are needed to confirm these findings and to examine the mechanisms linking coffee intake to endometrial cancer risk to develop improved prevention strategies.
  13. Obón-Santacana M, Peeters PH, Freisling H, Dossus L, Clavel-Chapelon F, Baglietto L, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2015 Jan;24(1):291-7.
    PMID: 25300475 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0636
    Acrylamide, classified in 1994 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as "probably carcinogenic" to humans, was discovered in 2002 in some heat-treated, carbohydrate-rich foods. The association between dietary acrylamide intake and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (EOC) has been previously studied in one case-control and three prospective cohort studies which obtained inconsistent results and could not further examine histologic subtypes other than serous EOC. The present study was carried out in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) subcohort of women (n = 325,006). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the association between questionnaire-based acrylamide intake and EOC risk. Acrylamide was energy-adjusted using the residual method and was evaluated both as a continuous variable (per 10 μg/d) and in quintiles; when subgroups by histologic EOC subtypes were analyzed, acrylamide intake was evaluated in quartiles. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1,191 incident EOC cases were diagnosed. At baseline, the median acrylamide intake in EPIC was 21.3 μg/d. No associations and no evidence for a dose-response were observed between energy-adjusted acrylamide intake and EOC risk (HR10μg/d,1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.09; HRQ5vsQ1, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.76-1.23). No differences were seen when invasive EOC subtypes (582 serous, 118 endometrioid, and 79 mucinous tumors) were analyzed separately. This study did not provide evidence that acrylamide intake, based on food intake questionnaires, was associated with risk for EOC in EPIC. Additional studies with more reliable estimates of exposure based on biomarkers may be needed.
  14. Liu SH, Cummings DA, Zenilman JM, Gravitt PE, Brotman RM
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2014 Jan;23(1):200-8.
    PMID: 24130223 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0666
    Variable detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA can result in misclassification of infection status, but the extent of misclassification has not been quantitatively evaluated.
  15. Devi BC, Pisani P, Tang TS, Parkin DM
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2004 Mar;13(3):482-6.
    PMID: 15006927
    Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is generally a rare malignancy with a few well-known exceptions, notably South-East China. In this article, we describe evidence of a high risk of NPC in the population of Sarawak State, Malaysia, and particularly in one native ethnic group. Sarawak State is one of the two provinces of Malaysia located on the island of Borneo. The native population (71.6%) includes the Iban, Malay, Bidayuh, Melanau, and diverse smaller ethnic groups. The Chinese are the largest nonindigenous group (27.5%). We identified 392 newly diagnosed cases (292 males and 100 females) of NPC in 1996-1998 in Malaysian citizens, permanent residents of Sarawak. Age-standardized rates by sex and ethnic group were compared with the highest rates in the world. The age-adjusted rate (ASR) in Sarawak residents was 13.5/100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.2-15.0] and 6.2/100,000 (95% CI 5.7-6.7) in males and females, respectively. The risk in the Bidayuh people was 2.3-fold (M) and 1.9-fold (F) higher than the Sarawak average, and about 50% higher than that in Hong Kong-the highest recorded by any population-based registry for the same period. Local dietary habits, environmental exposures, and genetic susceptibility deserve investigation in this population.
  16. Yang MH, Rampal S, Sung J, Choi YH, Son HJ, Lee JH, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2014 Mar;23(3):499-507.
    PMID: 24443404 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0682
    Colorectal cancer incidence is rapidly rising in many Asian countries, with rates approaching those of Western countries. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and trends of colorectal adenomas by age, sex, and risk strata in asymptomatic Koreans.
  17. McShane CM, Murray LJ, Landgren O, O'Rorke MA, Korde N, Kunzmann AT, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2014 Feb;23(2):332-42.
    PMID: 24451437 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-13-0695
    BACKGROUND: Several observational studies have investigated autoimmune disease and subsequent risk of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma. Findings have been largely inconsistent and hindered by the rarity and heterogeneity of the autoimmune disorders investigated. A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to evaluate the strength of the evidence linking prior autoimmune disease and risk of MGUS/multiple myeloma.

    METHODS: A broad search strategy using key terms for MGUS, multiple myeloma, and 50 autoimmune diseases was used to search four electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Web of Science) from inception through November 2011.

    RESULTS: A total of 52 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 32 were suitably comparable to perform a meta-analysis. "Any autoimmune disorder" was associated with an increased risk of both MGUS [n = 760 patients; pooled relative risk (RR) 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.14-1.75] and multiple myeloma (n>2,530 patients; RR 1.13, 95% CI, 1.04-1.22). This risk was disease dependent with only pernicious anemia showing an increased risk of both MGUS (RR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.21-2.31) and multiple myeloma (RR 1.50; 95% CI, 1.25-1.80).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, based on the largest number of autoimmune disorders and patients with MGUS/multiple myeloma reported to date, suggest that autoimmune diseases and/or their treatment may be important in the etiology of MGUS/multiple myeloma. The strong associations observed for pernicious anemia suggest that anemia seen in plasma cell dyscrasias may be of autoimmune origin.

    IMPACT: Underlying mechanisms of autoimmune diseases, general immune dysfunction, and/or treatment of autoimmune diseases may be important in the pathogenesis of MGUS/multiple myeloma.

  18. Jankovic N, Geelen A, Winkels RM, Mwungura B, Fedirko V, Jenab M, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2017 01;26(1):136-144.
    PMID: 27793797 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0428
    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. We analyzed WCRF/AICR recommendations in cohorts of European and U.S. adults ages 60 years and above.

    METHODS: Individual participant data meta-analysis included 362,114 participants (43% women), from seven prospective cohort studies, free from cancer at enrollment. The WCRF/AICR diet score was based on: (i) energy-dense foods and sugary drinks, (ii) plant foods, (iii) red and processed meat, and (iv) alcoholic drinks. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between the diet score and cancer risks. Adjusted, cohort-specific HRs were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Risk advancement periods (RAP) were calculated to quantify the time period by which the risk of cancer was postponed among those adhering to the recommendations.

    RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11 to 15 years across cohorts, 70,877 cancer cases were identified. Each one-point increase in the WCRF/AICR diet score [range, 0 (no) to 4 (complete adherence)] was significantly associated with a lower risk of total cancer [HR, 0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.92-0.97], cancers of the colorectum (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.89) and prostate (HR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.92-0.97), but not breast or lung. Adherence to an additional component of the WCRF/AICR diet score significantly postponed the incidence of cancer at any site by 1.6 years (RAP, -1.6; 95% CI, -4.09 to -2.16).

    CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to WCRF/AICR dietary recommendations is associated with lower risk of cancer among older adults.

    IMPACT: Dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(1); 136-44. ©2016 AACR.

  19. Adams CD, Richmond R, Ferreira DLS, Spiller W, Tan V, Zheng J, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2019 Jan;28(1):208-216.
    PMID: 30352818 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0079
    BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).

    METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centers with men ages 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.

    RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (P < 0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: (i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); (ii) fatty acids and ratios; (iii) amino acids; (iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.

    CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.

    IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.

  20. Cirera L, Huerta JM, Chirlaque MD, Overvad K, Lindström M, Regnér S, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2019 Jun;28(6):1089-1092.
    PMID: 31160392 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-1153
    BACKGROUND: To analyze the potential effect of social inequality on pancreatic cancer risk in Western Europe, by reassessing the association within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study, including a larger number of cases and an extended follow-up.

    METHODS: Data on highest education attained were gathered for 459,170 participants (70% women) from 10 European countries. A relative index of inequality (RII) based on adult education was calculated for comparability across countries and generations. Cox regression models were applied to estimate relative inequality in pancreatic cancer risk, stratifying by age, gender, and center, and adjusting for known pancreatic cancer risk factors.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,223 incident pancreatic cancer cases were included after a mean follow-up of 13.9 (±4.0) years. An inverse social trend was found in models adjusted for age, sex, and center for both sexes [HR of RII, 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.59], which was also significant among women (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.05-1.92). Further adjusting by smoking intensity, alcohol consumption, body mass index, prevalent diabetes, and physical activity led to an attenuation of the RII risk and loss of statistical significance.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present reanalysis does not sustain the existence of an independent social inequality influence on pancreatic cancer risk in Western European women and men, using an index based on adult education, the most relevant social indicator linked to individual lifestyles, in a context of very low pancreatic cancer survival from (quasi) universal public health systems.

    IMPACT: The results do not support an association between education and risk of pancreatic cancer.

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