Dysregulation of p27(Kip1) due to proteolysis that involves the ubiquitin ligase (SCF) complex with S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) as the substrate-recognition component (SCF(Skp2)) frequently results in tumorigenesis. In this report, we developed a high-throughput screening system to identify small-molecule inhibitors of p27(Kip1) degradation. This system was established by tagging Skp2 with fluorescent monomeric Azami Green (mAG) and CDK subunit 1 (Cks1) (mAGSkp2-Cks1) to bind to p27(Kip1) phosphopeptides. We identified two compounds that inhibited the interaction between mAGSkp2-Cks1 and p27(Kip1): linichlorin A and gentian violet. Further studies have shown that the compounds inhibit the ubiquitination of p27(Kip1) in vitro as well as p27(Kip1) degradation in HeLa cells. Notably, both compounds exhibited preferential antiproliferative activity against HeLa and tsFT210 cells compared with NIH3T3 cells and delayed the G1 phase progression in tsFT210 cells. Our approach indicates a potential strategy for restoring p27(Kip1) levels in human cancers.
The objectives of the present study were (i) to study the pharmacogenetics of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A in three distinct healthy Asian populations (Chinese, Malays and Indians), and (ii) to investigate the polygenic influence of these polymorphic variants in irinotecan-induced neutropenia in Asian cancer patients. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacogenetic analyses were done after administration of irinotecan as a 90-min intravenous infusion of 375 mg/m(2) once every 3 weeks (n = 45). Genotypic-phenotypic correlates showed a non-significant influence of UGT1A1*28 and ABCG2 c.421C>A polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of SN-38 (P > 0.05), as well as severity of neutropenia (P > 0.05). Significantly higher exposure levels to SN-38 (P = 0.018), lower relative extent of glucuronidation (REG; P = 0.006) and higher biliary index (BI; P = 0.003) were found in cancer patients homozygous for the UGT1A1*6 allele compared with patients harboring the reference genotype. The mean absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was 85% lower and the prevalence of grade 4 neutropenia (ANC < or = 500/microL) was 27% in patients homozygous for UGT1A1*6 compared with the reference group. Furthermore, the presence of the UGT1A1*6 allele was associated with an approximately 3-fold increased risk of developing severe grade 4 neutropenia compared with patients harboring the reference genotype. These exploratory findings suggest that homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 allele may be associated with altered SN-38 disposition and may increase the risk of severe neutropenia in Asian cancer patients, particularly in the Chinese cancer patients who comprised 80% (n = 36) of the patient population in the present study.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoproteins drive distinctive promoter methylation patterns in cancer. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be elucidated. Cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter methylation is strongly associated with HPV-associated cancer. CCNA1 methylation is found in HPV-associated cervical cancers, as well as in head and neck squamous cell cancer. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest that E7 may drive CCNA1 methylation. First, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated in HPV-positive epithelial lesions after transformation. Second, the CCNA1 promoter is methylated at a high level when HPV is integrated into the human genome. Finally, E7 has been shown to interact with DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1). Here, we sought to determine the mechanism by which E7 increases methylation in cervical cancer by using CCNA1 as a gene model. We investigated whether E7 induces CCNA1 promoter methylation, resulting in the loss of expression. Using both E7 knockdown and overexpression approaches in SiHa and C33a cells, our data showed that CCNA1 promoter methylation decreases with a corresponding increase in expression in E7 siRNA-transfected cells. By contrast, CCNA1 promoter methylation was augmented with a corresponding reduction in expression in E7-overexpressing cells. To confirm whether the binding of the E7-Dnmt1 complex to the CCNA1 promoter induced methylation and loss of expression, ChIP assays were carried out in E7-, del CR3-E7 and vector control-overexpressing C33a cells. The data showed that E7 induced CCNA1 methylation by forming a complex with Dnmt1 at the CCNA1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of expression in cancers. It is interesting to further explore the genome-wide mechanism of E7 oncoprotein-mediated DNA methylation.
The present study was carried out to characterize the causative genetic mutation in a medium-sized Malaysian Chinese pedigree of three generations affected with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Clinical data and genetic studies revealed considerable phenotypic variability in affected individuals in this family. Blood was obtained from members of the FAP-01 family and genomic DNA was extracted. Mutation screening of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene was carried out using the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The possibility of exon skipping was predicted by splicing motif recognition software (ESEfinder release2.0). SSCP results showed mobility shifts in exon 8 of the APC gene which segregated with affected members of the family. Sequence analysis revealed that the affected individuals are heterozygous for a C847T transition, whilst all the unaffected family members and control individuals are homozygous C at the same position. This nucleotide substitution generates a stop codon at amino acid position 283, in place of the usual arginine (Arg283Ter). We conclude that an Arg283Ter mutation in the APC gene is causative of the FAP phenotype in this family, although there is considerable variation in the presentation of this disease among affected individuals. Computational analysis predicts that this mutation occurs within sequences that may function as splicing signals, so that the sequence change may affect normal splicing.
The number of newly diagnosed prostate cancer cases varies across Asia, with higher mortality-to-incidence ratio reported in developing nations. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), alone or in combination, remains the mainstay of first-line treatment for advanced prostate cancer. Key findings of extensive research and randomized controlled trials have shaped current clinical practice and influenced clinical guideline recommendations. We describe here the recent trend of ADT in newly diagnosed prostate cancer for Asia focusing on Japan (high-income country) and Malaysia (middle-income country) based on the Asian Prostate Cancer (A-CaP) Study. The combination of radiotherapy and ADT or ADT alone was common in patients with intermediate-to-high risk localized and locally advanced disease. For metastatic prostate cancer, maximum androgen blockade (gonadotrophin-releasing hormone [GnRH] agonist/antagonist plus antiandrogen) was prevalent among the Japanese patients while primary ADT alone with GnRH agonist/antagonist was widely practiced in the Malaysian cohort. Upfront combined therapy (ADT plus docetaxel or androgen receptor pathway inhibitor) has significantly improved the outcomes of patients with metastatic castration-naïve prostate cancer. Its application, however, remains low in our cohorts due to patients' financial capacity and national health insurance coverage. Early detection remains the cornerstone in prostate cancer control to improve treatment outcome and patient survival.
Tissue specimen quality assurance is a major issue of precision medicine for rare cancers. However, the laboratory standards and quality of pathological specimens prepared in Asian hospitals remain unknown. To understand the methods in Southeast Asian oncology hospitals and to clarify how pre-analytics affect the quality of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens, a questionnaire surveying pre-analytical procedures (Part I) was administered, quality assessment of immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining and DNA/RNA extracted from the representative FFPE specimens from each hospital (Part II) was conducted, and the quality of DNA/RNA extracted from FFPE of rare-cancer patients for genomic sequencing (Part III) was examined. Quality measurements for DNA/RNA included ΔΔCt, DV200, and cDNA yield. Six major cancer hospitals from Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam participated. One hospital showed unacceptable quality for the DNA/RNA assessment, but improved by revising laboratory procedures. Only 57% (n = 73) of the 128 rare-cancer patients' specimens met both DNA and RNA quality criteria for next-generation sequencing. Median DV200 was 80.7% and 64.3% for qualified and failed RNA, respectively. Median ΔΔCt was 1.25 for qualified and 4.89 for failed DNA. Longer storage period was significantly associated with poor DNA (fail to qualify ratio = 1579:321 days, p