CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the important role of exosomes in cancer progression and its implications for (non-invasive) diagnostics and the development of novel therapeutic strategies, as well as its current and future applications in clinical trials.
METHODS: The expression of IFITM3 in OSCC and normal oral mucosal tissues was assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The role of IFITM3 in driving OSCC cell proliferation and survival was examined using siRNA-mediated gene knockdown, and the role of IFITM3 in driving cell cycle regulators was examined using Western blotting.
RESULTS: We found that IFITM3 is overexpressed in more than 79% of primary OSCCs. We also found that IFITM3 knockdown led to impaired OSCC cell growth through inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. In addition, we found that IFITM3 knockdown led to reduced expressions of CCND1 and CDK4 and reduced RB phosphorylation, leading to inhibition of OSCC cell growth. This information may be instrumental for the design of novel targeted therapeutic strategies.
CONCLUSIONS: From our data we conclude that IFITM3 is overexpressed in OSCC and may regulate the CCND1-CDK4/6-pRB axis to mediate OSCC cell growth.
CONCLUSIONS: HMGB1 plays multiple roles in promoting the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, despite a few contradicting studies. HMGB1 may differentially regulate disease-related processes, depending on the redox status of the protein in colorectal cancer. Binding of HMGB1 to various protein partners may alter the impact of HMGB1 on disease progression. As HMGB1 is heavily implicated in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer, it is crucial to further improve our understanding of the functional roles of HMGB1 not only in colorectal cancer, but ultimately in all types of cancers.