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  1. Ch'ng WC, Abd-Aziz N, Ong MH, Stanbridge EJ, Shafee N
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2015 Aug;38(4):279-88.
    PMID: 25930675 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-015-0229-5
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an oncolytic virus that is known to have a higher preference to cancer cells than to normal cells. It has been proposed that this higher preference may be due to defects in the interferon (IFN) responses of cancer cells. The exact mechanism underlying this process, however, remains to be resolved. In the present study, we examined the antiviral response towards NDV infection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. ccRCC is associated with mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene VHL, whose protein product is important for eliciting cellular responses to changes in oxygen levels. The most common first line treatment strategy of ccRCC includes IFN. Unfortunately, most ccRCC cases are diagnosed at a late stage and often are resistant to IFN-based therapies. Alternative treatment approaches, including virotherapy using oncolytic viruses, are currently being investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanistic pathways underlying the response of ccRCC cells to oncolytic NDV infection.
  2. Sundararajan V, Sarkar FH, Ramasamy TS
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2018 08;41(4):463.
    PMID: 30047093 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-018-0396-2
    In the title of above mentioned article the word 'versatile' had been replaced by 'multifaceted'.
  3. Sundararajan V, Sarkar FH, Ramasamy TS
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2018 06;41(3):223-252.
    PMID: 29667069 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-018-0378-4
    BACKGROUND: Recent advances in cancer biology have highlighted the relevance of exosomes and nanovesicles as carriers of genetic and biological messages between cancer cells and their immediate and/or distant environments. It has been found that these molecular cues may play significant roles in cancer progression and metastasis. Cancer cells secrete exosomes containing diverse molecules that can be transferred to recipient cells and/or vice versa to induce a plethora of biological processes, including angiogenesis, metastasis formation, therapeutic resistance, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and epigenetic/stemness (re)programming. While exosomes interact with cells within the tumour microenvironment to promote tumour growth, these vesicles can also facilitate the process of distant metastasis by mediating the formation of pre-metastatic niches. Next to their tumour promoting effects, exosomes have been found to serve as potential tools for cancer diagnosis and therapy. The ease of isolating exosomes and their content from different body fluids has led to the identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarker signatures, as well as to predictive biomarker signatures for therapeutic responses. Exosomes can also be used as cargos to deliver therapeutic anti-cancer drugs, and they can be engineered to serve as vaccines for immunotherapy. Additionally, it has been found that inhibition of exosome secretion, and thus the transfer of oncogenic molecules, holds promise for inhibiting tumour growth. Here we provide recent information on the diverse roles of exosomes in various cellular and systemic processes governing cancer progression, and discuss novel strategies to halt this progression using exosome-based targeted therapies and methods to inhibit exosome secretion and the transfer of pro-tumorigenic molecules.

    CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the important role of exosomes in cancer progression and its implications for (non-invasive) diagnostics and the development of novel therapeutic strategies, as well as its current and future applications in clinical trials.

  4. Gan CP, Sam KK, Yee PS, Zainal NS, Lee BKB, Abdul Rahman ZA, et al.
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2019 Aug;42(4):477-490.
    PMID: 30949979 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-019-00437-z
    PURPOSE: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a challenging disease to treat. Up to 50% of OSCC patients with advanced disease develop recurrences. Elucidation of key molecular mechanisms underlying OSCC development may provide opportunities to target specific genes and, thus, to improve patient survival. In this study, we examined the expression and functional role of interferon transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) in OSCC development.

    METHODS: The expression of IFITM3 in OSCC and normal oral mucosal tissues was assessed by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The role of IFITM3 in driving OSCC cell proliferation and survival was examined using siRNA-mediated gene knockdown, and the role of IFITM3 in driving cell cycle regulators was examined using Western blotting.

    RESULTS: We found that IFITM3 is overexpressed in more than 79% of primary OSCCs. We also found that IFITM3 knockdown led to impaired OSCC cell growth through inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of cell cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. In addition, we found that IFITM3 knockdown led to reduced expressions of CCND1 and CDK4 and reduced RB phosphorylation, leading to inhibition of OSCC cell growth. This information may be instrumental for the design of novel targeted therapeutic strategies.

    CONCLUSIONS: From our data we conclude that IFITM3 is overexpressed in OSCC and may regulate the CCND1-CDK4/6-pRB axis to mediate OSCC cell growth.

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