The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of eliminating the nephrographic phase from the four-phase renal computed tomography (CT) imaging to a three-phase protocol without affecting its diagnostic value. Thirty patients undergoing four-phase renal CT scans for assessment of renal lesions (>10 mm) were included in the study. A three-phase renal CT, without nephrographic phase, had similar diagnostic ability to a four-phase renal CT in the detection and characterization of renal lesions. A three-phase CT (plain, corticomedullary, and excretory phase) is therefore adequate in the clinical diagnosis of renal lesions.
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women worldwide. Early detection of breast cancer can increase treatment options and patients' survivability. Mammography is the gold standard for breast imaging and cancer detection. However, due to some limitations of this modality such as low sensitivity especially in dense breasts, other modalities like ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging are often suggested to achieve additional information. Recently, computer-aided detection or diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed to help radiologists in order to increase diagnosis accuracy. Generally, a CAD system consists of four stages: (a) preprocessing, (b) segmentation of regions of interest, (c) feature extraction and selection, and finally (d) classification. This paper presents the approaches which are applied to develop CAD systems on mammography and ultrasound images. The performance evaluation metrics of CAD systems are also reviewed.
Leprosy is a granulomatous disease primarily affecting the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae, but also significantly involving sinonasal cavities and cranial nerves. It continues to be a significant public health problem, and despite multidrug therapy, it can still cause significant morbidity. The awareness of cranial nerve, intracranial and orbital apex involvement as in our case is important for appropriate treatment measures.
Kostmann's syndrome is a rare congenital disorder of neutrophil production due to impairment of myeloid differentiation in the bone marrow, with the neutrophil count being characteristically less than 500 x 10(3) cells/l (normal: 2-7 x 10(9)/l). Severe persistent neutropenia results in an increased susceptibility to frequent bacterial infections. The condition can be treated with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). Although several articles have addressed the clinicopathological and haematological aspects of this disorder, little or no information has been available concerning the radiological findings in this disorder. This report summarizes the clinical features, radiological findings and management of a patient with Kostmann's syndrome.