Like other nematodes, both L(3) and adult Teladosagia circumcincta secrete or excrete NH(3)/NH(4)(+), but the reactions involved in the production are unclear. Glutamate dehydrogenase is a significant source NH(3)/NH(4)(+) in some species, but previous reports indicate that the enzyme is absent from L(3)Haemonchus contortus. We show that glutamate dehydrogenase was active in both L(3) and adult T. circumcincta. The apparent K(m)s of the L(3) enzyme differed from those of the adult enzyme, the most significant of these being the increase in the K(m) for NH(4)(+) from 18mM in L(3) to 49mM in adults. The apparent V(max) of the oxidative deamination reaction was greater than that of the reductive reaction in L(3), but this was reversed in adults. The activity of the oxidative reaction of the L(3) enzyme was not affected by adenine nucleotides, but that of the reductive reaction was stimulated significantly by either ADP or ATP. The L(3) enzyme was more active with NAD(+) than it was with NADP(+), although the activities supported by NADH and NADPH were similar at saturating concentrations. While the activity of the oxidative reaction was sufficient to account for the NH(3)/NH(4)(+) efflux we have previously reported, the reductive amination reaction was likely to be more active.
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Prolactin (PRL) has been shown to directly influence parental-care associated behavior in many vertebrate species. The discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciata) displays extensive parental care behavior through utilization of epidermal mucosal secretion to raise free-swimming fry. Here, we cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of the S. aequifasciata prolactin receptor (dfPRLR) and investigated the mRNA expression pattern in several adult tissues. Bioinformatic analysis showed the dfPRLR shared rather high identity (79 and 67%) with the Nile tilapia PRLR 1 and black seabream PRLR 1, respectively. The presence of dfPRLR in several osmoregulatory tissues including kidney, gill and intestine is consistent with the known role of PRL in mediating hydromineral balance in teleosts. In addition, upregulated expression of PRLR mRNA was observed in skin of parental fish compared to non-parental fish, indicating possibility of a role of the PRL hormonal signaling in regulation of mucus production in relation to parental care behaviour.
The coding region of guinea pig peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma1 (gpPPARgamma1) cDNA was successfully cloned from adipose tissue by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the designated primers based on the conserved regions of the other mammalian PPARgamma1 sequence. From RT-PCR, a combination of three cDNA fragments that comprised of the full length coding region PPARgamma1 cDNA gene were amplified, with the size of 498, 550 and 557 bp, respectively. All three fragments were then successfully assembled by utilising the internal restriction sites present at the overlapping regions to give rise to the full-length coding region of gpPPARgamma1 with the size of 1428 bp and consisting of 475 amino acids. Guinea pig PPARgamma1 is highly conserved with those of other species at protein and nucleotide levels. Gene expression studies showed that gpPPARgamma mRNA was predominantly expressed in adipose tissue followed by lung and spleen. However, at the protein level, PPARgamma was also found to be expressed in skeletal muscle.
The capacity of crustaceans to biosynthesise long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has yet to be fully defined, due to the lack of evidence on the functional activities of enzymes involved in desaturation or elongation of fatty acid substrates. We report here the cloning and in vitro functional analysis of an elongase from the orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis placed the elovl close to the vertebrate Elovl1 and Elovl7 clade, which is distinct from the other remaining five Elovl families. The elongase was also clustered together with several elongases from crustaceans and insects. This elongase showed activities towards 16:1n-7, and at lower rate, linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3). To our knowledge this is the first description of a functional enzyme involved in biosynthesis of long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids in a crustacean species. Expression of the S. olivacea elovl7-like mRNA was prominent in stomach, intestine and gill tissues, due to the need to regulate the permeability of epithelial tissue through modification of fatty acid compositions. The implication of our findings, in terms of ability of Crustacea phylum to biosynthesise polyunsaturated fatty acids is discussed.
Hormonal sex reversal can produce monosex fish stocks and provide insights into their gamity and reproductive physiology. However, paradoxical effects have been reported in several fish species that remain largely ignored as anomalies, particularly those of masculinisation. As a first step, this study examined reproductive viability of paradoxically masculinised Gambusia holbrooki produced following oral administration (20-100 mg/kg feed) of a feminizing hormone diethylstilbestrol (DES). Contrary to expectation, all treatment groups produced 100% male populations. Survival, mating behaviour, gamete production, breeding output as well as expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (amh), ovarian (cyp19a1a) and brain (cyp19a1b) aromatase of masculinised fish were also examined. Survival (≤ 54.1 ± 7.3%) at termination of DES treatment was significantly lower compared with controls (88.6 ± 4.3%) but remained unaffected post treatment. Gonopodium thrusting frequency (33 ± 9.8 per 10 min) was not significantly different to untreated males just as sperm abundance (3.9 ± 1.5 × 108/male) and their motility (88.6 ± 29.1%). Importantly, paradoxically masculinised fish mated with virgin females and produced clutch sizes (22 ± 4) and progeny survival (87.0 ± %) that were comparable to that of untreated males. Masculinised testes showed high amh and low cyp19a1a expression, a pattern resembling those of untreated males. Production of paradoxically sex-reversed males with a capability to produce viable offspring has not been reported previously in this or other fish species. The outcomes support a feed-back regulation of oestrogenic pathways in this viviparous fish and could be useful for ecological applications such as controlling invasive fish populations.
A thrombin-like enzyme (termed albolabrase) was isolated in purified form from the venom of Cryptelytrops albolabris (white-lipped tree viper) using high performance anion ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of albolabrase was 33.7 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE and 35.8 kDa as determined by Superose gel filtration chromatography. The N-terminal sequence was determined to be VVGGDECNINE which is homologous to many snake venom thrombin-like enzymes. Albolabrase exhibits both arginine ester hydrolase and arginine amidase activities and the enzyme is fastidious towards tripeptide chromogenic anilide substrates. The fibrinogen clotting activity was optimum at 3mg/mL bovine fibrinogen, and showed distinct species differences in the following decreasing order: bovine fibrinogen>dog fibrinogen≈human fibrinogen>goat fibrinogen. The enzyme failed to clot both rabbit and cat fibrinogens. Reversed-phase HPLC analysis on the breakdown products of fibrinogenolytic action of albolabrase indicated that the enzyme belongs to the AB class of snake venom thrombin-like enzyme. In the indirect ELISA, IgG anti-albolabrase reacted extensively with most crotalid venoms, except with Tropidolaemus wagleri and Calloselasma rhodostoma venoms. The double sandwich ELISA, however, showed that anti-albolabrase reacted strongly only with venoms from the Trimeresurus complex, and that the results support the proposed new taxonomy changes concerning the Trimeresurus complex.
In zebrafish, fast muscle-specific myosin heavy chain genes have their unique expression patterns in a well-defined and restricted region of the skeletal muscle. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved have remained unclear. Here, we examined the regulation of spatio-temporal expression patterns of myhz1 (myhz1.1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3) and myhz2 during their development by using transient gene and stable transgenic techniques. Embryos microinjected with different length 5'-flanking sequences of myhz1 conjugated with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene showed EGFP expression in the anterior and medial subsections of somites, but not in the tail somite region. In contrast, embryos microinjected with different length 5'-flanking sequences of myhz2 showed EGFP expression exclusively at the posterior tail somite domain. Promoter deletion analyses demonstrated that reduced EGFP fluorescence typically is correlated with smaller 5'-flanking sequences. The immunohistochemical observation revealed that zebrafish larvae provided with the transient gene and those from stable transgenic lines consistently expressed EGFP in the fast muscle fibers. r-VISTA plot identified one common conserved region of about 140°bp among myhz1.1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3. Deletion of this conserved region from the 5'-flanking sequence of each myhz1 markedly reduced EGFP expression in its unique spatial somite region. Deletion mutation analysis demonstrated that myhz2 expression in the tail somite region might be mediated by Tbx (family of transcription factors having a common DNA-binding sequence known as T-box) binding elements. In summary, 5'-flanking sequences of myhz1 and myhz2 regulate their unique expression patterns in a well-defined and restricted somite region of the skeletal muscle in zebrafish.
Cholinesterases act as bio scavengers to clear organophosphorus (OP) compounds and prodrugs. The butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) gene has been found in several types of teleost fish but this gene has yet to be identified in cyprinid fish. Indeed, BChE homologs have not been found in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) genomic database. Here, we demonstrate that BChE activity is present in zebrafish, in line with other groups' findings. Using in-gel native-PAGE enzymatic activity staining and LC-MS/MS technique, an atypical BChE-like protein was identified in zebrafish. The si:ch211-93f2.1 gene was cloned, and His-tagged recombinant protein was expressed using the Pichia yeast system. The purified protein (molecular weight ~ 180 kDa) showed BChE activity, and degraded acetylcholinesterase (ACh) at a higher rate than BCh. However, phylogram analysis shows that this novel cholinesterase shared an evolutionary origin with carboxylic esterase rather than BChE. The zebrafish BChE-like protein shares structural characteristics with cholinesterase and carboxylesterase. The 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), nicosulfuron, and triacetin exhibited a higher binding affinity to the zebrafish BChE-like protein than BCh and ACh. With the identification of BChE-like protein in zebrafish, this study could shed light on the origin of BChE and may contribute towards the development of a BChE knockout zebrafish model for sensitive drug or toxin screening.