Displaying all 7 publications

  1. Petta CA, Amatya R, Farr G, Chi I
    Contraception, 1994 Oct;50(4):339-47.
    PMID: 7813222
    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible factors associated with discontinuing use of TCu 380A IUDs due to personal reasons among 2748 users. Overall, a total of 88 subjects discontinued using the TCu 380A IUD within 12 months postinsertion for personal reasons. The most common reasons were planned pregnancy (32%) and husband or family opinion against IUD use (26%). The gross cumulative 12-month life table discontinuation rate for all personal reasons was 4.0 per 100 women. Having no education and/or living in a rural area were the sociodemographic characteristics associated with an increased risk of discontinuation for personal reasons. Effective and regular counseling about IUD use, especially among illiterate women, may help prevent IUD discontinuations related to personal reasons.
  2. Dunson TR, McLaurin VL, Israngkura B, Leelapattana B, Mukherjee R, Perez-Palacios G, et al.
    Contraception, 1993 Aug;48(2):109-19.
    PMID: 8403908 DOI: 10.1016/0010-7824(93)90002-O
    A comparative multicenter clinical trial of two low-dose combined oral contraceptives (OCs) was conducted in Malaysia, Egypt, Thailand, and Mexico. Efficacy, safety and acceptability were investigated in women taking either a norgestrel-based (NG) OC or a norethindrone acetate-based (NA) OC. This paper includes analysis of 892 women, all of whom were at least 42 days but within 26 weeks postpartum and randomly allocated to one of the above OCs. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 4, 8 and 12 months after admission. Baseline sociodemographic characteristics were similar for both groups, as well as compliance. There were nine unintended pregnancies reported; eight of these occurring in the NA group. Adverse experiences were minor with headaches and dizziness being the most common complaints; frequency of reports was similar in both groups. The group taking the NG-based OC had significantly (p < .05) fewer menstrual-related complaints. Discontinuations due to menstrual problems were significantly more common among NA users (primarily amenorrhea). Discontinuations in the NG group were primarily for other personal reasons, e.g. unable to return to the clinic. There was also a significant difference between the two groups for the 11-month gross cumulative life table discontinuation rates due to menstrual problems (p < .01); the NA group had the higher rate.
  3. Ismail M, Arshat H, Pulcrano J, Royston P, Spieler J
    Contraception, 1989 Jan;39(1):53-71.
    PMID: 2642781
    The BIOSELF 110 is a hand-held, non-invasive electronic instrument that measures basal body temperature and cycle length, and automatically identifies the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle with flashing red light and green light signals, respectively. The device was evaluated in 77 cycles from 33 ovulatory women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ultrasound monitoring of maximum follicular diameter (MFD) and urinary LH measurements with Ovustick were used as reference methods to estimate the time of ovulation and the fertile period. Based on the MFD day, the BIOSELF correctly identified the entire fertile period, and at least four fertile days, in 89% and 94% of the cycles studied, respectively. The mean duration of the fertile period as determined by the number of flashing red light days was 11.0 days (SD 2.9). The device correctly identified the onset of the postovulatory infertile phase in 94% of cycles, with a mean duration of about 10 (green light) days. The results were similar using the LH peak day as the reference method. The mean interval from the onset of the fertile period (first flashing red light day) to the MFD day was 6.9 days (SD 2.6), and from the MFD day to the end of the fertile period, 3.1 days (SD 2.2). The BIOSELF 110 showed itself to be a reliable device for identifying the fertile and infertile phases of the menstrual cycle and, thus, should be a useful aid for couples seeking pregnancy. Prospective clinical trials are underway to assess the contraceptive effectiveness of the device.
  4. Goh TH, Hariharan M
    Contraception, 1983 Oct;28(4):329-36.
    PMID: 6667621
    Blood haemoglobin and serum ferritin levels were measured at the initial visit and 12 months following sterilization and IUD insertion. Ferritin levels were unaltered in Progestasert users after 12 months but haemoglobin values increased though not significantly. Ferritin levels fell in Multiload Cu 250 users and in sterilized women; haemoglobin levels were also observed to fall but significantly only in the latter group. Iron-deficiency anaemia was prevalent at initial contact and there appeared to be an increased risk subsequently in Multiload Cu 250 users and in those who were sterilized. Screening and monitoring for anaemia is indicated. From the viewpoint of iron status, the Progestasert is preferable to the Multiload Cu 250 but it suffers the major disadvantages of needing frequent replacement and of causing menstrual disturbances which might compromise its acceptability. Menstrual blood loss studies may help explain why anaemia develops after sterilization.
  5. Tan GJ, Kwan TK
    Contraception, 1987 Sep;36(3):359-67.
    PMID: 3677679
    The effect of oxytocin on testicular function was examined in the adult male long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). The monkeys were either infused with increasing concentrations of synthetic oxytocin (16-128 m.i.u./min for 3 h) or injected daily for a week with the same hormone (20 i.u., i.v.) and the plasma testosterone levels measured. The results of the present study show that acute infusion or chronic injection of oxytocin does not significantly affect the plasma testosterone levels, suggesting that systemic control of testicular endocrine function by oxytocin may be unimportant.
  6. Goh TH, Hariharan M, Tan CH
    Contraception, 1980 Oct;22(4):389-95.
    PMID: 7449387
    The increase in menstrual blood loss associated with copper-bearing IUDs may cause or aggravate pre-existing anaemia. In order to evaluate this risk, 84 Malaysian women wearing copper-IUDs were studied longitudinally by means of serial measurements of blood haemoglobin concentration (Hb), serum iron (S/Fe) and transferrin saturation (T/S). The initial Hb was under 12 gm% in 33.7% of patients. The mean Hb showed no significant change up to 12 months while S/Fe fell significantly at the end of this time; the T/S was significantly reduced as early as 6 months post-insertion. There is a significant risk of anaemia following copper-IUD insertion, particularly with long-term usage. Progestogen-releasing IUDs may offer the most feasible solution to this problem in our local context since oral medication with iron or drugs to reduce menstrual blood loss is not practicable.
  7. Ting CY, Ting RS, Lim CJ, King TL, Ting H, Gerofi J
    Contraception, 2019 07;100(1):65-71.
    PMID: 30871936 DOI: 10.1016/j.contraception.2019.02.013
    OBJECTIVES: This study compared the condom failure rate, safety and acceptability of two new synthetic adhesive male condoms, Wondaleaf-Cap® (WLC) and Wondaleaf-On-Man® (WLM), with a marketed latex external condom Durex®-Together (DT).

    STUDY DESIGN: We enrolled healthy married, monogamous, heterosexual condom users in a randomized controlled, cross-over, pilot trial in Malaysia. We randomized participants to six groups with different condom use-orders of the experimental WLC and WLM and control latex condom for four episodes for vaginal sex over 1 month for each condom type. We summarized the clinical and non-clinical failure rate, safety and acceptability of each condom type using descriptive statistics. We tested differences in condom failure and acceptability using generalized estimating equations and repeated measure ANOVA respectively.

    RESULTS: We screened 75 couples and randomized 50 eligible couples. Two couples withdrew before receiving any condom. The remaining used 576 condoms with 192 uses for each condom variant. Clinical failure rates of WLC, WLM and DT were 1.04%, 0% and 0.52%, respectively. Non-clinical failure rates of WLC, WLM and DT were 2.08%, 3.12% and 1.04%, respectively. Removal was found more painful with Wondaleaf products than the DT. Preferences of participants for WLC, WLM and DT were 33.3%, 29.2% and 25%, respectively. Overall, WLC and DT had greater acceptances among male participants than WLM.

    CONCLUSION: Results of this pilot study support that use of synthetic adhesive male condoms is associated with failure rates similar to those seen with existing latex, and with greater acceptability. A larger study to ascertain non-inferiority is underway.

    IMPLICATIONS: The availability of synthetic adhesive male condoms may increase the acceptability of condom use. However, removal pain and clinical performance requires further study.

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