The progress of novel sorbents and their function in preconcentration techniques for determination of trace elements is a topic of great importance. This review discusses numerous analytical approaches including the preparation and practice of unique modification of solid-phase materials. The performance and main features of ion-imprinting polymers, carbon nanotubes, biosorbents, and nanoparticles are described, covering the period 2007-2012. The perspective and future developments in the use of these materials are illustrated.
The quest to improve the detection of biomolecules and cells in health and life sciences has led to the discovery and characterization of various affinity bioprobes. Libraries of synthetic oligonucleotides (ssDNA/ssRNA) with randomized sequences are employed during Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) to select highly specific affinity probes called aptamers. With much focus on the generation of aptamers for a variety of target molecules, conventional SELEX protocols have been modified to develop new and improved SELEX protocols yielding highly specific and stable aptamers. Various techniques have been used to analyze the binding interactions between aptamers and their cognate molecules with associated merits and limitations. This article comprehensively reviews research advancements in the generation of aptamers, analyses physicochemical conditions affecting their binding characteristics to cellular and biomolecular targets, and discusses various field applications of aptameric binding. Biophysical techniques employed in the characterization of the molecular and binding features of aptamers to their cognate targets are also discussed.
Graphene is a new carbon-based material that is of interest in separation science. Graphene has extraordinary properties including nano size, high surface area, thermal and chemical stability, and excellent adsorption affinity to pollutants. Its adsorption mechanisms are through non-covalent interactions (π-π stacking, electrostatic interactions, and H-bonding) for organic compounds and covalent interactions for metal ions. These properties have led to graphene-based material becoming a desirable adsorbent in a popular sample preparation technique known as solid phase extraction (SPE). Numerous studies have been published on graphene applications in recent years, but few review papers have focused on its applications in analytical chemistry. This article focuses on recent preconcentration of trace elements, organic compounds, and biological species using SPE-based graphene, graphene oxide, and their modified forms. Solid phase microextraction and micro SPE (µSPE) methods based on graphene are discussed.
Recently, a simple, rapid, high-efficiency, selective, and sensitive method for isolation, preconcentration, and enrichment of analytes has been developed. This new method of sample handling is based on ferum oxides as magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and has been used for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of various analytes from various matrices. This review focuses on the applications of modified ferum oxides, especially modified Fe3O4 MNPs, as MSPE adsorbent for pesticide isolation from various matrices. Further perspectives on MSPE based on modified Fe3O4 for inorganic metal ions, organic compounds, and biological species from water samples are also presented. Ferum(III) oxide MNPs (Fe2O3) are also highlighted.
Phthalates are endocrine disruptors frequently occurring in the general and industrial environment and in many industrial products. Moreover, they are also suspected of being carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic, and they show diverse toxicity profiles depending on their structures. The European Union and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) have included many phthalates in the list of priority substances with potential endocrine-disrupting action. They are: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP), di-iso-decyl phthalate (DIDP), di-n-decyl phthalate (DnDP), and dioctyl phthalate (DOP). There is an ever-increasing demand for new analytical methods suitable for monitoring different phthalates in various environmental, biological, and other matrices. Separation and spectrometric methods are most frequently used. However, modern electroanalytical methods can also play a useful role in this field because of their high sensitivity, reasonable selectivity, easy automation, and miniaturization, and especially low investment and running costs, which makes them suitable for large-scale monitoring. Therefore, this review outlines possibilities and limitations of various analytical methods for determination of endocrine-disruptor phthalate esters in various matrices, including somewhat neglected electroanalytical methods.
The development of easy to use, rapid and sensitive methods for direct detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens has become significantly important due to their impact on human health. In recent years, carbon nanomaterials have been adapted in the fabrication of electrochemical biosensors due to their exceptional combination of intrinsic properties such as high conductivity, stability and biocompatibility that render them as a promising candidate for bio-sensing material. The scope of this review is to provide a brief history of the current methods and different types of electrochemical biosensors used for the detection of bacterial pathogens. We primarily focus on the recent progress and applications of graphene, carbon nanotubes and their derivatives in electrochemical biosensors for foodborne bacterial pathogens detection. Finally, the status and future prospects of carbon-based electrochemical biosensors are also reviewed and discussed.
Mixed valence transition metal hexacyanoferrates (MeHCF)-Prussian blue and its analogs receive enormous research interest in the electrochemical sensing field. In recent years, conducting materials such as conducting polymer, carbon nanomaterial, and noble metals have been used to form nanocomposites with MeHCF. The scope of this review offers the reasons behind the preparation of various MeHCF based nanocomposite toward electrochemical detection. We primarily focus on the current progress of the development of MEHCF-based nanocomposites. The synthesis methods for these nanocomposites are also reviewed and discussed.
Mortality level is worsening the situation worldwide thru blood diseases and greatly jeopardizes the human health with poor diagnostics. Due to the lack of successful generation of early diagnosis, the survival rate is currently lower. To overcome the present hurdle, new diagnostic methods have been choreographed for blood disease biomarkers analyses with the conjunction of ultra-small ideal gold nanohybrids. Gold-hybrids hold varieties of unique features, such as high biocompatibility, increased surface-to-volume ratio, less-toxicity, ease in electron transfer and have a greater localized surface plasmon resonance. Gold-nanocomposites can be physically hybrid on the sensor surface and functionalize with the biomolecules using appropriate chemical conjugations. Revolutionizing biosensor platform can be prominently linked for the nanocomposite applications in the current research on medical diagnosis. This review encloses the new developments in diagnosing blood biomarkers by utilizing the gold-nanohybrids. Further, the current state-of-the-art and the future envision with digital monitoring for facile telediagnosis were narrated.
Over the past decade, science has experienced a growing rise in nanotechnology with ground-breaking contributions. Through various laborious technologies, nanomaterials with different architectures from 0 D to 3 D have been synthesized. However, the 3 D flower-like organic-inorganic hybrid nanomaterial with the most direct one-pot green synthesis method has attracted widespread attention and instantly become research hotspot since its first allusion in 2012. Mild synthesis procedure, high surface-to-volume ratio, enhanced enzymatic activity and stability are the main factor for its rapid development. However, its lower mechanical strength, difficulties in recovery from the reaction system, lower loading capacity, poor reusability and accessibility of enzymes are fatal, which hinders its wide application in industry. This review first discusses the selection of non-enzymatic biomolecules for the synthesis of hybrid nanoflowers followed by the innovative advancements made in organic-inorganic hybrid nanoflowers to overcome aforementioned issues and to enhance their extensive downstream applications in transduction technologies. Besides, the role of hybrid nanoflower has been successfully utilized in many fields including, water remediation, biocatalyst, pollutant adsorption and decolourization, nanoreactor, biosensing, cellular uptake and others, accompanied with several quantification technologies, such as ELISA, electrochemical, surface plasmon resonance (SPR), colorimetric, and fluorescence were comprehensively reviewed.
Spectacular color change during a chemical reaction is always fascinating. A variety of chemosensors including Schiff bases have been reported for selective as well as sensitive recognition of ions. This review explains the use of Schiff bases as color changing agents in the detection of anions. This magic of colors is attributed to change in the electronic structure of the system during reaction. Schiff base chemosensors are easy to synthesize, inexpensive and can be used for visual sensing of different ions. Development of Schiff base chemosensors is commonly based on the interactions between polar groups of Schiff bases and ionic species and the process of charge transfer, electron transfer and hydrogen bonding between Schiff bases and ionic species cause the color of the resultant to be changed. Therefore, designing of simple Schiff base chemosensors which are capable of selective sensing of different anions has attracted considerable interest. In particular, naked eye sensing through color change is important and useful since it allows sensing of ions through color changes without using any instrumental technique.HighlightsNaked eye sensors are of much interest these days due to their visual detection properties rather employing complex instrumentation.Optical sensors are sensitive, selective, cost effective and robust.The magic of color change is fascinating factor in detection by these sensors.The color change may be attributed by interaction between anion and Schiff base by different mechanism i.e. electron transfer, charge transfer, hydrogen bonding, ICT etc.LOD data is an evidence of their great efficiency.
Naturally active compounds are usually contained inside plants and materials thereof. Thus, the extraction of the active compounds from plants needs appropriate extraction methods. The commonly employed extraction methods are mostly based on solid-liquid extraction. Frequently used conventional extraction methods such as maceration, heat-assisted extraction, Soxhlet extraction, and hydrodistillation are often criticized for large solvent consumption and long extraction times. Therefore, many advanced extraction methods incorporating various technologies such as ultrasound, microwaves, high pressure, high voltage, enzyme hydrolysis, innovative solvent systems, adsorption, and mechanical forces have been studied. These advanced extraction methods are often better than conventional methods in terms of higher yields, higher selectivity, lower solvent consumption, shorter processing time, better energy efficiency, and potential to avoid organic solvents. They are usually designed to be greener, more sustainable, and environment friendly. In this review, we have critically described recently developed extraction methods pertaining to obtaining active compounds from plants and materials thereof. Main factors that affect the extraction performances are tuned, and extraction methods are chosen in line with the properties of targeted active compounds or the objectives of extraction. The review also highlights the advancements in extraction procedures by using combinations of extraction methods to obtain high overall yields or high purity extracts.
Biosensors operating based on electrical methods are being accelerated toward rapid and efficient detection that improve the performance of the device. Continuous study in nano- and material-sciences has led to the inflection with properties of nanomaterials that fit the trend parallel to the biosensor evolution. Advancements in technology that focuses on nano-hybrid are being used to develop biosensors with better detection strategies. In this sense, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials have attracted extensive interest in the construction of electrical biosensors. The formation of TiO2 nano-hybrid as an electrical transducing material has revealed good results with high performance. The modification of the sensing portion with a combination (nano-hybrid form) of nanomaterials has produced excellent sensors in terms of stability, reproducibility, and enhanced sensitivity. This review highlights recent research advancements with functional TiO2 nano-hybrid materials, and their victorious story in the construction of electrical biosensors are discussed. Future research directions with commercialization of these devices and their extensive utilizations are also discussed.
Paracetamol (PAR) is an effective antipyretic and analgesic drug utilized worldwide, safer at therapeutic levels but over-dosing and the chronic usage of PAR results in accumulation of toxic metabolites, which leads to kidney and liver damages. Hence, a simple, rapid, cost-effective, and sensitive analytical technique is needed for the accurate determination of PAR in pharmaceutical and biological samples. Though numerous techniques have been reported for PAR detection, electrochemical methods are being receiving more interest due to their advantages. Moreover, in the past few decades, room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been utilized in electrochemical sensors due to their attractive properties. In this present review, authors gathered research findings available for the determination of PAR using RTIL-based electrochemical sensors and discussed. The advantages and limitations in these systems as well as the future research directions are summarized.
The past several decades have seen increasing concern regarding the wide distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental matrices. Primary toxicological data show PAHs' persistent characteristics and possible toxicity effects. Because of this pressing global issue, electroanalytical methods have been introduced. These methods are effective for PAH determination in environmental waters, even outclassing sophisticated analytical techniques such as chromatography, conventional spectrophotometry, fluorescence, and capillary electrophoresis. Herein, the literature published on PAHs is reviewed and discussed with special regard to PAH occurrence. Moreover, the recent developments in electrochemical sensors for PAH determination and the challenges and future outlooks in this field, are also presented.
The importance of nanotechnology in medical applications especially with biomedical sensing devices is undoubted. Several medical diagnostics have been developed by taking the advantage of nanomaterials, especially with electrical biosensors. Biosensors have been predominantly used for the quantification of different clinical biomarkers toward detection, screening, and follow-up the treatment. At present, ovarian cancer is one of the severe complications that cannot be identified until it becomes most dangerous as the advanced stage. Based on the American Cancer Society, 20% of cases involved in the detection of ovarian cancer are diagnosed at an early stage and 80% diagnosed at the later stages. The patient just has a common digestive problem and stomach ache as early symptoms and people used to ignore these symptoms. Micro ribonucleic acid (miRNA) is classified as small non-coding RNAs, their expressions change due to the association of cancer development and progression. This article reviews and discusses on the currently available strategies for the early detection of ovarian cancers using miRNA as a biomarker associated with electrical biosensors. A unique miRNA-based biomarker detections are specially highlighted with biosensor platforms to diagnose ovarian cancer.
Non-enzymatic glucose sensors based on the use of copper and its oxides have emerged as promising candidates to replace enzymatic glucose sensors owing to their stability, ease of fabrication, and superior sensitivity. This review explains the theories of the mechanism of glucose oxidation on copper transition metal electrodes. It also presents an overview on the development of among the best non-enzymatic copper-based glucose sensors in the past 10 years. A brief description of methods, interesting findings, and important performance parameters are provided to inspire the reader and researcher to create new improvements in sensor design. Finally, several important considerations that pertain to the nano-structuring of the electrode surface is provided.
The growth in driving force and popularity of cyclodextrin (CDs) and ionic liquids (ILs) as promising materials in the field of analytical chemistry has resulted in an exponentially increase of their exploitation and production in analytical chemistry field. CDs belong to the family of cyclic oligosaccharides composing of α-(1,4) linked glucopyranose subunits and possess a cage-like supramolecular structure. This structure enables chemical reactions to proceed between interacting ions, radical or molecules in the absence of covalent bonds. Conversely, ILs are an ionic fluids comprising of only cation and anion often with immeasurable vapor pressure making them as green or designer solvent. The cooperative effect between CD and IL due to their fascinating properties, have nowadays contributed their footprints for a better development in analytical chemistry nowadays. This comprehensive review serves to give an overview on some of the recent studies and provides an analytical trend for the application of CDs with the combination of ILs that possess beneficial and remarkable effects in analytical chemistry including their use in various sample preparation techniques such as solid phase extraction, magnetic solid phase extraction, cloud point extraction, microextraction, and separation techniques which includes gas chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, capillary electrophoresis as well as applications of electrochemical sensors as electrode modifiers with references to recent applications. This review will highlight the nature of interactions and synergic effects between CDs, ILs, and analytes. It is hoped that this review will stimulate further research in analytical chemistry.
The ionic liquids (ILs) are salts with melting points below 100°C. These are called as ionic fluids, ionic melts, liquid electrolytes, fused salts, liquid salts, ionic glasses, designer solvents, green solvents and solvents of the future. These have a wide range of applications, including medical, pharmaceutical and chemical sciences. Nowadays, their use is increasing greatly in separation science, especially in chromatography and capillary electrophoresis due to their remarkable properties. The present article describes the importance of ILs in high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Efforts were also made to highlight the future expectations of ILs.
Tartrazine is an azo food dye, orange-coloured and water soluble that usually used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and textiles. Tartrazine possess adverse health effect to human such as hyperactivity in children, allergy and asthma. Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additive (JECFA) and EU Scientific Committee for Food (SCF) standardized the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for Tartrazine is at 7.5 mg kg(-1) body weight. Many researchers have been detected the presence of Tartrazine for monitoring the quality and safety of food products. In this review paper highlighted various detection and extraction methods of Tartrazine. Some of the analytical methods are available such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrochemical sensor, thin-layer chromatography (TLC), spectrophotometry, capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). As extraction steps are discussed: liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid-phase extraction (SPE), membrane filtration, cloud point extraction and other extraction method. Also, brief overview explained the synthesis process and metabolism of Tartrazine and the maximum permitted level in different countries. This review paper will give insight scenario on different extraction and analytical methods for determination of Tartrazine on healthy food among public attract attention on food safety and quality which can provide incalculable interest to food industry and government bodies.
Nanowires have been utilized widely in the generation of high-performance nanosensors. Laser ablation, chemical vapor, thermal evaporation and alternating current electrodeposition are in use in developing nanowires. Nanowires are in a great attention because of their submicron feature and their potentials in the front of nanoelectronics, accelerated field effect transistors, chemical- and bio-sensors, and low power consuming light-emitting devices. With the control of nanowire size and concentration of dopant, the electrical sensitivity and other properties of nanowires can be tuned for the reproducibility. Nanowires comprise of arrays of electrodes that form a nanometer electrical circuit. One of advantages of nanowires is that they can be fabricated in nanometer-size for various applications in different approaches. Several studies have been conducted on nanowires and researchers discovered that nanowires have the potential in the applications with material properties at the nanometer scale. The unique electrical properties of nanowires have made them to be promising for numerous applications. Nowadays, for example, MOS field-effect transistors are largely used as fundamental building elements in electronic circuits. Also, the dimension of MOS transistors is gradually decreasing to the nanoscale based on the prediction made by Moor's law. However, their fabrication is challenging. This review summarized different techniques in the fabrication of nanowires, global nanowire prospect, testing of nanowires to understand the real electrical behavior using higher resolution microscopes, and brief applications in the detection of biomolecules, disease such as corona viral pandemic, heavy metal in water, and applications of nanowires in agriculture.