OBJECTIVE: Quercetin-decorated liposomes of curcumin (QCunp) are perceived to be able to overcome these biopharmaceutical drawbacks.
METHODS: Curcumin liposomes with/without quercetin were prepared by lipid hydration technique. The liposomes were characterized for their particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug loading and release characteristics. The toxicity of the liposomes were evaluated in-vitro and their invivo efficacy were tested against Dalton's ascites lymphoma in mice.
RESULTS: Liposomes designed showed particle size of 261.8 ± 2.1 nm with a negative zeta potential of -22.6±1.6 mV. Quercetin decorated liposomes were more effective in increasing the life span and body weight of lymphoma inflicted mice compared to those without quercetin. Similarly, the presence of quercetin also contributed to enhanced cytotoxicity of the liposomal formulation towards HT-29 cells and HCT-15 cells.
CONCLUSION: Newer liposomal design exhibited promising potential to emerge as alternative anticancer therapeutics.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of new formulation of lidocaine topical anaesthetic using palm oil base, HAMIN® and to determine how fast this new formulation produces adequate numbness compared to the currently used EMLA cream, in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) set-up.
METHOD: The skin permeation test was conducted by using Franz type diffusion cell and pain assessment was carried out in healthy subject by using Verbal Rating Score (VRS) and Visual Analogue Score (VAS) evaluation.
RESULT: Result of permeation test demonstrated that the cumulative amount of lidocaine released from HAMIN® cream was increased with time and slightly higher than EMLA cream. The clinical study showed that HAMIN® single lidocaine cream can produces numbness through venepuncture procedure and comparable with EMLA cream which is a combination therapy for local anaesthetic (lidocaine and prilocaine).
CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that HAMIN® Lidocaine cream is suitable for cream preparation especially for topical application and it can be regarded as an achievement in palm oil and medical industries.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to introduce readers to the platforms on which Tuberculosis participants interact, to discuss reasons for and risks associated with TB-related activity, and to review research related to the potential impact of individual participation on TB outcomes.
METHODS: Research and online content related to Tuberculosis online activity is reviewed, however, the difficulty in accurate prescribing and adhering to these protocols and the emergence of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to multiple drugs and drug-drug interactions that interfere with optimal treatment of Tuberculosis and co-infected patients with the different disease has generated a pressing need for improved Tuberculosis therapies.
RESULTS: Together with the ominous global burden of Tuberculosis, those shortcomings of current medication have contributed to a renewed interest in the development of improved drugs and protocols for the medication of Tuberculosis. This article features obstacles related with the enhanced utilization of existing drugs and difficulties related with the advancement of enhanced products, concentrating on perspectives characteristic in Tuberculosis drug clinical improvement. The participation includes peer support, advocacy, self-expression, seeking and sharing TB information, improving approaches to Tuberculosis data management, and humour.
CONCLUSION: This article highlights hurdles related to the optimised use of existing drugs and challenges related to the development of improved products, focusing on aspects inherent in Tuberculosis drug clinical development. Concluding comments offer processes for more efficient development of Tuberculosis therapies and increase the quality of life.
OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to circumvent the pharmaceutical issues related to DsiRNA delivery to colon for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
METHOD: In this study, we have prepared water-soluble chitosan (WSC)-DsiRNA complex nanoparticles (NPs) by a simple complexation method and subsequently coated with pectin to protect DsiRNA from gastric milieu.
RESULTS: The mean particle size and zeta potential of the prepared WSC-DsiRNA complexes were varied from 145 ± 4 nm to 867 ± 81 nm and +38 ± 4 to -6.2 ± 2.7 mV respectively, when the concentrations of WSC (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% w/v) and pectin (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.25% w/v) were varied. The electron microscopic analysis revealed that morphology of WSC-DsiRNA complexes was varied from smooth spherical to irregular spherical. Cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that viability of colorectal adenocarcinoma cell was decreased when the dose of WSC-DsiRNA was increased over the incubation from 24 to 48 h. A significantly low cumulative release of DsiRNA in simulated gastric (<15%) and intestinal fluids (<30%) and a marked increase in its release (>90%) in simulated colonic fluid (SCF) evidenced the feasibility and suitability of WSC-DsiRNA complexes for the colonic delivery.
CONCLUSION: These findings clearly indicated promising potential of WSC-DsiRNA complexes as a carrier to delivery DsiRNA to colon for the treatment of colorectal cancer.
METHODS: The complex has been characterized for its apparent solubility and in vitro dissolution. The solid state characterization has been carried out using Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Elemental Analysis, X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analysis, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
RESULTS: Simvastatin-Arginine (SMV-ARG) complex exhibited massive solubility enhancement by 12,000 fold and significant improvement in both acidic and alkaline dissolution media. A conversion of coherent crystalline to non-coherent pattern, and certain extent of amorphization in SMV-ARG complex, fully justifies the enhanced solubility, and hence the dissolution profile.
CONCLUSION: The present study provides a significant evidence that ARG molecules are capable to form a complex with small molecules and increase their aqueous solubility which prove to be beneficial in drug formulation and development.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present review is to critically discuss various surgical implications and level of evidence of most commonly employed bone graft substitutes for spinal fusion.
METHOD: Data was collected via electronic search using "PubMed", "SciFinder", "ScienceDirect", "Google Scholar", "Web of Science" and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals, conferences, and e-books.
RESULTS: Despite having exceptional inherent osteogenic, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive features, clinical acceptability of autografts (patient's own bone) is limited due to several perioperative and postoperative complications i.e., donor-site morbidities and limited graft supply. Alternatively, allografts (bone harvested from cadaver) have shown great promise in achieving acceptable bone fusion rate while alleviating the donor-site morbidities associated with implantation of autografts. As an adjuvant to allograft, demineralized bone matrix (DBM) has shown remarkable efficacy of bone fusion, when employed as graft extender or graft enhancer. Recent advances in recombinant technologies have made it possible to implant growth and differentiation factors (bone morphogenetic proteins) for spinal fusion.
CONCLUSION: Selection of a particular bone grafting biotherapy can be rationalized based on the level of spine fusion, clinical experience and preference of orthopaedic surgeon, and prevalence of donor-site morbidities.
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms of bacterial resistance are described in this review and this is followed by an outline of the features and uses of metallic NPs as antibiotic agents to address bacteria that are antibiotic- sensitive and resistant. Additionally, a general impression of metallic NPs as antibiofilm bactericidal agents is presented.
CONCLUSION: Biofilms and bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics present a grave public health challenge and this has enhanced the need to develop new bactericidal agents. Therefore, nanomaterials are considered as a potential platform for managing bacterial infections.