Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

  1. Solayman M, Ali Y, Alam F, Islam MA, Alam N, Khalil MI, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(5):549-65.
    PMID: 26601968
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine metabolic disorders. In addition to exercise and diet, oral anti-diabetic drugs have been used as a part of the management strategy worldwide. Unfortunately, none of the conventional anti-diabetic drugs are without side effects, and these drugs pose an economic burden. Therefore, the investigation of novel anti-diabetic regimens is a major challenge for researchers, in which nature has been the primary resource for the discovery of potential therapeutics. Many plants have been shown to act as anti-diabetic agents, in which the main active constituents are believed to be polyphenols. Natural products containing high polyphenol levels can control carbohydrate metabolism by various mechanisms, such as protecting and restoring beta-cell integrity, enhancing insulin releasing activity, and increasing cellular glucose uptake. Blackberries, red grapes, apricots, eggplant and popular drinks such as coffee, cocoa and green tea are all rich in polyphenols, which may dampen insulin resistance and be natural alternatives in the treatment of diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this review is to report on the available anti-diabetic polyphenols (medicinal plants, fruits and vegetables), their mechanisms in the various pathways of DM and their correlations with DM. Additionally, this review emphasizes the types of polyphenols that could be potential future resources in the treatment of DM via either novel regimens or as supplementary agents.
  2. Baharuddin A, Hassan AA, Sheng GC, Nasir SB, Othman S, Yusof R, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2014;20(21):3428-44.
    PMID: 24001228
    Viruses belonging to the Flaviviridae family primarily spread through arthropod vectors, and are the major causes of illness and death around the globe. The Flaviviridae family consists of 3 genera which include the Flavivirus genus (type species, yellow fever virus) as the largest genus, the Hepacivirus (type species, hepatitis C virus) and the Pestivirus (type species, bovine virus diarrhea). The flaviviruses (Flavivirus genus) are small RNA viruses transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks that take over host cell machinery in order to propagate. However, hepaciviruses and pestiviruses are not antropod-borne. Despite the extensive research and public health concern associated with flavivirus diseases, to date, there is no specific treatment available for any flavivirus infections, though commercially available vaccines for yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis and tick-born encephalitis exist. Due to the global threat of viral pandemics, there is an urgent need for new drugs. In many countries, patients with severe cases of flavivirus infections are treated only by supportive care, which includes intravenous fluids, hospitalization, respiratory support, and prevention of secondary infections. This review discusses the strategies used towards the discovery of antiviral drugs, focusing on rational drug design against Dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV). Only modified peptidic, nonpeptidic, natural compounds and fragment-based inhibitors (typically of mass less than 300 Da) against structural and non-structural proteins are discussed.
  3. Yap PR, Goh KL
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(35):5073-81.
    PMID: 26369685
    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most prescribed group of drugs in the world. They are used primarily for pain relief in chronic inflammatory joint disease and act by inhibiting enzymes COX1 and COX2 and ultimately preventing the production of active prostanoids which are required for the innate inflammatory pathway. The use of NSAIDs have been associated with the development of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms ranging from simple dyspepsia to life threatening GI bleeds and perforations. The definition of dyspepsia has evolved over the years and this has hampered accurate studies on the prevalence of dyspepsia as different studies used varying criteria to define dyspepsia. It is now known that NSAIDs significantly increase the risk of dyspepsia.The risk of developing peptic ulcer disease vary with specific NSAIDs and dosages but there is no correlation between the symptoms of dyspepsia and underlying peptic ulcers. The pathogenesis of dyspepsia with NSAIDs is not completely understood. Peptic ulceration alone is not able to account for the majority of dyspepsia symptoms encountered by NSAIDs users. Erosive oesophagitis secondary to NSAIDs may be contributing factor to the prevalence of dyspepsia in NSAIDs users. Altered gut permeability and changes in gastric mechanosensory function due to NSAIDs may also be a contributory factor. Management of NSAID induced dyspepsia is involves a multipronged approach. Drug avoidance if possible would be ideal. Other options include using the lowest effective dose, changing to an NSAIDs with a safer GI risk profile, avoiding concurrent use with other NSAIDs or if the patient has a previous history of peptic ulcer disease, and co-prescribing with anti-secretory medications such as proton pump inhibitors. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has a protective role against developing peptic ulcers and may also improve symptoms of NSAIDs induced dyspepsia.
  4. Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Sharma PA, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(30):4427-40.
    PMID: 26471319
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), primarily myocardial infarction (MI), atherosclerosis, hypertension and congestive heart failure symbolize the foremost cause of death in almost all parts of the world. Besides the traditional therapeutic approaches for the management of CVDs, newer innovative strategies are also emerging on the horizon. Recently, gene silencing via small interfering RNA (siRNA) is one of the hot topics amongst various strategies involved in the management of CVDs. The siRNA mechanism involves natural catalytic processes to silence pathological genes that are overexpressed in a particular disease. Also the versatility of gene expression by siRNA deciphers a prospective tactic to down-regulate diseases associated gene, protein or receptor existing on a specific disease target. This article reviews the application of siRNA against CVDs with special emphasis on gene targets in combination with delivery systems such as cationic hydrogels, polyplexes, peptides, liposomes and dendrimers.
  5. Tekade RK, Maheshwari RG, Sharma PA, Tekade M, Chauhan AS
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(31):4614-36.
    PMID: 26486147
    siRNA technology presents a helpful means of gene silencing in mammalian cells. Advancement in the field includes enhanced attentiveness in the characterization of target and off-target effects employing suitable controls and gene expression microarrays. These will permit expansion in the measurement of single and multiple target combinations and also permit comprehensive efforts to understand mammalian cell processes. Another fact is that the delivery of siRNA requires the creation of a nanoparticulate vector with controlled structural geometry and surface modalities inside the targeted cells. On the other hand, dendrimers represent the class of carrier system where massive control over size, shape and physicochemical properties makes this delivery vector exceptional and favorable in genetic transfection applications. The siRNA therapeutics may be incorporated inside the geometry of the density controlled dendrimers with the option of engineering the structure to the specific needs of the genetic material and its indication. The existing reports on the siRNA carrying and deliverance potential of dendrimers clearly suggest the significance of this novel class of polymeric architecture and certainly elevate the futuristic use of this highly branched vector as genetic material delivery system.
  6. Sharma PA, Maheshwari R, Tekade M, Tekade RK
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(30):4465-78.
    PMID: 26354926
    The increasing prevalence and complexity of cardiovascular diseases demand innovative strategies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications to improve patient care/prognoses. Additionally, various factors constrain present cardiovascular therapies, including low aqueous drug solubility, early metabolism, short half-life and drug delivery limitations. The efficient treatment of cardiovascular diseases requires improvement of traditional drug delivery systems. This can be accomplished by using novel nanomaterial that can incorporate diverse bio-actives along with diagnostic agents in a single carrier, referred to as theranostics. This review discusses the state of the art in the applications to diagnosis and therapy of innovative, nanomaterial- based strategies such as lipid based carriers, nanocapsules, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, protein conjugated nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon-based nanoformulations with a special emphasis on how they can contribute to improving the management of cardiovascular disease.
  7. Islam MA, Alam F, Khalil MI, Sasongko TH, Gan SH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(20):2926-46.
    PMID: 26951101
    Globally, thrombosis-associated disorders are one of the main contributors to fatalities. Besides genetic influences, there are some acquired and environmental risk factors dominating thrombotic diseases. Although standard regimens have been used for a long time, many side effects still occur which can be life threatening. Therefore, natural products are good alternatives. Although the quest for antithrombotic natural products came to light only since the end of last century, in the last two decades, a considerable number of natural products showing antithrombotic activities (antiplatelet, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic) with no or minimal side effects have been reported. In this review, several natural products used as antithrombotic agents including medicinal plants, vegetables, fruits, spices and edible mushrooms which have been discovered in the last 15 years and their target sites (thrombogenic components, factors and thrombotic pathways) are described. In addition, the side effects, limitations and interactions of standard regimens with natural products are also discussed. The active compounds could serve as potential sources for future research on antithrombotic drug development. As a future direction, more advanced researches (in quest of the target cofactor or component involved in antithrombotic pathways) are warranted for the development of potential natural antithrombotic medications (alone or combined with standard regimens) to ensure maximum safety and efficacy.
  8. Alam F, Islam MA, Khalil MI, Gan SH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(20):3034-49.
    PMID: 26951104
    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the most common form of diabetes, is characterized by insulin resistance in the hepatic and peripheral tissues. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a major role in the pathophysiology of T2DM. Its defective expression or translocation to the peripheral cell plasma membrane in T2DM patients hinders the entrance of glucose into the cell for energy production. In addition to suitable drugs, an appropriate diet and/or exercise can be implemented to target the increase in GLUT4 expression, GLUT4 concentrations and GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface when managing the glucose metabolism of T2DM patients. In this review, we discussed successful intervention strategies that were individually administered or coupled with diet and/or exercise and affected the expression and translocation of GLUT4 in T2DM while reducing the excess glucose load from the blood. Additionally, some potentially good synthetic and natural compounds, which can activate the insulin-independent GLUT4 signaling pathways for the efficient management of T2DM, are highlighted as possible targets or emerging alternative sources for future anti-diabetic drug development.
  9. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Ibrahim OE, Daher AM
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(16):2403-10.
    PMID: 27139374
    OBJECTIVES: -To examine the effect of nicotine (Ni) on bone socket healing treated with Ellagic acid (EA) after tooth extraction in rat.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-Two Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into four groups. The group 1 was administrated with distilled water intragastrically and injected sterile saline subcutaneously. The group 2 was administrated with EA orally and injected with sterile saline subcutaneously. The groups 3 & 4 were subcutaneously exposed to Ni for 4 weeks twice daily before tooth extraction procedure, and maintained Ni injection until the animals were sacrificed. After one month Ni exposure, the group 4 was fed with EA while continuing Ni injection. All the groups were anesthetized, and the upper left incisor was extracted. Four rats from each group were sacrificed on 14(th) and 28(th) days. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were applied to assess in serum rat at 14th and 28(th) days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) levels were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation accordingly after tooth extraction in homogenized gingival maxilla tissue of rat at 14(th) and 28(th) days. The socket hard tissue was stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E); immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the healing process by Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biomarkers.

    RESULTS: Ni-induced rats administered with EA compound (Group 4) dropped the elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). Ni-induced rats administrated with EA compound (Group 4) showed significant production of SOD and recession in TBRAS level when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). The immunohistochemistry analysis has revealed that OCN and ALP have presented stronger expression in Ni-induced rats treated with EA (Group 4), as against Ni-induced rats (Group 3).

    CONCLUSION: We have concluded that, Ni-induced rats, treated with EA have exerted positive effect on the trabecular bone formation after tooth extraction in nicotinic rats could be due to the antioxidant activity of EA which lead to upregulate of OCN and ALP proteins which are responsible for osteogenesis.

  10. Islam MA, Alam F, Sasongko TH, Gan SH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(28):4451-69.
    PMID: 27229722
    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by a persistently high titer of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). In addition to pregnancy morbidity, arterial and/or venous thrombosis is another clinical feature of APS. Regardless of the type of APS, the thrombi formed by the induction of aPLs can lead to deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, stroke and gangrene. Although the concept of APS was introduced approximately 32 years ago, its thrombogenic pathophysiology is still unclear. Therefore, patients are treated with anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet regimens just as in other thrombotic disorders even though the thrombotic pathophysiology is mainly aPLs-mediated. In this review, we provided an update of the cellular, auto-immune and genetic factors known to play important roles in the generation of thrombi. Current successful regimens are also outlined along with potential emerging treatment strategies that may lead to the optimum management of thrombotic APS patients.
  11. Alam F, Islam MA, Sasongko TH, Gan SH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(28):4430-42.
    PMID: 27229721
    Although type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are two independent diseases, evidences from epidemiological, pathophysiological and animal studies have indicated a close pathophysiological relationship between these diseases. Due to the pathophysiological similarity of T2DM and AD, which includes insulin resistance and deficiency, protein aggregation, oxidative stress, inflammation, autophagocytosis and advanced glycation end products; AD is often referred to as "type 3 diabetes". In addition to the targeted regimens usually used for treating T2DM and AD individually, currently, anti-diabetic drugs are successfully used to reduce the cognitive decline in AD patients. Therefore, if a common pathophysiology of T2DM and AD could be clearly determined, both diseases could be managed more efficiently, possibly by shared pharmacotherapy in addition to understanding the broader spectrum of preventive strategies. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathophysiological bridge between T2DM and AD to lay the foundation for the future treatment strategies in the management of both diseases.
  12. Alam F, Islam MA, Gan SH, Mohamed M, Sasongko TH
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(28):4398-419.
    PMID: 27229720
    DNA methylation, a major regulator of epigenetic modifications has been shown to alter the expression of genes that are involved in aspects of glucose metabolism such as glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and other conditions, and it ultimately leads to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Current evidences indicate an association of DNA methylation with T2DM. This review provides an overview of how various factors play crucial roles in T2DM pathogenesis and how DNA methylation interacts with these factors. Additionally, an update on current techniques of DNA methylation analysis with their pros and cons is provided as a basis for the adoption of suitable techniques in future DNA methylation research towards better management of T2DM. To elucidate the mechanistic relationship between vital environmental factors and the development of T2DM, a better understanding of the changes in gene expression associated with DNA methylation at the molecular level is still needed.
  13. Khan NR, Harun MS, Nawaz A, Harjoh N, Wong TW
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(20):2848-66.
    PMID: 25925113
    Transdermal drug delivery is impeded by the natural barrier of epidermis namely stratum corneum. This limits the route to transport of drugs with a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 1 to 3, molecular weight of less than 500 Da and melting point of less than 200°C. Nanotechnology has received widespread investigation as nanocarriers are deemed to be able to fluidize the stratum corneum as a function of size, shape, surface charges, and hydrophilicity-hydrophobicity balance, while delivering drugs across the skin barrier. This review provides an overview and update on the latest designs of liposomes, ethosomes, transfersomes, niosomes, magnetosomes, oilin- water nanoemulsions, water-in-oil nanoemulsions, bicontinuous nanoemulsions, covalently crosslinked polysaccharide nanoparticles, ionically crosslinked polysaccharide nanoparticles, polyelectrolyte coacervated nanoparticles and hydrophobically modified polysaccharide nanoparticles with respect to their ability to fuse or fluidize lipid/protein/tight junction regimes of skin, and effect changes in skin permeability and drug flux. Universal relationships of nanocarrier size, zeta potential and chemical composition on transdermal permeation characteristics of drugs will be developed and discussed.
  14. Zahedifard M, Faraj FL, Paydar M, Looi CY, Hasandarvish P, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    Curr Pharm Des, 2015;21(23):3417-26.
    PMID: 25808938
    The anti-carcinogenic effect of the new quinazolinone compound, named MMD, was tested on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The synthesis of quinazolinone-based compounds attracted strong attention over the past few decades as an alternative mean to produce analogues of natural products. Quinazolinone compounds sharing the main principal core structures are currently introduced in the clinical trials and pharmaceutical markets as anti-cancer agents. Thus, it is of high clinical interest to identify a new drug that could be used to control the growth and expansion of cancer cells. Quinazolinone is a metabolite derivative resulting from the conjugation of 2-aminobenzoyhydrazide and 5-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzaldehyde based on condensation reactions. In the present study, we analysed the influence of MMD on breast cancer adenoma cell morphology, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release and caspases activity. MCF-7 is a type of cell line representing the breast cancer adenoma cells that can be expanded and differentiated in culture. Using different in vitro strategies and specific antibodies, we demonstrate a novel role for MMD in the inhibition of cell proliferation and initiation of the programmed cell death. MMD was found to increase cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and this effect was enhanced over time with effective IC50 value of 5.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL detected in a 72-hours treatment. Additionally, MMD induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caused DNA fragmentation with obvious activation of caspase-9 and caspases-3/7. Our results demonstrate a novel role of MMD as an anti-proliferative agent and imply the involvement of mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in the observed apoptosis.
  15. Amudha K, Wong LP, Choy AM, Lang CC
    Curr Pharm Des, 2003;9(21):1691-701.
    PMID: 12871202
    Physiological and pharmacological responses may be influenced by ethnicity as a result of genetic factors, environmental factors and/or their interaction. This review is divided into 2 parts. Firstly, there will be overview of ethnicity as a determinant of drug metabolism and response with reference to antihypertensive agents. The concept of ethnicity has been applied extensively to the study of hypertension especially in American blacks in whom the hypertension is more common and more aggressive. Thus, the second part of this review will then focus on examining the black-white differences in physiological responses to pharmacological challenge that may provide a link between these models and known ethnic differences in drug responses. We will discuss the hypertension studies that have examined the relative effectiveness of different classes of antihypertensive agents including several recent cardiovascular outcome trials that either have a high proportion of blacks or were conducted entirely in black subjects.
  16. Gillani SW
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(42):6469-6476.
    PMID: 27526787 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160813235704
    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of chronic diseases are on the rise with majority occurring in developing countries where the projected death caused by chronic diseases will reach 50 million by the year 2020.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the outcomes of wireless mobile device (Telemonitoring) with Pharmacist intervention and usual care on glycemic control and clinical outcomes.
    METHOD: This study is a six-month parallel groups interventional longitudinal multi-center study with a control arm. The study participants consist of patient diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus and attending the outpatient department (OPD) for diabetic treatment. The study protocol is approved from ministry of health Malaysia and clinical research committee (CRC). Data analysis was made using IBM SPSS Statistics, version 22 (Armok, NY).
    RESULTS: A total of 150 participants were selected to enroll in this study. Initial baseline comparison showed 'No significant difference' between the two intervention arms and control group. Findings showed that baseline dataset have no significant change among all three-arms. However last week of study showed significant (p<0.001) improvement among pharmacist intervention arm as compared to telemonitoring and control arm. Glycemic control seems well tolerated and managed among pharmacist intervention arm as compared to telemonitoring and control arm (p<0.001). The study findings also showed reduction of mean 2.72 % (HbA1c) as compare to baseline in six months. The proportion of participants experiencing hypoglycemic/hyperglycemic events was significantly lower in the pharmacist intervention group compared to telemonitoring and control arm (odds ratio: 2.1381; 95% CI: 3.0267-1.6059, p<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: The Pharmacist educational focus-home care program improves the patient knowledge, self-care practices and also significantly reduce the adverse events over study duration.
  17. Hussain MA, Ashraf MU, Muhammad G, Tahir MN, Bukhari SNA
    Curr Pharm Des, 2017;23(16):2377-2388.
    PMID: 27779081 DOI: 10.2174/1381612822666160928143328
    The therapy of various diseases by the drugs entrapped in calixarene derivatives is gaining attraction of researchers nowadays. Calixarenes are macrocyclic nano-baskets which belong to cavitands class of host-guest chemistry. They are the marvelous hosts with distinct hydrophobic three dimensional cavities to entrap and encapsulate biologically active guest drugs. Calixarene and its derivatives develop inclusion complexes with various types of drugs and vitamins for their sustained/targeted release. Calixarene and its derivatives are used as carriers for anti-cancer, anti-convulsant, anti-hypertensive, anthelmentic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antipsychotic drugs. They are the important biocompatible receptors to improve solubility, chemical reactivity and decrease cytotoxicity of poorly soluble drugs in supramolecular chemistry. This review focuses on the calixarene and its derivatives as the state-of-the-art in host-guest interactions for important drugs. We have also critically evaluated calixarenes for the development of prodrugs.
  18. Has ATC, Chebib M
    Curr Pharm Des, 2018;24(17):1839-1844.
    PMID: 29766792 DOI: 10.2174/1381612824666180515123921
    GABAA receptors are members of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels which mediate most inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. These receptors are pentameric assemblies of individual subunits, including α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, π, θ and ρ1-3. The majority of receptors are comprised of α, β and γ or δ subunits. Depending on the subunit composition, the receptors are located in either the synapses or extrasynaptic regions. The most abundant receptors are α1βγ2 receptors, which are activated and modulated by a variety of pharmacologically and clinically unrelated agents such as benzodiazepines, barbiturates, anaesthetics and neurosteroids, all of which bind at distinct binding sites located within the receptor complex. However, compared to αβγ, the binary αβ receptors lack a benzodiazepine α-γ2 interface. In pentameric αβ receptors, the third subunit is replaced with either an α1 or a β3 subunit leading to two distinct receptors that differ in subunit stoichiometry, 2α:3β or 3α:2β. The consequence of this is that 3α:2β receptors contain an α-α interface whereas 2α:3β receptors contain a β-β interface. Apart from the replacement of γ by α1 or β3 in binary receptors, the incorporation of ε subunit into GABAA receptors might be more complicated. As the ε subunit is not only capable of substituting the γ subunit, but also replacing the α/β subunits, receptors with altered stoichiometry and different pharmacological properties are produced. The different subunit arrangement of the receptors potentially constructs novel binding sites which may become new targets of the current or new drugs.
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