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  1. Agarwal P, Wong YH, Das Gupta E, Agarwal R, Livingstone BI, Ramamurthy S, et al.
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol, 2015;34(3):179-84.
    PMID: 25068998 DOI: 10.3109/15569527.2014.938751
    BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is widely used for long-term treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, its long-term use is known to be associated with visual changes due to retinal damage. Retinal damage associated with long-term HCQ therapy is preventable if the drug is discontinued early when the patients are still asymptomatic. In view of contrasting reports from previous studies, we investigated the association of prolonged HCQ therapy with retinal thickness in macular area.
    METHODS: This study included 48 patients on long-term HCQ therapy and 38 healthy controls. All subjects underwent examination for corrected visual acuity, fundus photography, visual fields and SD-OCT for retinal thickness.
    RESULTS: Visual acuity, visual fields, fundus photography and SD-OCT did not reveal changes consistent with diagnosis of established HCQ retinopathy in any of the subjects from HCQ group. Retinal thickness in central, parafoveal and perifoveal areas did not show significant differences between HCQ and control groups. However, we observed negative correlation between cumulative dose and retinal thickness in the parafoveal (p = 0.003) and perifoveal areas (p = 0.019) but not in the central area.
    CONCLUSIONS: Correlation of cumulative dose with retinal thickness in parafoveal and perifoveal areas and not the central area is in accordance with the late appearance of HCQ-induced bull's eye retinopathy. Hence screening of asymptomatic patients using OCT seems to be of great importance for early detection of retinal changes.
    KEYWORDS: Cumulative dose; OCT; hydroxychloroquine; retinal thickness
  2. Charoo N, Chiew M, Tay A, Lian L
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol, 2014 Sep;33(3):242-6.
    PMID: 24147942 DOI: 10.3109/15569527.2013.837058
    The aim of this work was to find the effect of temperature and manufacturing source of phenylmercuric nitrate (PMN) on PMN absorption on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene containers in chloramphenicol eye drops. Two factorial experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature on PMN assay in chloramphenicol eye drops stored in LDPE and prepared from two different PMN sources. PMN source had no effect on PMN assay at 2-8 °C, however at stress conditions (30 °C/75%RH) for 3 weeks, the effect of PMN source on PMN assay was found significant (p 
  3. Yusof NZ, Azizul Hasan ZA, Abd Maurad Z, Idris Z
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol, 2018 Jun;37(2):103-111.
    PMID: 28693384 DOI: 10.1080/15569527.2017.1352595
    AIM: To evaluate eye irritation potential of palm-based methyl ester sulphonates (MES) of different chain lengths; C12, C14, C16, C16:18.

    METHODS: The Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability test method (BCOP), OECD Test Guideline 437, was used as an initial step to study the inducing effect of palm-based MES on irreversible eye damage. The second assessment involved the use of reconstructed human corneal-like epithelium test method, OECD Test Guideline 492 using SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium to study the potential effect of palm-based MES on eye irritancy. The palm-based MES were prepared in 10% solution (w/v) in deionized water and tested as a liquid and surfactant test substances whereby both test conducted according to the liquid/surfactant treatment protocol.

    RESULTS: The preliminary BCOP results showed that palm-based MES; C12, C14, C16, C16:18 were not classified as severe eye irritants test substances with in vitro irritancy score between 3 and the threshold level of 55. The second evaluation using SkinEthic™ HCE model showed that palm-based MES; C12, C14, C16, C16:18 and three commercial samples were potentially irritants to the eyes with mean tissue viability ≤ 60% and classified as Category 2 according to United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. However, there are some limitations of the proposed ocular irritation classification of palm-based MES due to insolubility of long chain MES in 10% solution (w/v) in deionized water.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, future studies to clarify the eye irritation potential of the palm-based MES will be needed, and could include; methods to improve the test substance solubility, use of test protocol for solids, and/or inclusion of a benchmark anionic surfactant, such as sodium dodecyl sulphate within the study design.

  4. Chong YS, Mai CW, Leong CO, Wong LC
    Cutan Ocul Toxicol, 2018 Mar;37(1):52-60.
    PMID: 28554225 DOI: 10.1080/15569527.2017.1335748
    PURPOSE: Dysfunction of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER1 and Alu RNA accumulation are linked to the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This study determined the optimal dose of lutein (LUT) and zeaxanthin (ZEA) to protect human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The effect of the optimal dose of LUT and ZEA as DICER1 and Alu RNA modulators in cultured human RPE cells challenged with H2O2 was investigated.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: ARPE-19 cells were pre-treated with LUT, ZEA, or both for 24 h before 200 μM H2O2 challenge. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. DICER1 and Alu RNA were quantified by western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively.

    RESULTS: H2O2 increased cell Alu RNA expression and decreased cell viability of ARPE-19, but had no significant impact on the DICER1 protein level. LUT, alone and in combination with ZEA pre-treatment, prior to H2O2 challenge significantly improved cell viability of ARPE-19 and reduced the level of Alu RNA compared to the negative control.

    CONCLUSIONS: These results support the use of LUT alone, and in combination with ZEA, in AMD prevention and treatment. This study is also the first to report LUT modulating effects on Alu RNA.

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