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  1. Abd Razak NA, Abu Osman NA, Wan Abas WA
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2013 May;8(3):255-60.
    PMID: 22830946 DOI: 10.3109/17483107.2012.704654
    This study examined the kinematic differences between a body-powered prosthesis and a biomechatronics prosthesis as a transradial amputee performed activities that involve flexion/extension and supination/pronation of the wrist.
  2. Mohd Hawari N, Jawaid M, Md Tahir P, Azmeer RA
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2017 Nov;12(8):868-874.
    PMID: 28068847 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2016.1269209
    The aim of this case study was to explore patient satisfaction with the quality of prosthetic leg sockets intended for persons with lower limb amputations. A qualitative study based on in-depth interviews, preceded by a questionnaire session, was carried out with patients from the Rehabilitation Center and Hospital in Malaysia. Twelve out-patient and in-patient amputees with lower limb amputations, specifically below-knee amputations, were chosen randomly. The analysis of patients' narratives aimed to identify the functional and esthetic characteristics of currently used prosthetic leg sockets and any problems related to them. The obtained results indicated that out of the 12 participants, 41.7% and 25% were satisfied and somewhat satisfied with their current prosthetic sockets. Durability and comfort were rated by the participants as the most important characteristics of prosthetic sockets, with 83.3%. As regards the esthetic appearance of the socket, 66.7% of the respondents considered that the most important feature was the material from which the socket was fabricated. Thus, we conclude that current satisfaction levels with the quality of prosthetic sockets among amputees in Malaysia are suitable, prosthesis being preferred by many amputees. The results can be used to direct future research on cosmesis and functionality of prosthetic socket design. Implications for Rehabilitation Case study will help participants to get cost effective prosthetic leg socket. Develop prosthetic leg socket comfortable as comparative to existing one. Help Malaysian government to make policy to develop local prosthetic leg socket at affordable price.
    Study site: Cheras Rehabilitation Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Perkeso Rehab Center in Melaka, Pusat Latihan dan Perindustrian Bangi and Rumah Insaniah Tun Dr Siti Hasmah Ptaling Jaya in Selangor, Malaysia
  3. Mairami FF, Allotey P, Warren N, Mak JS, Reidpath DD
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2018 10;13(7):658-664.
    PMID: 28836873 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2017.1369586
    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of disability that limits everyday activities and reduces social participation. Provision of assistive devices helps to achieve independence and social inclusion. However, due to limited resources or a lack of suited objects for their needs, individuals with disabilities in low and middle income countries (LMIC) often do not have access to assistive devices. This has resulted in the creation of purpose built innovative solutions. Methodology and case content: This paper uses a single case derived from a larger ethnographic study of stroke survivors in rural Malaysia to demonstrate the role of assistive devices in shaping stroke recovery and how existing structures can be modified. Second, the concept of affordances in relation to structures within the environment, issues of affordability and accessibility of assistive devices for individuals in LMIC are discussed.

    FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS: Stroke recovery involves adapting to new limitations and discovering the support necessary to live life. These changes are influenced by a range of environmental factors. Healthcare professionals need to support stroke patients in identifying challenges and work to find innovative ways to address them. Stroke survivors may benefit from the use of an assistive device beyond its clinical function to participate purposefully in activities of daily living. Implications for Rehabilitation Stroke is a cause of disability that limits everyday activities and reduces social participation. Assistive devices help achieve independence, social inclusion and shape stroke recovery. Individuals with disabilities in low and middle income countries often do not have access to assistive devices and resort to innovative solutions that are purpose built. Stroke recovery involves adapting to new limitations and discovering the support necessary to live life as best as possible.

  4. Chong FY, Jenstad LM
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2018 08;13(6):600-608.
    PMID: 29072542 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2017.1392619
    PURPOSE: Single-microphone noise reduction (SMNR) is implemented in hearing aids to suppress background noise. The purpose of this article was to provide a critical review of peer-reviewed studies in adults and children with sensorineural hearing loss who were fitted with hearing aids incorporating SMNR.

    METHOD: Articles published between 2000 and 2016 were searched in PUBMED and EBSCO databases.

    RESULTS: Thirty-two articles were included in the final review. Most studies with adult participants showed that SMNR has no effect on speech intelligibility. Positive results were reported for acceptance of background noise, preference, and listening effort. Studies of school-aged children were consistent with the findings of adult studies. No study with infants or young children of under 5 years old was found. Recent studies on noise-reduction systems not yet available in wearable hearing aids have documented benefits of noise reduction on memory for speech processing for older adults.

    CONCLUSIONS: This evidence supports the use of SMNR for adults and school-aged children when the aim is to improve listening comfort or reduce listening effort. Future research should test SMNR with infants and children who are younger than 5 years of age. Further development, testing, and clinical trials should be carried out on algorithms not yet available in wearable hearing aids. Testing higher cognitive level for speech processing and learning of novel sounds or words could show benefits of advanced signal processing features. These approaches should be expanded to other populations such as children and younger adults. Implications for rehabilitation The review provides a quick reference for students and clinicians regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of SMNR in wearable hearing aids. This information is useful during counseling session to build a realistic expectation among hearing aid users. Most studies in the adult population suggest that SMNR may provide some benefits to adult listeners in terms of listening comfort, acceptance of background noise, and release of cognitive load in a complex listening condition. However, it does not improve speech intelligibility. Studies that examined SMNR in the paediatric population suggest that SMNR may benefit older school-aged children, aged between 10 and 12 years old. The evidence supports the use of SMNR for adults and school-aged children when the aim is to improve listening comfort or reduce listening effort.

  5. Nurhanisah MH, Jawaid M, Ahmad Azmeer R, Paridah MT
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2019 07;14(5):513-520.
    PMID: 29933703 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2018.1479782
    This study describes a newly developed prosthetic leg socket design for a below-knee amputation. Excessive heat and the resulted perspiration within a prosthetic socket were the most common causes for reporting a reduced quality of life for prosthetic users. The product namely AirCirc means air circulation and it has been designed by approach of medical device design process in providing the amputees to maintain the skin temperature inside the socket. This device has been designed to provide the amputees with comfort and ultimate breathable. In order to design the device, the small hole was made in prosthetic socket surface since it has a function as air circulation. Four types of proposed sockets namely P1, P2, P3 and P4 and one control socket were compared on a single patient to determine the best design of prosthetic socket. The result successfully reveals that by using holes can be maintain the temperature inside prosthetic socket. In addition to the eco-friendly material, the woven kenaf was used as material that provides good strength as compared to glass fibre and offer sustainable and biodegradable product yet provides unique and aesthetic surface as came from woven kenaf itself. The objective of this paper is to provide the airflow prosthetic socket design and optimize the use of natural fibre in prostheses field. Thus, with the use of the environmental friendly material, functionality device and heat removal capability make the device suitable for maintaining a comfortable and healthy environment for prosthesis. Implications of Rehabilitation Newly developed prosthetic leg socket design for a below-knee amputation Device has been designed to provide the amputees with comfort and ultimate breathable Woven kenaf was used as material that provides good strength as compared to glass fibre for sustainable and biodegradable product Results show that by using holes can be maintain the temperature inside prosthetic socket.
  6. Jalal Abdullah S, Shaikh Mohammed J
    Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol, 2019 11;14(8):849-858.
    PMID: 30556753 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2018.1539130
    Purpose: Some wheelchair users continue to struggle in maneuvering a wheelchair and navigating through manual doors. Several smart wheelchairs and robotic manipulators were developed to minimize such challenges facing disabled people. Disappointingly, a majority of these high-tech solutions are restricted to laboratories and are not extensively available as commercial products. Previously, a low-tech wheelchair accessory (arc-shaped with many wheels) for pushing doors was modelled and simulated. This work demonstrates the fabrication and testing of the first-generation prototype of the accessory.Materials and methods: The accessory has side portions with a straight arrangement of wheels and a front portion with a straight-arc-straight arrangement of wheels. The accessory was fabricated using conventional manufacturing, off-the-shelf components, and 3D printed ABS fasteners. Stress analysis simulations were done for the fasteners that attach the front accessory to the wheelchair frame. The proof-of-concept of the prototype installed onto a powered wheelchair was tested with a door and an obstacle, each with ∼50 N resistance force.Results: Prototype tests demonstrate the ability of the accessory along with the mechanical robustness of the 3D printed fasteners to push open doors allowing easy navigation through doors and to push/glide against obstacles. The accessory is foldable and detachable.Conclusion: The low-cost of the accessory makes it affordable to many users intending to improve their quality of life. The current study provides an engineering perspective of the accessory, and a clinical perspective is crucial. Other potential applications of the wheelchair accessory include use with scooters, walkers and stretchers.Implications for rehabilitationLow-cost, low-tech accessory is foldable and detachable.Accessory is effective for pushing doors and pushing/gliding against obstacles.Protective nature of the front accessory could prove highly beneficial to some wheelchair users.
  7. Husin MH, Lim YK
    PMID: 31729282 DOI: 10.1080/17483107.2019.1615999
    Background/Purpose: Visual impairment is a disability more commonly caused by diseases that lead to several disadvantages to the daily activities amongst those blind. For almost a century since the white cane was first introduced, the cane has remained as the most reliable tool for those affected by blindness.Methods: By using a combination of the capabilities of Internet of Things (IoT) and existing devices, such as mobile phones, an InWalker system is proposed to expand the functionality of the typical white cane, so as to introduce several new features that enhance the safety and confidence amongst people who are blind. As such, this paper explores the existing works and projects to comprehend the motivation and the standard practices for each proposed feature. Each of the strength and drawback has been assessed thoroughly to refine the scope of this project.Results: The proposed project, InWalker, is an intelligent system that has an embedded board system with various sensors to enhance the usability of white cane. The inputs from the sensor are processed on a microcontroller, which then pass the data to a smartphone via Bluetooth for additional features, such as global positioning system (GPS) tracking and SMS services.Conclusions: Based on the initial user testing, the proposed system has successfully fulfilled most of the users' need.Implication for RehabilitationVisual impairment is a disability more commonly caused by diseases that lead to several disadvantages amongst those blind.The white cane has been seen as the most reliable tool for the visual impaired.This tool could be further improved with the integration of additional sensors that works with today's mobile devices.The proposed system, InWalker, is able to improve the overall quality of life among people who are blind through several features: obstacle detection, GPS tracking and a light illumination in dark environments for increased safety.
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