Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

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  1. Ansary RH, Rahman MM, Awang MB, Katas H, Hadi H, Doolaanea AA
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2016 06;6(3):308-18.
    PMID: 26817478 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-016-0278-y
    The purpose of this study was to fabricate insulin-loaded double-walled and single-polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres using a fast degrading glucose core, hydroxyl-terminated poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (Glu-PLGA), and a moderate degrading carboxyl-terminated PLGA polymers. A modified water-in-oil-in-oil-in-water (w/o/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation technique was employed to prepare double-walled microspheres, whereas single-polymer microspheres were fabricated by a conventional water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effect of fabrication techniques and polymer characteristics on microspheres size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and insulin stability was evaluated. The prepared double-walled microspheres were essentially non-porous, smooth surfaced, and spherical in shape, whereas single-polymer microspheres were highly porous. Double-walled microspheres exhibited a significantly reduced initial burst followed by sustained and almost complete release of insulin compared to single-polymer microspheres. Initial burst release was further suppressed from double-walled microspheres when the mass ratio of the component polymers was increased. In conclusion, double-walled microspheres made of Glu-PLGA and PLGA can be a potential delivery system of therapeutic insulin.
  2. Ishak WMW, Katas H, Yuen NP, Abdullah MA, Zulfakar MH
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):418-433.
    PMID: 29667150 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0522-8
    Wound healing is a physiological event that generates reconstitution and restoration of granulation tissue that ends with scar formation. As omega fatty acids are part of membrane phospholipids and participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids in the form of oils on wound healing. Linseed (LO), evening primrose (EPO), and olive oils (OO) rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were formulated into emulsions and were topically applied on rats with excision wounds. All omega-3-, omega-6-, and omega-9-rich oil formulations were found to accelerate wound closure compared to untreated, with significant improvement (p 
  3. Asmawi AA, Salim N, Ngan CL, Ahmad H, Abdulmalek E, Masarudin MJ, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):543-554.
    PMID: 29691812 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0526-4
    Docetaxel has demonstrated extraordinary anticancer effects on lung cancer. However, lack of optimal bioavailability due to poor solubility and high toxicity at its therapeutic dose has hampered the clinical use of this anticancer drug. Development of nanoemulsion formulation along with biocompatible excipients aimed for pulmonary delivery is a potential strategy to deliver this poorly aqueous soluble drug with improved bioavailability and biocompatibility. In this work, screening and selection of pharmaceutically acceptable excipients at their minimal optimal concentration have been conducted. The selected nanoemulsion formulations were prepared using high-energy emulsification technique and subjected to physicochemical and aerodynamic characterizations. The formulated nanoemulsion had mean particle size and ζ-potential in the range of 90 to 110 nm and - 30 to - 40 mV respectively, indicating high colloidal stability. The pH, osmolality, and viscosity of the systems met the ideal requirement for pulmonary application. The DNE4 formulation exhibited slow drug release and excellent stability even under the influence of extreme environmental conditions. This was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy as uniform spherical droplets in nanometer range were observed after storage at 45 ± 1 °C for 3 months indicating high thermal stability. The nebulized DNE4 exhibited desirable aerosolization properties for pulmonary delivery application and found to be more selective on human lung carcinoma cell (A549) than normal cell (MRC-5). Hence, these characteristics make the formulation a great candidate for the potential use as a carrier system for docetaxel in targeting lung cancer via pulmonary delivery.
  4. Ngan CL, Asmawi AA
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2018 10;8(5):1527-1544.
    PMID: 29881970 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0550-4
    Inhalation therapy of lipid-based carriers has great potential in direct target towards the root of respiratory diseases, which make them superior over other drug deliveries. With the successful entry of lipid carriers into the target cells, drugs can be absorbed in a sustained release manner and yield extended medicinal effects. Nevertheless, translation of inhalation therapy from laboratory to clinic especially in drug delivery remains a key challenge to the formulators. An ideal drug vehicle should safeguard the drugs from any premature elimination, facilitate cellular uptake, and promote maximum drug absorption with negligible toxicity. Despite knowing that lung treatment can be done via systemic delivery, pulmonary administration is capable of enhancing drug retention within the lungs, while minimizing systemic toxicity with local targeting. Current inhalation therapy of lipid-based carriers can be administered either intratracheally or intranasally to reach deep lung. However, the complex dimensions of lung architectural and natural defense mechanism poise major barriers towards targeted pulmonary delivery. Delivery systems have to be engineered in a way to tackle various diseases according to their biological conditions. This review highlights on the developmental considerations of lipid-based delivery systems cater for the pulmonary intervention of different lung illnesses.
  5. Sohail M, Mudassir, Minhas MU, Khan S, Hussain Z, de Matas M, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):595-614.
    PMID: 29611113 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0512-x
    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the colon that severely affects the quality of life of patients and usually responds well to anti-inflammatory agents for symptomatic relief; however, many patients need colectomy, a surgical procedure to remove whole or part of the colon. Though various types of pharmacological agents have been employed for the management of UC, the lack of effectiveness is usually predisposed to various reasons including lack of target-specific delivery of drugs and insufficient drug accumulation at the target site. To overcome these glitches, many researchers have designed and characterized various types of versatile polymeric biomaterials to achieve target-specific delivery of drugs via oral route to optimize their targeting efficiency to the colon, to improve drug accumulation at the target site, as well as to ameliorate off-target effects of chemotherapy. Therefore, the aim of this review was to summarize and critically discuss the pharmaceutical significance and therapeutic feasibility of a wide range of natural and synthetic biomaterials for efficient drug targeting to colon and rationalized treatment of UC. Among various types of biomaterials, natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels have shown promising targeting potential due to their innate pH responsiveness, sustained and controlled release characteristics, and microbial degradation in the colon to release the encapsulated drug moieties. These characteristic features make natural and synthetic polymer-based hydrogels superior to conventional pharmacological strategies for the management of UC.
  6. Mohd Amin MCI, Kiew LV, Boyd B
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):417.
    PMID: 29748831 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0536-2
  7. Ayumi NS, Sahudin S, Hussain Z, Hussain M, Samah NHA
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):482-496.
    PMID: 29569027 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0508-6
    To investigate the use of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-TPP-NPs) as carriers for α- and β-arbutin. In this study, CS-TPP-NPs containing α- and β-arbutin were prepared via the ionic cross-linking of CS and TPP and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and dispersity index. The entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of various β-arbutin concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) were also investigated. SEM, TEM FTIR, DSC and TGA analyses of the nanoparticles were performed to further characterize the nanoparticles. Finally, stability and release studies were undertaken to ascertain further the suitability of the nanoparticles as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin. Data obtained clearly indicates the potential for use of CS-TPP-NPs as a carrier for the delivery of α- and β-arbutin. The size obtained for the alpha nanoparticles (α-arbutin CSNPs) ranges from 147 to 274 d.nm, with an increase in size with increasing alpha arbutin concentration. β-arbutin nanoparticles (β-arbutin CSNPs) size range was from 211.1 to 284 dn.m. PdI for all nanoparticles remained between 0.2-0.3 while the zeta potential was between 41.6-52.1 mV. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% α-arbutin CSNPs were 71 and 77%, respectively. As for β-arbutin, CSNP optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% concentration were 68 and 74%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy for α-arbutin CSNPs showed a more spherical shape compared to β-arbutin CSNPs where rod-shaped particles were observed. However, under transmission electron microscopy, the shapes of both α- and β-arbutin CSNP nanoparticles were spherical. The crystal phase identification of the studied samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the XRD of both α and β-arbutin CSNPs showed to be more crystalline in comparison to their free form. FTIR spectra showed intense characteristic peaks of chitosan appearing at 3438.3 cm-1 (-OH stretching), 2912 cm-1 (-CH stretching), represented 1598.01 cm-1 (-NH2) for both nanoparticles. Stability studies conducted for 90 days revealed that both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs were stable in solution. Finally, release studies of both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs showed a significantly higher percentage release in comparison to α- and β-arbutin in their free form. Chitosan nanoparticles demonstrate considerable promise as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin, the use of which is anticipated to improve delivery of arbutin through the skin, in order to improve its efficacy as a whitening agent.
  8. Chik MW, Hussain Z, Zulkefeli M, Tripathy M, Kumar S, Majeed ABA, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):578-594.
    PMID: 29594914 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0505-9
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) possess outstanding properties that could be useful in several technological, drug delivery, and diagnostic applications. However, their unique physical and chemical properties are hindered due to their poor solubility. This article review's the different ways and means of solubility enhancement of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The advantages of SWNTs over the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and the method of non-covalent modification for solubility enhancement has been the key interest in this review. The review also highlights a few examples of dispersant design. The review includes some interesting utility of SWNTs being wrapped with polymer especially in biological media that could mediate proper drug delivery to target cells. Further, the use of wrapped SWNTs with phospholipids, nucleic acid, and amphiphillic polymers as biosensors is of research interest. The review aims at summarizing the developments relating to wrapped SWNTs to generate further research prospects in healthcare.
  9. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Chin PX, Phang YL, Cheah JY, Ooi SC, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2018 10;8(5):1545-1563.
    PMID: 29916012 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0552-2
    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a predominant challenge in chemotherapy due to the existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB) which restricts delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to the brain together with the problem of drug penetration through hard parenchyma of the GBM. With the structural and mechanistic elucidation of the BBB under both physiological and pathological conditions, it is now viable to target central nervous system (CNS) disorders utilizing the presence of transferrin (Tf) receptors (TfRs). However, overexpression of these TfRs on the GBM cell surface can also help to avoid restrictions of GBM cells to deliver chemotherapeutic agents within the tumor. Therefore, targeting of TfR-mediated delivery could counteract drug delivery issues in GBM and create a delivery system that could cross the BBB effectively to utilize ligand-conjugated drug complexes through receptor-mediated transcytosis. Hence, approach towards successful delivery of antitumor agents to the gliomas has been making possible through targeting these overexpressed TfRs within the CNS and glioma cells. This review article presents a thorough analysis of current understanding on Tf-conjugated nanocarriers as efficient drug delivery system.
  10. Siddique MI, Katas H, Jamil A, Mohd Amin MCI, Ng SF, Zulfakar MH, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):469-481.
    PMID: 29159691 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-017-0439-7
    Hydrocortisone (HC), topical glucocorticoid along with hydroxytyrosol (HT), and anti-microbial- and anti-oxidant-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSNPs) were prepared in large scale and analyzed for their adverse effects on healthy human skin followed by repeated applications. Ten subjects were randomized to receive test (HC-HT CSNPs) and vehicle samples (aqueous (AQ) cream). They were applied on the arms for 28 days, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema intensity, and irritation score were measured. Blood samples were analyzed for blood hematology, blood biochemistry, and adrenal cortico-thyroid hormone (ACTH) levels. Skin biopsy was obtained to assess histopathological changes in the skin. HC-HT CSNP AQ cream was stored at 4, 25, and 45 °C for a period of 1 year, and its stability was assessed by monitoring their physical appearances, particle size, and pH. Spherical-shaped NPs were successfully upscaled using spinning-disc technology, with insignificant changes in particle size, zeta potential, and incorporation of drugs as compared to the well-established laboratory method. Particle size of HC-HT CSNPs was
  11. Alavi T, Rezvanian M, Ahmad N, Mohamad N, Ng SF
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):508-519.
    PMID: 29181832 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-017-0450-z
    Composite film dressings composed of pluronic F127 (PL)-pectin (PC) and pluronic (PL) F127-gelatin (GL) were investigated as potential drug delivery system for wound healing. Composite films were solvent cast by blending PL with PC or GL in different ratios using glycerol (2.5%) as plasticizer. Erythromycin (ER) (0.1%) was incorporated in films as model hydrophobic antibiotic. The optimized composite films were characterized for physical appearance, morphology, mechanical profile, and thermal behavior. In addition, drug release, antibacterial activity, and cytocompatibility of the films were investigated to assess their potential as drug delivery system. The composite films exhibited excellent wound dressing characters in terms of appearance, stability, and mechanical profile. Moreover, ER-loaded composite films released ER in controlled manner, exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, and were non-toxic to human skin fibroblast. These findings demonstrate that these composite films hold the potential to be formulated as antibacterial wound dressing.
  12. Shah SA, Sohail M, Minhas MU, Nisar-Ur-Rehman, Khan S, Hussain Z, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):555-577.
    PMID: 29450805 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0486-8
    Cellulose acetate phthalate-based pH-responsive hydrogel was synthesized for fabrication of polymeric matrix tablets for gastro-protective delivery of loxoprofen sodium. Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) was cross-linked with methacrylic acid (MAA) using free radical polymerization technique. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra confirmed the formation of cross-linked structure of CAP-co-poly(methacrylic acid). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed the thermal stability of polymeric networks, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS) images unveiled that the prepared formulations were porous in nature and thus the developed formulations had shown better diffusibility. Swelling and in vitro drug release was performed at various pHs and maximum swelling and release was obtained at pH 7.4, while swelling and release rate was very low at pH 1.2 which confirmed the pH-responsive behavior of CAP-co-poly(MAA). CAP-co-poly(MAA) copolymer prevents the release of loxoprofen sodium into the stomach due to reduced swelling at gastric pH while showing significant swelling and drug release in the colon. Cytotoxicity studies revealed higher biocompatibility of fabricated hydrogel. Acute oral toxicity studies were performed for the evaluation and preliminary screening of safety profile of the developed hydrogels. Matrix tablets were evaluated for release behavior at simulated body pH. The investigations performed for analysis of hydrogels and fabricated matrix tablets indicated the controlled drug release and gastro-protective drug delivery of CAP-co-poly(MAA) hydrogels and pH-sensitive matrix tablets for targeted delivery of gastro-sensitive/irritative agents. Graphical abstract.
  13. Pandey M, Mohamad N, Low WL, Martin C, Mohd Amin MC
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2017 02;7(1):89-99.
    PMID: 27815776 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-016-0341-8
    Burn wound management is a complex process because the damage may extend as far as the dermis which has an acknowledged slow rate of regeneration. This study investigates the feasibility of using hydrogel microparticles composed of bacterial cellulose and polyacrylamide as a dressing material for coverage of partial-thickness burn wounds. The microparticulate carrier structure and surface morphology were investigated by Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity profile of the microparticles showed cytocompatibility with L929 cells. Dermal irritation test demonstrated that the hydrogel was non-irritant to the skin and had a significant effect on wound contraction compared to the untreated group. Moreover, histological examination of in vivo burn healing samples revealed that the hydrogel treatment enhanced epithelialization and accelerated fibroblast proliferation with wound repair and intact skin achieved by the end of the study. Both the in vitro and in vivo results proved the biocompatibility and efficacy of hydrogel microparticles as a wound dressing material.
  14. Sheshala R, Hong GC, Yee WP, Meka VS, Thakur RRS
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):534-542.
    PMID: 29484530 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0491-y
    The objectives of this study were to develop biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based injectable phase inversion in situ forming system for sustained delivery of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and to conduct physicochemical characterisation including in vitro drug release of the prepared formulations. TA (at 0.5%, 1% and 2.5% w/w loading) was dissolved in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) solvent and then incorporated 30% w/w PLGA (50/50 and 75/25) polymer to prepare homogenous injectable solution. The formulations were evaluated for rheological behaviour using rheometer, syringeability by texture analyser, water uptake and rate of implant formation by optical coherence tomography (OCT) microscope. Phase inversion in situ forming formulations were injected into PBS pH 7.3 to form an implant and release samples were collected and analysed for drug content using a HPLC method. All formulations exhibited good syringeability and rheological properties (viscosity: 0.19-3.06 Pa.s) by showing shear thinning behaviour which enable them to remain as free-flowing solution for ease administration. The results from OCT microscope demonstrated that thickness of the implants were increased with the increase in time and the rate of implant formation indicated the fast phase inversion. The drug release from implants was sustained over a period of 42 days. The research findings demonstrated that PLGA/NMP-based phase inversion in situ forming implants can improve compliance in patient's suffering from ocular diseases by sustaining the drug release for a prolonged period of time and thereby reducing the frequency of ocular injections.
  15. Pandey M, Choudhury H, Gunasegaran TAP, Nathan SS, Md S, Gorain B, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):520-533.
    PMID: 29488170 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0480-1
    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing eczematous skin disease characterised by frequent episodes of rashes, severe flares, and inflammation. Till date, there is no absolute therapy for the treatment of AD; however, topical corticosteroids (TCs) are the majorly prescribed class of drugs for the management of AD in both adults and children. Though, topical route is most preferable; however, limited penetration of therapeutics across the startum cornum (SC) is one of the major challenges for scientists. Therefore, the present study was attempted to fabricate a moderate-potency TC, betamethasone valerate (BMV), in the form of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs) for optimum dermal targeting and improved penetration across the SC. To further improve the targeting efficiency of BMV and to potentiate its therapeutic efficacy, the fabricated BMV-CS-NPs were coated with hyaluronic acid (HA). The prepared NPs were characterised for particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI), entrapment efficiency, loading capacity, crystallinity, thermal behaviour, morphology, in vitro release kinetics, drug permeation across the SC, and percentage of drug retained into various skin layers. Results showed that optimised HA-BMV-CS-NPs exhibited optimum physicochemical characteristics including finest particle size (
  16. Sheshala R, Quah SY, Tan GC, Meka VS, Jnanendrappa N, Sahu PS
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):434-443.
    PMID: 29392681 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0488-6
    The objectives of present research were to develop and characterize thermosensitive and mucoadhesive polymer-based sustained release moxifloxacin in situ gels for the treatment of periodontal diseases. Poloxamer- and chitosan-based in situ gels are in liquid form at room temperature and transform into gel once administered into periodontal pocket due to raise in temperature to 37 °C. Besides solution-to-gel characteristic of polymers, their mucoadhesive nature aids the gel to adhere to mucosa in periodontal pocket for prolonged time and releases the drug in sustained manner. These formulations were prepared using cold method and evaluated for pH, solution-gel temperature, syringeability and viscosity. In vitro drug release studies were conducted using dialysis membrane at 37 °C and 50 rpm. Antimicrobial studies carried out against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.A.) and Streptococcus mutans (S. Mutans) using agar cup-plate method. The prepared formulations were clear and pH was at 7.01-7.40. The viscosity of formulations was found to be satisfactory. Among the all, formulations comprising of 21% poloxamer 407 and 2% poloxamer 188 (P5) and in combination with 0.5% HPMC (P6) as well as 2% chitosan and 70% β-glycerophosphate (C6) demonstrated an ideal gelation temperature (33-37 °C) and sustained the drug release for 8 h. Formulations P6 and C6 showed promising antimicrobial efficacy with zone of inhibition of 27 mm for A.A. and 55 mm for S. Mutans. The developed sustained release in situ gel formulations could enhance patient's compliance by reducing the dosing frequency and also act as an alternative treatment to curb periodontitis.
  17. Mohamad N, Loh EYX, Fauzi MB, Ng MH, Mohd Amin MCI
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):444-452.
    PMID: 29302918 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-017-0475-3
    The healing of wounds, including those from burns, currently exerts a burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Hydrogels are widely used as wound dressings and in the field of tissue engineering. The popularity of bacterial cellulose-based hydrogels has increased owing to their biocompatibility. Previous study demonstrated that bacterial cellulose/acrylic acid (BC/AA) hydrogel increased the healing rate of burn wound. This in vivo study using athymic mice has extended the use of BC/AA hydrogel by the addition of human epidermal keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. The results showed that hydrogel loaded with cells produces the greatest acceleration on burn wound healing, followed by treatment with hydrogel alone, compared with the untreated group. The percentage wound reduction on day 13 in the mice treated with hydrogel loaded with cells (77.34 ± 6.21%) was significantly higher than that in the control-treated mice (64.79 ± 6.84%). Histological analysis, the expression of collagen type I via immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy indicated a greater deposition of collagen in the mice treated with hydrogel loaded with cells than in the mice administered other treatments. Therefore, the BC/AA hydrogel has promising application as a wound dressing and a cell carrier.
  18. Arbain NH, Salim N, Masoumi HRF, Wong TW, Basri M, Abdul Rahman MB
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):497-507.
    PMID: 29541999 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0509-5
    Bioavailability of quercetin, a flavonoid potentially known to combat cancer, is challenging due to hydrophobic nature. Oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsion system could be used as nanocarrier for quercertin to be delivered to lung via pulmonary delivery. The novelty of this nanoformulation was introduced by using palm oil ester/ricinoleic acid as oil phase which formed spherical shape nanoemulsion as measured by transmission electron microscopy and Zetasizer analyses. High energy emulsification method and D-optimal mixture design were used to optimize the composition towards the volume median diameter. The droplet size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the optimized formulation were 131.4 nm, 0.257, and 51.1 mV, respectively. The formulation exhibited high drug entrapment efficiency and good stability against phase separation and storage at temperature 4 °C for 3 months. It was discovered that the system had an acceptable median mass aerodynamic diameter (3.09 ± 0.05 μm) and geometric standard deviation (1.77 ± 0.03) with high fine particle fraction (90.52 ± 0.10%), percent dispersed (83.12 ± 1.29%), and percent inhaled (81.26 ± 1.28%) for deposition in deep lung. The in vitro release study demonstrated that the sustained release pattern of quercetin from naneomulsion formulation up to 48 h of about 26.75% release and it was in adherence to Korsmeyer's Peppas mechanism. The cytotoxicity study demonstrated that the optimized nanoemulsion can potentially induce cyctotoxicity towards A549 lung cancer cells without affecting the normal cells. These results of the study suggest that nanoemulsion is a potential carrier system for pulmonary delivery of molecules with low water solubility like quercetin.
  19. Chin CY, Ng PY, Ng SF
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):453-468.
    PMID: 29560587 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0510-z
    Previously, Moringa oleifera leaf (MOL) standardised aqueous extract-loaded films were successfully developed and they showed potential wound healing activity in vitro. The objective of this study was to evaluate in vivo dermal safety as well as wound healing efficacy of these MOL film dressings (containing 0.1, 0.5 and 1% MOL) on diabetic rat model. The acute dermal toxicity was carried out on healthy rats, and signs of toxicity over 14 days were observed. For wound healing studies, excision and abrasion wounds were created out on the STZ/HFD-induced diabetic rat model and the wound healing was studied over 21 days. The wound healing evaluation determined by histology staining, hydroxyproline assay and ELISA assays on wound healing related-growth factors, cytokines and chemokines. MOL film formulations exhibited no signs of dermal toxicities. In excision wound model, 0.5% film significantly enhanced the wound closure by 77.67 ± 7.28% at day 7 compared to control group. While in abrasion wounds, 0.5% MOL films accelerated wound closure significantly at 81 ± 4.5% as compared to the control. The histology findings and hydroxyproline assay revealed that high collagen deposition and complete re-epithelialisation were observed for the wounds treated with 0.5 and 1% MOL films. All MOL film dressings had successfully tested non-toxic via in vivo safety dermal toxicity. It was concluded that the 0.5% MOL extract-loaded film had proven to be the most promising approach to accelerate diabetic wound healing process in both full-thickness excision and partial thickness abrasion wounds on the HFD/STZ-induced diabetic type II model.
  20. Ndlovu ST, Ullah N, Khan S, Ramharack P, Soliman M, de Matas M, et al.
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 02;9(1):284-297.
    PMID: 30387048 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-00596-w
    The aim of this study was to employ experimental and molecular modelling approaches to use molecular level interactions to rationalise the selection of suitable polymers for use in the production of stable domperidone (DOMP) nanocrystals with enhanced bioavailability. A low-energy antisolvent precipitation method was used for the preparation and screening of polymers for stable nanocrystals of DOMP. Ethyl cellulose was found to be very efficient in producing stable DOMP nanocrystals with particle size of 130 ± 3 nm. Moreover, the combination of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and polyvinyl alcohol was also shown to be better in producing DOMP nanocrystals with smaller particle size (200 ± 3.5 nm). DOMP nanosuspension stored at 2-8 °C and at room temperature (25 °C) exhibited better stability compared to the samples stored at 40 °C. Crystallinity of the unprocessed and processed DOMP was monitored by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. DOMP nanocrystals gave enhanced dissolution rate compared to the unprocessed drug substance. DOMP nanocrystals at a dose of 10 mg/kg in rats showed enhanced bioavailability compared to the raw drug substance and marketed formulation. A significant increase in plasma concentration of 2.6 μg/mL with a significant decrease in time (1 h) to reach maximum plasma concentration was observed for DOMP nanocrystals compared to the raw DOMP. Molecular modelling studies provided underpinning knowledge at the molecular level of the DOMP-polymer nanocrystal interactions and substantiated the experimental studies. This included an understanding of the impact of polymers on the size of nanocrystals and their associated stability characteristics.
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