The drug release behavior of beads made of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) was investigated with respect to the influence of microwave irradiation. The beads were prepared by an extrusion method with sodium diclofenac as a model water-soluble drug. The beads were subjected to microwave irradiation at 80 W for 5 and 20 min, and at 300 W for 1 min 20 s and 5 min 20 s. The profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, drug-polymer interaction, and polymer-polymer interaction were determined by using dissolution testing, drug content assay, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Keeping the level of supplied irradiation energy identical, treatment of beads by microwave at varying intensities of irradiation did not bring about similar drug release profiles. The extent and rate of drug released from beads were markedly enhanced through treating the samples by microwave at 80 W as a result of loss of polymer-polymer interaction via the (CH(2))(n) moiety, but decreased upon treating the beads by microwave at 300 W following polymer-polymer interaction via the O-H, COOH, and COO(-) moieties as well as drug-polymer interaction via the N-H, O-H, COO(-), and C-O moieties. The beads treated by microwave at 300 W exhibited a higher level of drug release retardation capacity than those that were treated by microwave at 80 W in spite of polymer-polymer interaction via the (CH(2))(n) moiety was similarly reduced in the matrix. The mechanism of drug release of both microwave-treated and untreated beads tended to follow zero order kinetics. The drug release was markedly governed by the state of polymer relaxation of the matrix and was in turn affected by the state of polymer-polymer and/or drug-polymer interaction in beads.
A liposome system was evaluated for oral delivery of a poorly bioavailable hydrophilic drug. The system was prepared from proliposome, which consisted of negatively charged phosphatidylcholine, whereas cefotaxime was chosen as the model drug. An in vivo study was carried out on nine rats according to a three-way crossover design to compare the oral bioavailability of cefotaxime from the liposomal formulation with that of an aqueous drug solution and a physical mixture of cefotaxime with blank liposomes. The results indicated that the extent of bioavailability of cefotaxime was increased approximately 2.7 and 2.3 times compared with that of the aqueous solution and the physical mixture, respectively. In a separate study, simultaneous determination of cefotaxime in intestinal lymph (collected from the mesenteric lymph duct) and in plasma (collected from the tail vein) revealed that its concentration was consistently higher in the lymph than in the plasma when administered via the liposomal formulation, whereas the reverse was observed with the aqueous solution. Thus, the results indicated that the liposomes system has the potential of increasing the oral bioavailability of poorly bioavailable hydrophilic drugs and also promote their lymphatic transport in the intestinal lymph.
Ethyl acrylate-methyl methacrylate copolymer (Eudragit NE40D) was evaluated as matrix material for preparing controlled-release tablets of diclofenac sodium. Drug release could be modified in a predictable manner by varying the Eudragit NE40D content, but was pH dependent, being markedly reduced at lower pH. This could be attributed to the low solubility of the drug at these pH values. Thermal treatment of the tablets at 60 degrees C was also found to affect the rate of drug release, which was found to decrease with an increase in the treatment duration, but could be stabilized after 96 hr of treatment. This was also associated with a corresponding increase in the tablet tensile strength. However, treatment of the granules for 5 hr prior to compaction into tablets could shorten the stabilizing time of the drug release to 48 hr and that of the tensile strength to 24 hr. The effect of thermal treatment may be ascribed to better coalescence of the Eudragit particles to form a fine network, resulting in matrix of higher tortuosity and lower porosity.
The bioavailability of a generic preparation of acyclovir (Avorax) was compared with the innovator product, Zovirax. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in the study, conducted according to a randomized, two-way crossover design. The preparations were compared using the parameters area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC(0-infinity), peak plasma concentration (Cmax), and time to reach peak plasma concentration (Tmax). No statistically significant difference was observed between the Tmax or the logarithmic transformed AUC(0-infinity) and C(max) values of the two preparations. In addition, the 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC(0-infinity) values of Avorax over those of Zovirax was found to lie between 0.85 and 1.06, while that of the logarithmic transformed Cmax values was between 0.95 and 1.25, being within the bioequivalence limit of 0.80-1.25. Moreover, the elimination rate constant (k(e)), elimination half-life (t(1/2)), and apparent volume of distribution (Vd) values obtained with the two preparations were comparable and not significantly different statistically.
Percolation theory has been used with great interest in understanding the design and characterization of dosage forms. In this study, work has been carried out to investigate the behavior of binary mixture tablets containing excipients of similar and different deformation properties. The binary mixture tablets were prepared by direct compression using lactose, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Eudragit RS 100, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). The application of percolation theory on the relationships between compactibility, Pmax, or compression susceptibility (compressibility), gamma, and mixture compositions reveals the presence of percolation thresholds even for mixtures of similar deformation properties. The results showed that all mixture compositions exhibited at least one discreet change in the slope, which was referred to as the percolation threshold. The PVC/Eudragit RS100 mixture compositions showed significant percolation threshold at 80% (w/w) PVC loading. Two percolation thresholds were observed from a series of binary mixtures containing similar plastic deformation materials (PVC/MCC). The percolation thresholds were determined at 20% (w/w) and 80% (w/w) PVC loading. These are areas where one of the components percolates throughout the system and the properties of the tablets are expected to experience a sudden change. Experimental results, however, showed that total disruption of the tablet physical properties at the specified percolation thresholds can be observed for PVC/lactose mixtures at 20-30% (w/w) loading while only minor changes in the tablets' strength for PVC/MCC or PVC/Eudragit RS 100 mixtures were observed.
This study adopts Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to analyze the thermal properties of samples (2.5-4.0 mg) from the tip, middle, and base sections of individual paracetamol suppositories, which were sampled carefully using a stainless steel scalpel. The contents of paracetamol present in the samples obtained from these sections were determined from the enthalpies of fusion of paracetamol and expressed as % w/w paracetamol to allow comparison of the amount of paracetamol found in each section. The tip, middle, and base sections contained 10.1+/-0.2%, 10.1+/-0.2%, and 10.3+/-0.2% w/w paracetamol, and are statistically similar (One-way anova; p>0.05). This indicates that the preparation technique adopted produces high quality suppositories in terms of content uniformity. The contents of paracetamol in the 120-mg paracetamol suppositories determined by DSC and UV spectrophotometry were statistically equivalent (Students's t-test; p>0.05), 120.8+/-2.6 mg and 120.8+/-1.5 mg, respectively, making DSC a clear alternative method for the measurement of content of drug in suppositories. The main advantages of the method are that samples of only 2.5-4.0 mg are required and the procedure does not require an extraction process, which allows for the analysis to be completed rapidly. In addition, it is highly sensitive and reproducible, with the lower detection limit at 4.0% w/w paracetamol, which is about 2.5 times lower than the content of paracetamol (10% w/w) present in our 120-mg paracetamol suppositories and commercial paracetamol suppositories, which contained about 125 mg paracetamol. Therefore, this method is particularly suited for determination of content uniformity in individual suppositories in quality control (QC) and in process quality control (PQC).
The present study was conducted to investigate the inclusion complexation of artemisinin (ART) with natural cyclodextrins (CyD), namely alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CyDs with the aim of improving its solubility and dissolution rate. Complex formation in aqueous solution and solid state was studied by solubility analysis, dissolution, and thermal analysis. Solubility diagrams indicated that the complexation of ART and the three CyDs occurred at a molar ratio of 1:1, and showed a remarkable increase in ART solubility. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters calculated by using the van't Hoff equation revealed that the complexation process was associated with negative enthalpy of formation and occurred spontaneously. The complexation capability of CyDs with ART increased in the order of alpha- < gamma- < beta-CyDs and could be ascribed to the structural compatibility between the molecular size of ART and the diameter of the CyD cavities. Dissolution profiles of the three complexes demonstrated an increased rate and extent of dissolution compared with those of their respective physical mixtures and a commercial preparation. In solid-state analysis, using differential scanning calorimetry, the gamma-CyD was capable of complexing the highest percentage of ART, followed by beta- and alpha-CyDs. The respective estimated percentage of ART complexed by the CyDs were 85%, 40%, and 12%.
The bioavailability of a generic preparation of pentoxifylline sustained-release (SR) tablet was evaluated in comparison with a proprietary product (Trental 400). For the study, 12 healthy male volunteers participated; the study was conducted according to a randomized, two-way crossover design. The bioavailability was compared using the parameters total area under the plasma level-time curve AUC0-infinity, peak plasma concentration Cmax, and time to reach peak plasma concentration Tmax. No statistically significant difference was observed between the values of the two products in all three parameters. The 90% confidence interval for the ratio of the logarithmic transformed AUC0-infinity values of the generic pentoxifylline over those of Trental 400 was found to lie between 0.83 and 1.00, while that of the parameter Cmax was between 0.91 and 1.29. In addition, elimination half-life t1/2 and apparent volume of distribution Vd were calculated. There was no statistically significant difference between the t1/2 Vd values obtained from the data of the two preparations.
Wafers are an established drug delivery system for application to suppurating wounds. They can absorb wound exudates and are converted into a gel, offering a moist environment that is vital for wound healing. Simvastatin-loaded lyophilized wafers were developed using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and methyl cellulose (MC) and evaluated for their potential in the management of chronic wounds. Simvastatin (SIM) was chosen as the model drug since it is known to accelerate wound healing by promoting angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Pre-formulation studies were carried out with CMC, MC, and a mixture of CMC and MC. Wafers obtained from aqueous gels of 3% CMC and blend of CMC-MC in the % weight ratio of 2:1 and 1.5:1.5 were selected for further analysis. The formulated wafers were characterized by microscopic examination, texture analysis, hydration test, rheological studies, FTIR spectroscopy, water vapor transmission and drug release test. Among the selected formulations, simvastatin-loaded CMC-MC (2:1) wafers exhibited the most desired characteristics for wound dressing application, such as good flexibility, hardness, sponginess, and viscosity. It showed a sustained drug release, which is desirable in wound healing, and was more appropriate for suppurating wounds. In conclusion, simvastatin-loaded CMC-MC (2:1) wafers showing potential for wound dressing applications were successfully developed.
Solution-mediated transformation has been cited as one of the main problems that deteriorate dissolution performances of solid dispersion (SD). This is mainly attributed by the recrystallization tendency of poorly soluble drug. Eventually, it will lead to extensive agglomeration which is a key process in reducing the dissolution performance of SD and offsets the true benefit of SD system. Here, a post-processing treatment is suggested in order to reduce the recrystallization tendency and hence bring forth the dissolution advantage of SD system.
Brain disorders remain the world's leading cause of disability, and account for more hospitalizations and prolonged care than almost all other diseases combined. The majority of drugs, proteins and peptides do not readily permeate into brain due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), thus impeding treatment of these conditions.
It has been established that microbial biofilms are largely responsible for the recalcitrance of many wound infections to conventional antibiotics. It was proposed that the efficacy of antibiotics could be optimized via the inhibition of bacterial biofilm growth in wounds. The combination of antibiofilm agent and antibiotics into a wound dressing may be a plausible strategy in wound infection management. Xylitol is an antibiofilm agent that has been shown to inhibit the biofilm formation. The purpose of this study was to develop an alginate film containing xylitol and gentamicin for the treatment of wound infection. Three films, i.e. blank alginate film (SA), alginate film with xylitol (F5) and alginate film with xylitol and gentamicin (AG), were prepared. The films were studied for their physical properties, swelling ratio, moisture absorption, moisture vapor transmission rate (MVTR), mechanical and rheology properties, drug content uniformity as well as in vitro drug release properties. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm in vitro studies on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also performed. The results showed that AG demonstrates superior mechanical properties, rheological properties and a higher MVTR compared with SA and F5. The drug flux of AG was higher than that of commercial gentamicin cream. Furthermore, antimicrobial studies showed that AG is effective against both S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, and the antibiofilm assays demonstrated that the combination was effective against biofilm bacteria. In summary, alginate films containing xylitol and gentamicin may potentially be used as new dressings for the treatment of wound infection.
Manufacturing process and superdisintegrants used in orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formulation are often time discussed. However, the effect of suitable filler for ODT formulation is not explored thoroughly.
Topical emollients are known to provide symptomatic relief for atopic dermatitis. In hospitals, wet-wrap therapy has been shown to benefit children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD), but the application of wet-wraps is tedious and time-consuming. Topical emollients have low residence time and often dry out easily. The aim of this work was to develop a hydrogel-gauze dressing that is not only easy to apply but also rehydrates and traps moisture to provide longer relief for AD patients. In this study, a prototype hydrogel-gauze dressing was developed with varying ratios of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) and propylene glycol. The hydrogel-gauze dressings were assessed based on the moisture vapor transmission rate, moisture absorption, mechanical properties and storage stability over three months. Then, the efficacy of the hydrogel-gauze dressing was compared to topical emollients using transgenic NC/Nga mice with AD-like lesions. The NaCMC hydrogel-gauze dressings significantly lowered transepidermal water loss, and the animals displayed a faster recovery, which indicates that hydrogel-gauze dressings can trap moisture more effectively and accelerate AD healing. Hence, we propose that hydrogel-gauze dressings can potentially become an alternative to wet-wrap therapy due to the ease of application and the higher efficacy compared to topical products.
Recently, a newly discovered Dicer-substrate siRNA (DsiRNA) demonstrates higher potency in gene silencing than siRNA but both suffer from rapid degradation, poor cellular uptake and chemical instability. Therefore, Tat-peptide was exploited to protect and facilitate their delivery into cells. In this study, Tat-peptide was complexed with siRNA or DsiRNA through simple complexation. The physicochemical properties (particle size, surface charge and morphology) of the complexes formed were then characterized. The ability of Tat-peptide to carry and protect siRNA or DsiRNA was determined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and serum protection assay, respectively. Cytotoxicity effect of these complexes was assessed in V79 cell line. siRNA-Tat complexes had particle size ranged from 186 ± 17.8 to 375 ± 8.3 nm with surface charge ranged from -9.3 ± 1.0 to +13.5 ± 1.0 mV, depending on the Tat-to-siRNA concentration ratio. As for DsiRNA-Tat complexes, the particle size was smaller than the ones complexed with siRNA, ranging from 176 ± 8.6 to 458 ± 14.7 nm. Their surface charge was in the range of +27.1 ± 3.6 to +38.1 ± 0.9 mV. Both oligonucleotide (ON) species bound strongly to Tat-peptide, forming stable complexes with loading efficiency of more than 86%. These complexes were relatively non cytotoxic as the cell viability of ∼90% was achieved. In conclusion, Tat-peptide has a great potential as siRNA and DsiRNA vector due to the formation of stable complexes with desirable physical characteristics, low toxicity and able to carry high amount of siRNA or DsiRNA.
Transdermal drug delivery systems are a constant source of interest because of the benefits that they afford in overcoming many drawbacks associated with other modes of drug delivery (i.e. oral, intravenous). Because of the impermeable nature of the skin, designing a suitable drug delivery vehicle that penetrates the skin barrier is challenging. Gels are semisolid formulations, which have an external solvent phase, may be hydrophobic or hydrophilic in nature, and are immobilized within the spaces of a three-dimensional network structure. Gels have a broad range of applications in food, cosmetics, biotechnology, pharmatechnology, etc. Typically, gels can be distinguished according to the nature of the liquid phase, for example, organogels (oleogels) contain an organic solvent, and hydrogels contain water. Recent studies have reported other types of gels for dermal drug application, such as proniosomal gels, emulgels, bigels and aerogels. This review aims to introduce the latest trends in transdermal drug delivery via traditional hydrogels and organogels and to provide insight into the latest gel types (proniosomal gels, emulgels, bigels and aerogels) as well as recent technologies for topical and transdermal drug delivery.
This study evaluated the potential of stimuli-responsive bacterial cellulose-g-poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) hydrogels as oral controlled-release drug delivery carriers. Hydrogels were synthesized by graft copolymerization of the monomers onto bacterial cellulose (BC) fibers by using a microwave irradiation technique. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the grafting. XRD showed that the crystallinity of BC was reduced by grafting, whereas an increase in the thermal stability profile was observed in TGA. SEM showed that the hydrogels exhibited a highly porous morphology, which is suitable for drug loading. The hydrogels demonstrated a pH-responsive swelling behavior, with decreased swelling in acidic media, which increased with increase in pH of the media, reaching maximum swelling at pH 7. The release profile of the hydrogels was investigated in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). The hydrogels showed lesser release in SGF than in SIF, suggesting that hydrogels may be suitable drug carriers for oral controlled release of drug delivery in the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Although the general pharmacokinetics of cephalexin is quite established up-to-date, however, no population-based study on Cephalexin pharmacokinetics profile in Malay population has been reported yet in the literature.