Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 31 in total

  1. Zakaria MN, Jalaei B, Wahab NA
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2016 Feb;273(2):349-54.
    PMID: 25682179 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-015-3555-3
    For estimating behavioral hearing thresholds, auditory steady state response (ASSR) can be reliably evoked by stimuli at low and high modulation frequencies (MFs). In this regard, little is known regarding ASSR thresholds evoked by stimuli at different MFs in female and male participants. In fact, recent data suggest that 40-Hz ASSR is influenced by estrogen level in females. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of gender and MF on ASSR thresholds in young adults. Twenty-eight normally hearing participants (14 males and 14 females) were enrolled in this study. For each subject, ASSR thresholds were recorded with narrow-band chirps at 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz carrier frequencies (CFs) and at 40 and 90 Hz MFs. Two-way mixed ANOVA (with gender and MF as the factors) revealed no significant interaction effect between factors at all CFs (p > 0.05). The gender effect was only significant at 500 Hz CF (p < 0.05). At 500 and 1,000 Hz CFs, mean ASSR thresholds were significantly lower at 40 Hz MF than at 90 Hz MF (p < 0.05). Interestingly, at 2,000 and 4,000 Hz CFs, mean ASSR thresholds were significantly lower at 90 Hz MF than at 40 Hz MF (p < 0.05). The lower ASSR thresholds in females might be due to hormonal influence. When recording ASSR thresholds at low MF, we suggest the use of gender-specific normative data so that more valid comparisons can be made, particularly at 500 Hz CF.
  2. Narayanan V, Narayanan P, Rajagopalan R, Karuppiah R, Rahman ZA, Wormald PJ, et al.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2015 Mar;272(3):753-7.
    PMID: 25294050 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-014-3300-3
    Endoscopic base of skull surgery has been growing in acceptance in the recent past due to improvements in visualisation and micro instrumentation as well as the surgical maturing of early endoscopic skull base practitioners. Unfortunately, these demanding procedures have a steep learning curve. A physical simulation that is able to reproduce the complex anatomy of the anterior skull base provides very useful means of learning the necessary skills in a safe and effective environment. This paper aims to assess the ease of learning endoscopic skull base exposure and drilling techniques using an anatomically accurate physical model with a pre-existing pathology (i.e., basilar invagination) created from actual patient data. Five models of a patient with platy-basia and basilar invagination were created from the original MRI and CT imaging data of a patient. The models were used as part of a training workshop for ENT surgeons with varying degrees of experience in endoscopic base of skull surgery, from trainees to experienced consultants. The surgeons were given a list of key steps to achieve in exposing and drilling the skull base using the simulation model. They were then asked to list the level of difficulty of learning these steps using the model. The participants found the models suitable for learning registration, navigation and skull base drilling techniques. All participants also found the deep structures to be accurately represented spatially as confirmed by the navigation system. These models allow structured simulation to be conducted in a workshop environment where surgeons and trainees can practice to perform complex procedures in a controlled fashion under the supervision of experts.
  3. Lim EY, Tang IP, Peyman M, Ramli N, Narayanan P, Rajagopalan R
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2015 Nov;272(11):3109-13.
    PMID: 25205300 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-014-3232-y
    High acoustic noise level is one of the unavoidable side effects of 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A case of hearing loss after 3 T MRI has been reported in this institution and hence this study. The objective of this study was to determine whether temporary threshold shift (TTS) in high frequency hearing occurs in patients undergoing 3 T MRI scans of the head and neck. A total of 35 patients undergoing head and neck 3 T MRI for various clinical indications were tested with pure tone audiometry in different frequencies including high frequencies, before and after the MRI scan. Any threshold change from the recorded baseline of 10 dB was considered significant. All patients were fitted with foamed 3 M earplugs before the procedure following the safety guidelines for 3 T MRI. The mean time for MRI procedure was 1,672 s (range 1,040-2,810). The noise dose received by each patient amounted to an average of 3,906.29% (1,415-9,170%). The noise dose was derived from a normograph used by Occupational Noise Surveys. This was calculated using the nomograph of L eq, L EX, noise dose and time. There was no statistically significant difference between the hearing threshold before and after the MRI procedures for all the frequencies (paired t test, P > 0.05). For patients using 3 M foamed earplugs, noise level generated by 3 T MRI during routine clinical sequence did not cause any TTS in high frequency hearing.
  4. Khosravi Y, Ling LC, Loke MF, Shailendra S, Prepageran N, Vadivelu J
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2014 May;271(5):1227-33.
    PMID: 23880921 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-013-2637-3
    This study aims to assess the association between microbial composition, biofilm formation and chronic otorhinolaryngologic disorders in Malaysia. A total of 45 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, chronic tonsillitis and chronic suppurative otitis media and 15 asymptomatic control patients were studied. Swab samples were obtained from these subjects. Samples were studied by conventional microbiological culturing, PCR-based microbial detection and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) and other Streptococcus species were detected in subjects of both patient and control groups. Biofilm was observed in approximately half of the smear prepared from swab samples obtained from subjects of the patient group. Most of these were polymicrobial biofilms. S. aureus biofilm was most prevalent among nasal samples while H. influenzae biofilm was more common among ear and throat samples. Results from this study supported the hypothesis that chronic otorhinolaryngologic diseases may be biofilm related. Due to the presence of unculturable bacteria in biofilms present in specimens from ear, nose and throat, the use of molecular methods in combination with conventional microbiological culturing has demonstrated an improvement in the detection of bacteria from such specimens in this study.
  5. Sulaiman AH, Husain R, Seluakumaran K
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2014 Jun;271(6):1463-70.
    PMID: 23812554 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-013-2612-z
    Although sound exposure from personal listening devices (PLDs) could potentially lead to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), the actual hearing risk associated with the use of these devices is still unclear. In this study, early hearing effects related to PLD usage were evaluated in 35 young adult PLD users (listening for >1 h/day, at >50% of the maximum volume setting of their devices) and their age- and sex-matched controls using a combination of conventional and extended high-frequency audiometry as well as transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) and distortion product of otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) measurements. The mean listening duration of the PLD users was 2.7 ± 1.0 h/day while their estimated average listening volume was 81.3 ± 9.0 dBA (free-field corrected). Typical signs of NIHL were not detected in the audiogram of PLD users and their audiometric thresholds at most of the conventional test frequencies (0.25-8 kHz) were comparable with those obtained from controls. However, compared with the controls, mean hearing thresholds of PLD users at many of the extended high-frequencies (9-16 kHz) were significantly higher. In addition, TEOAE and DPOAE amplitudes in users were reduced compared with controls. The deterioration of extended high-frequency thresholds and the decrease in DPOAE amplitudes were more evident in the users' right ears. These results indicate the presence of an early stage of hearing damage in the PLD user group. Preventive steps should be taken as the initial hearing damage in these users could eventually progress into permanent NIHL after many years of PLD use.
  6. Ngao CF, Tan TS, Narayanan P, Raman R
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2014 May;271(5):975-80.
    PMID: 23605244 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-013-2491-3
    The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of transmeatal low-power laser stimulation (TLLS) in treating tinnitus. This is a prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients with persistent subjective tinnitus as their main symptom were recruited into the study from the outpatient clinics. The recruited patients were randomized into the experimental group or TLLS+ group (patients in this group were prescribed to use TLLS at 5 mW at 650 nM wavelength for 20 min daily and oral betahistine 24 mg twice per day for a total of 10 weeks) and the control group or TLLS- group (patients in this group were prescribed with a placebo device to use and oral betahistine 24 mg twice per day for 10 weeks). All patients were required to answer two sets of questionnaires: the Tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) and visual analogue scales (VAS) symptoms rating scales, before starting the treatment and at the end of the 10-week treatment period. The total score of the THI questionnaire was further graded into five grades, grade 1 being mild and grade 5 being catastrophic. Wilcoxon-signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney test were used to compare and analyze the THI and VAS scores before and after treatment for each group. Changes with p value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Chi square test was used to analyze the change of parameters in categorical forms (to compare between TLLS+ and TLLS-). Changes with p value of <0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Forty-three patients successfully and diligently completed their treatment. It was noted that using any condition of the device, TLLS+ or TLLS-, patient's tinnitus symptoms improved in terms of THI scores (TLLS+, p value = 0.038; TLLS-, p value = 0.001) or VAS scores with a change of at least one grade (TLLS+, p value = 0.007; TLLS-, p value = 0.002) at p value <0.05 significant level. In contrast when TLLS+ group was compared with TLLS- group, no statistically significant result was obtained. In term of VAS scores, there seems to be no statistically significant improvement in patients' annoyance, sleep disruption, depression, concentration and tinnitus loudness and pitch heard between the two groups. Transmeatal low-power laser stimulation did not demonstrate significant efficacy as a therapeutic measure in treating tinnitus.
    Study site: Otorhinolaryngology clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  7. Zaifullah S, Yunus MR, See GB
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2013 Mar;270(4):1501-6.
    PMID: 23053382 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-012-2200-7
    Branchial cleft anomalies result from abnormal persistence of branchial apparatus, which is located at the lateral part of the neck. These occur due to failure of obliteration of the branchial apparatus during embryonic development. Differential diagnoses of lateral neck mass are salivary gland or neurogenic neoplasms, paragangliomas, adenopathies, cystic hygroma or cystic metastasis from squamous cell carcinoma or thyroid papillary carcinoma. Clinically, a branchial cyst is smooth, round, fluctuant and non-tender, and usually occurs over the upper part of the neck, anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Sometimes, it may present as infected cyst (or abscess), a sinus or fistula. Surgical excision is the definitive treatment for branchial anomalies. The objective of the work was to study the demographic data, clinical presentation, definite diagnostic workup and treatment of patients diagnosed with branchial anomalies. This is a retrospective study of 26 patients who were diagnosed with branchial anomalies (branchial cyst and fistula), of which only 12 patients had data available between July 1999 and June 2009 at the Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre. Twelve cases of branchial anomalies were seen, in which 10 patients had second branchial cyst anomalies, 1 had third branchial fistula and 1 had bilateral branchial lesion. There were seven females and five males. The age of the patients varied over a wide range (4-44 years), but the majority of the patients were in their second and third decade of life. All branchial anomalies occurred at the classical site; eight patients had left-sided neck lesion. Correct clinical diagnosis was made only in five patients (41.6 %). All patients underwent surgical excision with no reported recurrence. Branchial anomalies are frequently forgotten in the differential diagnosis of lateral neck swelling. Diagnosis is usually delayed, leading to improper treatment. The diagnosis of patients who present with lateral neck cystic swelling with or without episodes of recurrent neck abscess should be considered with a high suspicion for branchial anomalies. FNA cytology is a good investigative tool in reaching toward a diagnosis of branchial lesion, with the concurrent assistance of radiological modalities. Surgical excision is the gold standard treatment of lesions of branchial anomalies.
  8. Siar CH, Mah MC, Gill PP
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2012 Mar;269(3):999-1004.
    PMID: 21789676 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-011-1712-x
    Early detection of oral potentially malignant epithelial lesions (PMELs) is aimed at improving survival rates as carcinogenesis is a multistep process and prevention is possible if these lesions are detected at an early and reversible stage of the disease. A prospective clinical study aimed at determining the prevalence of bilateral 'mirror-image' oral PMELs was carried out. Sample consisted of 32 (53.3%) Indians, 23 (38.3%) Chinese, 4 (6.7%) Malays and one (1.7%) Nepalese. All had histopathological confirmation of their primary existing PMEL as inclusion criteria. A total of 70 primary lesions were detected. The most common PMEL found was oral lichen planus. Of these, 28 (46.7%) patients exhibited bilateral 'mirror-image' lesions (n = 42) either synchronously (n = 32/42) or metachronously (n = 10/42). The remaining 32 (53.3%) patients had normal-looking contralateral mucosa. Present findings suggest that patients presenting with oral PMELs are at greater risk of developing a second lesion, most probably in the contralateral 'mirror-image' site.
  9. Balachandran R, Philip R, Avatar S, Simon R, Mann GS, Benedict CT, et al.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2012 Feb;269(2):649-58.
    PMID: 21691719 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-011-1665-0
    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is among the commonest cancers in Malaysia. The prognosis for NPC like most other head and neck cancer is dependent on its staging. Majority of patients in Malaysia at the time of diagnosis are either at stage III or IV (27 and 47%, respectively). The lack of knowledge among primary care medical doctors regarding NPC may contribute to this delay in diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of the primary care doctors in the state of Perak on the various aspects of NPC. The doctors at the primary care level in the state of Perak were recruited to take part in this study on a voluntary basis. A total number of 154 out of 198 doctors participated in this survey. They were given a questionnaire to fill in to test their knowledge on different aspects of NPC and its treatment. The overall respondents' score was poor with a score of 67.5% on all sections. The doctors appear to be able to identify common presenting features of NPC with a mean score of 85.3% but for the uncommon presentations of NPC, the scores were poorer with 61.8%. In addition, 54.1% of the participants answered that they would refer a patient with symptoms suspicious of NPC after a period of 1 month from the onset of symptom. However, only 34% would refer within 2 weeks. Based on the results of this study, the authors feel that it is clear that the doctors posted in the primary care hospitals and clinics appear to have inadequate knowledge to diagnose and refer patients with suspected NPC. As early diagnosis can often lead to a better prognostic outcome, steps must be taken to raise the awareness among these doctors.
  10. Salina H, Abdullah A, Mukari SZ, Azmi MT
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2010 Apr;267(4):495-9.
    PMID: 19727788 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-009-1080-y
    Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) is a well-established screening tool for universal newborn hearing screening. The aims of this study are to measure the effects of background noise on recording of TEOAE and the duration required to complete the test at various noise levels. This study is a prospective study from June 2006 until May 2007. The study population were newborns from postnatal wards who were delivered at term pregnancy. Newborns who were more than 8-h old and passed a hearing screening testing using screening auditory brainstem response (SABRe) were further tested with TEOAE in four different test environments [isolation room in the ward during non-peak hour (E1), isolation room in the ward during peak hour (E2), maternal bedside in the ward during non-peak hour (E3) and maternal bedside in the ward during peak hour (E4)]. This study showed that test environment significantly influenced the time required to complete testing in both ears with F [534.23] = 0.945; P < 0.001 on the right ear and F [636.54] = 0.954; P < 0.001 on the left. Our study revealed that TEOAE testing was efficient in defining the presence of normal hearing in our postnatal wards at maternal bedside during non-peak hour with a specificity of 96.8%. Our study concludes that background noise levels for acceptable and accurate TEOAE recording in newborns should not exceed 65 dB A. In addition, when using TEOAE assessment in noisy environments, the time taken to obtain accurate results will greatly increase.
  11. Auzair LB, Vincent-Chong VK, Ghani WM, Kallarakkal TG, Ramanathan A, Lee CE, et al.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2016 Jul;273(7):1885-93.
    PMID: 26138391 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-015-3703-9
    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and Actin-Related Protein 2/3 Complex, Subunit 1B (ARPC1B) have been implicated in various human cancers, yet its role in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Therefore, this study aims to determine the protein expression of these two genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and to evaluate the clinical and prognostic impact of these genes in OSCC. Protein expressions of these two genes were determined by immunohistochemistry technique. The association between Cav-1 and ARPC1B with clinico-pathological parameters was evaluated by Chi-square test (or Fisher exact test where appropriate). Correlation between the protein expressions of these 2 genes with survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Cav-1 and ARPC1B were found to be significantly over-expressed in OSCC compared to normal oral mucosa (p = 0.002 and p = 0.033, respectively). Low level of ARPC1B protein expression showed a significant correlation with lymph node metastasis (LNM) (p = 0.010) and advanced tumor staging (p = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated that patients with over-expression of Cav-1 protein were associated with poor prognosis (p = 0.030). Adjusted multivariate Cox regression model revealed that over-expression of Cav-1 remained as an independent significant prognostic factor for OSCC (HRR = 2.700, 95 % CI 1.013-7.198, p = 0.047). This study demonstrated that low-expression of ARPC1B is significantly associated with LNM and advanced tumor staging whereas high expression of Cav-1 can be a prognostic indicator for poor prognosis in OSCC patients.
  12. Ngah WZ, Shamaan NA, Said MH, Azhar MT
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 1993;250(5):304-7.
    PMID: 8105826
    Plasma gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-GT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities were determined in normal and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. No difference in enzyme activities was observed in the three major races of the Malaysian population, i.e. Malay, Chinese and Indian patients. However, plasma gamma-GT, erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) and GPx activities were significantly increased in all NPC patients, while GR activity remained unchanged. Patients with elevated plasma gamma-GT activities also had increased GST and GPx activities. Plasma gamma-GT and GPx activities were then found to be affected by treatment. Patients with plasma gamma-GT activity greater than 70 IU/l had very poor prognoses but patients with decreased gamma-GT activities were found to be in remission.
  13. Tang IP, Ngui LX, Ramachandran K, Lim LY, Voon PJ, Yu KL, et al.
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2019 Sep;276(9):2475-2482.
    PMID: 31227870 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-019-05522-5
    PURPOSE: To study the surgical and oncological outcomes of endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid nasopharyngectomy (EETN) in salvaging locally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).

    METHOD: This was a retrospective clinical record review study carried out at a tertiary centre from June 2013 until May 2017. A total of 55 locally recurrent NPC patients (rT1-rT4) underwent EETN performed by single skull base surgeon with curative intention with postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy but without postoperative radiotherapy.

    RESULTS: There were 44 (80.0%) males and 11 (20.0%) females, with mean age of 52.5 years. The mean operating time was 180 min (range 150-280 min). 85% (47/55) of patients achieved en bloc tumour resection. 93% (51/55) of patients obtained negative microscopic margin based on postoperative histopathological evaluation. Intraoperatively, one (1.8%) patient had internal carotid artery injury which was successfully stented and had recovered fully without neurological deficit. There were no major postoperative complications reported. During a mean follow-up period of 18-month (range 12-48 months) postsurgery, five patients (9.1%) had residual or recurrence at the primary site. All five patients underwent re-surgery. One patient at rT3 passed away 6 months after re-surgery due to distant metastasis complicated with septicaemia. The 1-year local disease-free rate was 93% and the 1-year overall survival rate was 98%.

    CONCLUSIONS: EETN is emerging treatment options for locally recurrent NPC, with relatively low morbidity and encouraging short-term outcome. Long-term outcome is yet to be determined with longer follow-up and bigger cohort study. However, a successful surgical outcome required a very experienced team and highly specialised equipment.

  14. Prayuenyong P, Kasbekar AV, Hall DA, Baguley DM
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2020 Dec;277(12):3283-3293.
    PMID: 32430772 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-06033-4
    PURPOSE: Vestibulotoxicity associated with cisplatin chemotherapy is known to exist, but the extent, severity, and impact is unclear from the literature. This study explored knowledge, experiences, and opinions of audiovestibular professionals about cisplatin vestibulotoxicity.

    METHODS: An online survey was disseminated to clinicians working in the audiovestibular field.

    RESULTS: Ninety-three respondents participated in the survey. Most professionals were aware of potential vestibulotoxicity associated with cisplatin chemotherapy. Thirty-three percent of the respondents reported that they had seen patients with cisplatin vestibulotoxicity. Forty percent of them were confident in making the diagnosis and in managing the patient in this situation. The prevalence and impact of vestibulotoxicity including practicality of the assessment should be considered when designing an effective vestibulotoxicity screening protocol.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides a better understanding of cisplatin vestibulotoxicity from the perspectives of audiovestibular clinicians, which will underpin appropriate detection and management of the condition.

  15. Ahmedy F, Mazlan M, Danaee M, Abu Bakar MZ
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2020 May;277(5):1343-1351.
    PMID: 32025786 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-05823-0
    PURPOSE: To evaluate if and how post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) olfactory dysfunction affects the quality of life (QoL).

    METHODS: In this case-control observational study, 32 adults with post-TBI olfactory dysfunction (cases) were matched with 32 TBI patients with intact olfactory function (controls). All subjects self-rated their olfactory function using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Cases also underwent objective olfactory function assessment with the Sniffin' Sticks test, which generated a Threshold, Discrimination, and Identification (TDI) score. QoL was assessed with the Questionnaire for Olfactory Disorders (QOD). Factors evaluated included age, gender, smoking, TBI severity and duration, lesion localisation, and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) score.

    RESULTS: Cases had a higher mean QOD score than controls at 26.31 ± 14.37 and 9.44 ± 8.30, respectively (F = 16.426, p 

  16. Kamalden TMIT, Misron K
    PMID: 34226993 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-021-06980-6
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the clinical trends of malignant otitis externa (MOE) and classify MOE based on the findings related to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the temporal bone and 99-Tech3-Phase Bone Scintigraphy (TPBS). We also reconstruct a treatment algorithm for MOE in our institution.

    METHODOLOGY: A 10-year retrospective review was carried out on MOE in a single otology institution from January 2011 to December 2020. The MOE was classified based on proposed Tengku's radiological stratification according to HRCT and TBPS findings. Phase I is defined as inflammation limited to the soft tissue in the external auditory canal, without involvement of the bone. Phase II is the inflammation beyond the soft tissue, involving bone, but limited to the mastoid. Phase III is when the inflammation extends medially, involving the petrous temporal bone or temporomandibular joint, with or without parapharyngeal soft tissue involvement. Phase IV refers to inflammation extending medially to involve the nasopharynx, with or without abscess formation. Finally, Phase V is inflammation that further extends to the contralateral base of the skull.

    RESULTS: A sample of 49 patients was involved in this study. Majority of the patients were having Phase III (36.7%) of the disease, followed by Phase V (24.5%), Phase II (18.4%), Phase IV (16.3%), and Phase I (4.1%). A comprehensive treatment algorithm was drafted based on our institution's experience in managing MOE. The mortality rate was low (8.2%), mainly involving patients in advanced phase of the disease (Phases IV and V).

    CONCLUSION: This study has revealed the evidence of progression of MOE based on the proposed radiological stratification. This stratification is simple and practically applicable in clinical settings. We suggest the use of our proposed treatment algorithm as a standard diagnostic and treatment protocol for MOE.

  17. Tan KL, Lee WH, Kim JW
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2017 Jan;274(1):223-229.
    PMID: 27423641 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-016-4201-4
    The skull base attachment of the second lamella and suprabullar pneumatization are likely to be consistent landmarks if they are systematically classified. This study aimed to classify the pneumatization pattern according to the second lamella skull base attachment. A total of 202 computed tomography sides of 101 patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery were studied. Suprabullar pneumatization was defined as air cells present above the ethmoid bulla between the second and third lamellae. Its pattern was classified according to the air cell number and location as in the frontal cell classification. Type 0 suprabullar pneumatization was defined as no air cells between the ethmoid bulla and skull base; type 1, as a single suprabullar cell; and type 2, as multiple suprabullar cells above the ethmoid bulla. In type 3 pneumatization, the second lamella extended into the frontal sinus forming a frontal bullar cell. Type 2 was the most prevalent (40.1 %), followed by types 1, 3, and 0 (24.3, 23.3, and 12.4 %, respectively). The distance between the second lamella and anterior ethmoid artery was 8.93, 8.30, 8.50, and 11.25 mm in types 0, 1, 2, and 3 pneumatization, respectively. No patients had intraoperative injuries in the anterior ethmoid artery or lateral lamella. The second lamella skull base attachment and suprabullar pneumatization pattern could be systematically classified and be a consistent landmark to identify the frontal sinus opening.
  18. Wong EHC, Liew YT, Abu Bakar MZ, Lim EYL, Prepageran N
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2017 Jan;274(1):275-281.
    PMID: 27520568 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-016-4248-2
    Endoscopic endonasal nasopharyngectomy (EEN) has become increasingly used for recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (rNPC) due to reduced functional and cosmetic morbidities compared to conventional external approach. Majority of the existing studies on EEN focused on patients with lower recurrent staging of rT1 and rT2. The aims of this study were to provide a preliminary report on the outcome of EEN performed in patients with advanced (rT3 and rT4) rNPC, and to determine the prognostic factors for patients' survival. All patients who underwent EEN for rNPC between January 2003 and December 2015 inclusive were analyzed. All surgeries were performed in University Malaya Medical Centre in Kuala Lumpur and Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Sabah, by a single surgeon. We reported the 2-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) and any related complications and significant prognostic factors. Fifteen patients with recurrent NPC (2 rT3 and 13 rT4 tumours) underwent EEN over the 13 years period. The mean age was 50.4 years (range 30-65) and the mean follow-up period was 28.7 months (range 9-81 weeks). The 2-year OS, DFS and DSS were 66.7 % (mean 19.4 months), 40 % (mean 15.7 months) and 73.3 % (mean 20.2 months), respectively. No severe operative complications were encountered. No independent prognostic factors for survival outcome were identified. This is the first preliminary report in English that exclusively looked at the use of EEN in advanced rT3 and rT4 NPCs, showing favourable patient outcome. However, further long-term follow-up of patients is required.
  19. Adzreil B, Wong EHC, Saraiza AB, Raman R, Amin J
    Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2017 Apr;274(4):2005-2011.
    PMID: 27838741 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-016-4382-x
    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasing due to a rising rate of obesity. Multiple surgical techniques used to address obstruction at the palatal level have been associated with significant morbidities. Few studies have reported good outcomes of anterior palatoplasty (AP) in mild-to-moderate OSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of combining tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty in the treatment of snoring and OSA. All patients with snoring and OSA treated with tonsillectomy and anterior palatoplasty were analyzed. The primary outcome was reduction of the apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI) with surgical success criteria; reduction of AHI by ≥50% and AHI ≤10. The secondary outcomes measured were patients' Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and snoring visual analogue scale (VAS) scores. Thirty one patients completed the study, where 19% had mild, 42% moderate, and 39% had severe OSA. The mean surgical success rate was 45% at 3 months and 32% at 1-year post-operatively. There was a significant reduction of ESS and VAS at 3 months and 1-year post-operatively (p 
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