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  1. Ahmad MS, Abuzar MA, Razak IA, Rahman SA, Borromeo GL
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2017 Nov;21(4):e29-e38.
    PMID: 27273317 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12211
    Poor oral health has been associated with compromised general health and quality of life. To promote comprehensive patient management, the role of medical professionals in oral health maintenance is compelling, thus indicating the need for educational preparation in this area of practice. This study aimed to determine the extent of training in oral health in Malaysian and Australian medical schools. An audio-recorded semi-structured phone interview involving Academic Programme Directors in Malaysian (n = 9, response rate=81.8%) and Australian (n = 7, response rate = 35.0%) medical schools was conducted during the 2014/2015 and 2014 academic years, respectively. Qualitative data was analysed via thematic analysis, involving coding and grouping into emerging themes. Quantitative data were measured for frequencies. It was found that medical schools in Malaysia and Australia offered limited teaching of various oral health-related components that were mostly integrated throughout the curriculum, in the absence of structured learning objectives, teaching methodologies and assessment approaches. Barriers to providing oral health education included having insufficient expertise and overloaded curriculum. As medical educators demonstrated support for oral health education, collaboration amongst various stakeholders is integral to developing a well-structured curriculum and practice guidelines on oral health management involving medical professionals.
  2. Ahmad MS, Razak IA, Borromeo GL
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2015 Feb;19(1):44-52.
    PMID: 24779684 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12101
    A compromised oral health condition amongst patients with special health care needs (SHCN) has been associated with the reluctance and shortage of skills of dental professionals in managing such patients. Lack of training and experience at the undergraduate level are reported barriers to the provision of care for this patient cohort. Undergraduate education therefore, plays an important role in producing professionals with the knowledge, skills and positive attitude in treating patients with SHCN. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, comfort and attitudes of Malaysian undergraduate dental students towards caring for patients with SHCN, as well as their perception on education in this field. A self-administered questionnaire was administered in the classroom style to final year undergraduate dental students in Malaysian public dental schools. Most students were aware of Special Needs Dentistry (SND) as a specialty after being informed by academic staff. The majority of the students demonstrated poor knowledge in defining SND and felt uncomfortable providing care for such patients. They perceived their undergraduate training in SND as inadequate with most students agreeing that they should receive didactic and clinical training at undergraduate level. A high percentage of students also expressed interest in pursuing postgraduate education in this area of dentistry despite the lack of educational exposure during undergraduate years. The study supports a need for educational reform to formulate a curriculum that is more patient-centred, with earlier clinical exposure in various clinical settings for students to treat patients with special health care needs, applying the concept of holistic care in a variable clinical condition.
  3. Abu Kasim NH, Abu Kassim NL, Razak AA, Abdullah H, Bindal P, Che' Abdul Aziz ZA, et al.
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2014 Feb;18(1):51-7.
    PMID: 24423176 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12058
    Training dentists today is challenging as they are expected to provide a wide range of dental care. In the provision of good dental care, soft skills are equally important as clinical skills. Therefore in dental education the development of soft skills are of prime concern. This study sought to identify the development of soft skills when dental students are paired in their clinical training. In this perception study, four open-ended items were used to elicit students' feedback on the appropriateness of using clinical pairing as an instructional strategy to promote soft skills. The most frequently cited soft skills were teamwork (70%) and communication (25%) skills. However, both negative and positive behaviours were reported. As for critical thinking and problem solving skills, more positive behaviours were reported for abilities such as to explain, analyze, find ideas and alternative solutions, and make decisions. Leadership among peers was not evident as leading without legitimate authority could be a hindrance to its development. If clinical pairing is to be used as an effective instructional strategy to promote soft skills amongst students, clear guidelines need to be developed to prepare students to work in a dental team and the use of appropriate assessment tools can facilitate the development of these soft skills.
  4. Gonzalez MA, Abu Kasim NH, Naimie Z
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2013 May;17(2):73-82.
    PMID: 23574183 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12017
    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia.
  5. Eaton KA, de Vries J, Widström E, Gait TC, Bedi R, Meyers I, et al.
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2006 Nov;10(4):186-91.
    PMID: 17038009
    During the 2004 annual meeting of the International Association for Dental Research, the Education Research Group held a symposium on dental outreach teaching. After a brief introduction, which reviews relevant aspects of the relatively sparse literature, this paper summarises the proceedings, the themes and conclusions that emerged and the research issues that were identified. It aims to describe aspects of current practice around the world and to promote future discussion. Presenters gave details of outreach programmes for dental undergraduates in Australia, Finland, Malaysia (and Southeast Asia), the United Kingdom and the United States. From these presentations four themes emerged. They were: reasons for the introduction of outreach teaching, its perceived beneficial effects, organisational issues, educational issues. The reasons included a recognition of the need to educate dental undergraduates as members of 'care teams' in the environments and communities where they were ultimately like to work and the current shortage of both suitable patients and teachers (faculty) in many dental schools. A wide range of potential benefits and some disadvantages were identified. The organisational issues were, in the main, seen to relate to finance and administration. The educational issues included the need to train and monitor the performance of teachers at outreach clinics and to assess the performance of the undergraduates whilst at the outreach locations. It was concluded that new technology made it easier to teach at a distance and it was possible to create a dental 'school without walls'. It was recognised that few evaluations of dental outreach teaching have been carried out and that there were many research questions to be answered, including: whether it should be a voluntary or compulsory part of the undergraduate curriculum, how long it should last and what type of outcomes should be assessed.
  6. Lee YL, Verma RK, Yadav H, Barua A
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2016 Nov;20(4):218-228.
    PMID: 26277860 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12164
    BACKGROUND: Facebook and mobile texting are prevalent in the lives of almost every student. However, little is known about the relationship between Facebook usage or mobile texting and their impacts on health amongst undergraduate dental students. In this study, excessive Facebook use and excessive mobile texting were studied as they relate to impacts on health.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at a private university in Malaysia. A total of 188 undergraduate dental students were interviewed using a pre-tested and self-rated questionnaire. Data collected from participants were analysed using SPSS version 18.0. Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to study the relationship between explanatory variables and excessive Facebook use and excessive mobile texting.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of excessive Facebook use and excessive mobile texting amongst undergraduate dental students was found to be 33.2% and 33.0%, respectively. According to a multivariate analysis, texting habits, such as the presence of daytime sleepiness after texting late at night (aOR = 2.682, 95% CI = 1.142-6.301) and the presence of anxious feelings if students failed to receive a timely response (aOR = 3.819, 95% CI = 1.580-9.230), were determined to be significant predictors of excessive mobile texting. Excessive Facebook use was found to be significantly related to three variables as follows: fewer numbers of close friends (aOR = 2.275, 95% CI = 1.057-4.898), the checking of updates on the Facebook walls of their friends (aOR = 2.582, 95% CI = 1.189-5.605) and the absence of active and vigorous feelings during Facebook use (aOR = 3.401, 95% CI = 1.233-9.434).

    CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of undergraduate dental students in this study experienced excessive Facebook use and/or excessive mobile texting. Health education and promotion should be instituted to create awareness, whilst students should be advised to practise self-control with respect to both mobile texting and Facebook usage.

  7. Borromeo GL, Ahmad MS, Buckley S, Bozanic M, Cao A, Al-Dabbagh M, et al.
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2018 Aug;22(3):e321-e326.
    PMID: 29024268 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12296
    INTRODUCTION: The role of dental auxiliaries in collaborative care of patients with special needs is compelling. This study was undertaken to investigate the perceptions of Special Needs Dentistry (SND) education and practice amongst students enrolled in Australian programmes in dental auxiliary, namely dental hygiene, dental therapy and oral health therapy (DH/DT/OHT).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: All Australian institutions offering DH/DT/OHT programmes (n = 14) were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire survey, conducted online, involving students across all academic years. Twelve institutions agreed to participate, but only five institutions were included in the final analysis, with a student response rate of 31.1%. Answers to open-ended questions were coded and grouped for measurement of frequencies. Quantitative data were analysed via chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests (significance taken as P 

  8. Faulks D, Dougall A, Ting G, Ari T, Nunn J, Friedman C, et al.
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2018 May;22(2):e278-e290.
    PMID: 28940883 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12292
    INTRODUCTION: Recommended curricula in Special Care Dentistry (SCD) outline learning objectives that include the domain of attitudes and behaviours, but these are notoriously difficult to measure. The aims of this study were (i) to develop a test battery comprising adapted and new scales to evaluate values, attitudes and intentions of dental students towards people with disability and people in marginalised groups and (ii) to determine reliability (interitem consistency) and validity of the scales within the test battery.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search identified pre-existing measures and models for the assessment of attitudes in healthcare students. Adaptation of three pre-existing scales was undertaken, and a new scale was developed based upon the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using an elicitation survey. These scales underwent a process of content validation. The three adapted scales and the TPB scale were piloted by 130 students at 5 different professional stages, from 4 different countries.

    RESULTS: The scales were adjusted to ensure good internal reliability, variance, distribution, and face and content validity. In addition, the different scales showed good divergent validity.

    DISCUSSION: These results are positive, and the scales now need to be validated in the field.

    CONCLUSIONS: It is hoped that these tools will be useful to educators in SCD to evaluate the impact of teaching and clinical exposure on their students.

  9. Fong JYM, Tan VJH, Lee JR, Tong ZGM, Foong YK, Tan JME, et al.
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2018 Aug;22(3):160-166.
    PMID: 29266663 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12297
    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of clinical audit-feedback cycle as an educational tool in improving the technical quality of root canal therapy (RCT) and compliance with record keeping performed by dental undergraduates.

    METHODS: Clinical audit learning was introduced in Year 3 of a 5-year curriculum for dental undergraduates. During classroom activities, students were briefed on clinical audit, selected their audit topics in groups of 5 or 6 students, and prepared and presented their audit protocols. One chosen topic was RCT, in which 3 different cohorts of Year 3 students conducted retrospective audits of patients' records in 2012, 2014 and 2015 for their compliance with recommended record keeping criteria and their performance in RCT. Students were trained by and calibrated against an endodontist (κ ≥ 0.8). After each audit, the findings were reported in class, and recommendations were made for improvement in performance of RCT and record keeping. Students' compliance with published guidelines was presented and their RCT performances in each year were compared using the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: Overall compliance with of record keeping guidelines was 44.1% in 2012, 79.6% in 2014 and 94.6% in 2015 (P = .001). In the 2012 audit, acceptable extension, condensation and the absence of mishap were observed in 72.4, 75.7% and 91.5%; in the 2014 audit, 95.1%, 64.8% and 51.4%; and in 2015 audit, 96.4%, 82.1% and 92.8% of cases, respectively. In 2015, 76.8% of root canal fillings met all 3 technical quality criteria when compared to 48.6% in 2014 and 44.7% in 2012 (P = .001).

    CONCLUSION: Clinical audit-feedback cycle is an effective educational tool for improving dental undergraduates' compliance with record keeping and performance in the technical quality of RCT.

  10. Shoaib LA, Safii SH, Naimie Z, Ahmad NA, Sukumaran P, Yunus RM
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2018 Feb;22(1):e26-e34.
    PMID: 27995730 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12252
    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in University of Malaya to evaluate student perceptions on the contribution and role of an effective clinical teacher based on the cognitive apprenticeship model in clinical practice.

    METHODS: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 233 undergraduate dental students involved with clinical teaching. This modified and validated questionnaire focusing on students' learning environment was used in order to gain relevant information related to dental clinical teaching. Six domains with different criteria applicable to clinical teaching in dentistry were selected consisting of modelling (four criteria), coaching (four criteria), scaffolding (four criteria), articulation (four criteria), reflection (two criteria) and general learning environment (six criteria). Data analyses were performed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.

    RESULTS: Majority of the students expressed positive perceptions on their clinical learning experience towards the clinical teachers in the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, in all criteria of the domains. Few negative feedbacks concerning the general learning environment were reported.

    CONCLUSION: Further improvement in the delivery of clinical teaching preferably by using wide variety of teaching-learning activities can be taken into account through students' feedback on their learning experience.

  11. Ahmad MS, Abuzar MA, Razak IA, Rahman SA, Borromeo GL
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2021 May;25(2):350-359.
    PMID: 33021010 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12611
    INTRODUCTION: A high degree of training is necessary to prepare student nurses for their roles as oral healthcare partners that can promote a holistic approach to health in the community. This study aims to determine the extent of oral health education in Australian and Malaysian nursing institutions, as well as investigate educators' perceptions of education and practice in this area of care.

    METHODOLOGY: An audio-recorded, semi-structured qualitative phone interview was conducted with the heads of 42 nursing schools across Australia (n = 35) and Malaysia (n = 7) during the 2015 academic year. Qualitative data were analysed via thematic analysis. Quantitative data, wherever appropriate, were measured for frequencies.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 34.2% (n = 12) and 71.4% (n = 5) for the Australian and Malaysian subjects, respectively. Findings revealed that although all the nursing schools measured provided didactic and clinical training in oral health, curriculum content, expected learning outcomes, amount of clinical exposure and assessment approach lacked consistency. Most nursing educators across both countries perceived an overloaded curriculum as a barrier to providing oral health education. Whilst educators demonstrated their support for training in this area of care, they expressed the need for an established national guideline that highlights the educational requirement for future nurses in oral health maintenance and their scope of practice.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides valuable information for further developing oral health education for nurses, to improve their competency and ultimately the health of the communities that they will serve.

  12. Mat Yudin Z, Ali K, Wan Ahmad WMA, Ahmad A, Khamis MF, Brian Graville Monteiro N', et al.
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2020 Feb;24(1):163-168.
    PMID: 31698535 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12480
    AIMS: To evaluate the self-perceived preparedness of final-year dental undergraduate students in dental public universities in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Final-year dental undergraduate students from six dental public universities in Malaysia were invited to participate in an online study using a validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale DU-PAS.

    RESULTS: In total, about 245 students responded to the online questionnaire yielding a response rate of 83.05%. The age range of the respondents was 23-29 years with a mean age of 24.36 (SD 0.797). The total score obtained by the respondents was ranged from 48 to 100 with a mean score of 79.56 (SD 13.495). Weaknesses were reported in several clinical skills, cognitive and behavioural attributes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The preparedness of undergraduate students at six dental institutions in Malaysia was comparable to students from developed countries. The dental undergraduate preparedness assessment scale is a useful tool, and dental institutions may be used for self-assessment as well as to obtain feedback from the supervisors.

  13. Vashe A, Devi V, Rao R, Abraham RR
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2020 Aug;24(3):518-525.
    PMID: 32314484 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12531
    INTRODUCTION: Curriculum mapping provides a clear picture of curriculum content, learning opportunities and assessment methods employed to measure the achievement of learning outcomes with their interrelationships. It facilitates educators and teachers to examine the extent to which the curricular components are linked and hence to find out gaps in the curriculum. The objective of the study was, therefore, to evaluate the physiology curriculum of Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) programme through curriculum mapping.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, mapping of the physiology curriculum of three batches of BDS programme was conducted retrospectively. The components of the curriculum used for mapping were expected learning outcomes, curriculum content, learning opportunities, assessments and learning resources. The data were gathered by reviewing office records.

    RESULTS: Descriptive analysis of the data revealed reasonable alignment between the curriculum content and questions asked in examinations for all three batches. It was found that all the expected learning outcomes were addressed in the curriculum and assessed in different assessments. Moreover, the study revealed that the physiology curriculum was contributing to majority of the programme outcomes. Nevertheless, the study could identify some gaps in the curriculum, as well.

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that majority of the components of the curriculum were linked and contributed to attaining the expected learning outcomes. It also showed that curriculum mapping was feasible and could be used as a tool to evaluate the curriculum.

  14. Kaggal Lakshmana Rao G, P Iskandar YH, Mokhtar N
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2020 Aug;24(3):590-600.
    PMID: 32374909 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12540
    AIM: The aim of the study was to seek consensus, identify and explore the challenges facing undergraduate orthodontic education and propose equitable solutions for overcoming the challenges amongst Malaysian public university dental schools.

    METHODS: An iterative e-Delphi technique was employed as the method for gathering consensus on a range of topics found pertinent to affect orthodontic teaching and learning established through literature review. A total of ten expert panellists were recruited through a targeted invitation to the orthodontists from Malaysian public universities offering undergraduate dental education. The e-Delphi comprised of three rounds of anonymous e-survey. The consensus was sought for two open-ended and two closed-ended questions.

    RESULTS: The response rates for all the three rounds were 100 per cent. The total number of questions responded by the participants in all the three rounds was forty-four. Round one achieved consensus on two closed-ended questions. Round two achieved a consensus on twenty-eight out of thirty-four (82.35%) questions with round three achieving a consensus on four out of six (66.66%) questions. A 70% consensus was considered as the minimum level of agreement for all the rounds. In total, consensus and agreement were achieved on two closed-ended questions and twenty-nine items from the open-ended questions.

    CONCLUSION: The study was able to identify a range of issues affecting undergraduate orthodontic education with a good level of consensus using the e-Delphi technique highlighting the need for curriculum refinement. The study has, in addition, proposed tangible methods to enable such a change.

  15. Ali NM, Husin IN, Ahmad MS, Hamzah SH
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2021 Feb;25(1):18-27.
    PMID: 32767612 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12573
    OBJECTIVES: Behavioural guidance (BG) training is an important component of preparing future dentists to manage paediatric patients, who often exhibit cooperation issues during treatment. This study investigated the acceptance of various BG techniques amongst dental students in a Malaysian institution.

    METHODOLOGY: A paper-based survey was conducted, classroom-style, on all dental students (Year 1 to Year 5, n = 336, response rate = 84.5%) using a validated questionnaire, developed from previous literature. For each BG technique, students used a visual analogue scale to mark their acceptability score; this figure was later categorised into different acceptance levels. Students' mean acceptability scores and acceptance of each BG technique were consecutively analysed via independent t test and chi-square test (significance level, P  0.01). Percentages of those who accepted communicative techniques involving parents demonstrated significant differences across subjects of different academic years, between pre-clinical and clinical groups of respondents and amongst clinical students. Other techniques with such significant differences, along with low acceptance, included modelling, voice control and disallowing the child to speak.

    CONCLUSION: The findings of this study provide useful information for curricular enhancement aimed at equipping dental students with the ability to apply appropriate and effective BG techniques during patient care.

  16. Baharin SA, Omar SH
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2021 Feb;25(1):168-174.
    PMID: 32808711 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12587
    AIM: Online survey was conducted to investigate the state of undergraduate endodontic clinical training in Malaysian dental schools.

    METHODS: An online questionnaire and a cover letter were emailed to the deans of 13 Malaysian dental schools. The questionnaire covers various aspects of endodontic clinical training including teaching methods, endodontic clinical procedures, minimum requirements, clinical sessions and teaching staff.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 69%. Similarities in teaching methods were observed in all responding schools. All schools taught contemporary root canal treatment procedures, including the utilisation of radiograph and electronic apex locator for working length determination, the crown-down approach for canal preparation and the cold lateral compaction for obturation. Sodium hypochlorite solution and non-setting calcium hydroxide medicament were used in most dental schools. Variations were observed in terms of the number of clinical requirements, supervisor: student ratio, and availability of endodontic specialists. The use of engine-driven instruments was observed mainly in government-funded dental schools.

    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of dental schools in Malaysia are adopting the European Society Endodontology recommendation for undergraduate endodontic training, particularly in relation to the surveyed aspects. Most of the government-funded dental schools have progressed towards engaging contemporary endodontics with their increasing application of engine-driven Ni-Ti instruments and 3D imaging techniques. Appointments of full-time endodontic specialists would further enhance the quality of endodontic teaching and permit the utilisation of contemporary endodontic materials.

  17. Ab Ghani SM, Abdul Hamid NF, Lim TW
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2021 Aug 17.
    PMID: 34403561 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12712
    INTRODUCTION: Blended learning utilizes technology with reduced face-to-face time and promotes a student-centred learning environment that excites the learning process. However, studies on blended learning in fixed prosthodontics is still lacking. This study aimed to compare students' performance in easy and difficult level of fixed prosthodontic preclinical projects given by either blended learning or conventional teaching.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 72 s-year dental students, who attended preclinical fixed prosthodontic training. Participants were randomly segregated into conventional teaching (n = 36) and blended learning (n = 36). All participants were evaluated for learning preferences using Visual-Aural-Read/Write-Kinesthetic (VARK) questionnaire and performed a project as their baseline skill assessment. They performed another two preclinical projects (easy and difficult level) after the allocated teaching approach. Learning preferences were analysed using Fisher's exact test and performance in preclinical projects were analysed with an independent t test (significant at p  .05) between groups. No significant differences found between both teaching approaches for easy (p = .319) and difficult projects (p = .339). In the blended learning group, no significant difference was found in both difficulty level of projects (p = .064).

    CONCLUSION: The participants performed equally on both teaching approaches. However, blended learning for preclinical fixed prosthodontics is anticipated as the new norm of learning, especially in the current pandemic with reduced face-to-face time.

  18. Mahmood IA, Morshidi DNA, Hamzah SH, Baharuddin IH, Ahmad MS
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2021 Aug;25(3):550-555.
    PMID: 33217767 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12632
    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to assess dental students' training and experiences in addressing traumatic dental injury (TDI), and, more specifically, their knowledge of TDI management in children.

    METHODS: All Year 1 to Year 5 dental students (n = 413; response rate = 72.9%) were invited to participate in an online, self-administered survey, which was based on a validated questionnaire. Quantitative data were analysed via chi-squared test (p 

  19. Omar H, Khan S, Haneline M, Toh CG
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2021 Aug;25(3):592-599.
    PMID: 33222374 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12636
    INTRODUCTION: Interprofessional learning (IPL) is the first stage towards the goal of interprofessional collaborative care. To enhance IPL experience, the School of Dentistry, International Medical University developed an IPL model based on the core competencies and the learning outcomes for dental and chiropractic students in their second and fourth year, respectively. The model was based on experiential learning and adult learning theories in addition to Miller's framework for clinical competencies.

    METHODS: The programme was developed as a student-centred, collaborative approach to achieve the learning outcomes for dental and chiropractic students. Second-year dental students (n = 46) and chiropractic students (n = 23) in their fourth year participated in the programme. The focus of the programme was to address the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) amongst dental students and to provide the chiropractic students with the opportunity to assess and identify risk factors for WMSDs in the dental setting. The readiness for interprofessional learning scale (RIPLS) questionnaire was completed prior to the interprofessional education programme and once again afterwards to determine dental and chiropractic students' awareness of roles and responsibilities of the other profession, and their attitudes to interprofessional education and teamwork.

    RESULTS: Dental and chiropractic students showed similar levels of readiness for shared learning. The results of this study suggest that the IPL programme contributed to the development of the students' positive perceptions towards the positive professional identity and the roles of other healthcare professionals.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides initial support for the integrated interprofessional learning experiences within the school. The results of the study will shape future curricula changes to further strengthen interprofessional education and subsequent interprofessional collaborative care.

  20. Tan YY, Ho TK, Goo CL
    Eur J Dent Educ, 2021 Sep 19.
    PMID: 34541757 DOI: 10.1111/eje.12722
    INTRODUCTION: The computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology has revolutionised dentistry at present. An operator's skills can affect the overall clinical duration and marginal accuracy of the prosthesis fabricated through this workflow. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of CAD/CAM hands-on training compared with that of a self-instructional video on the performance of dental students in digital impression and fabrication of a CAD/CAM crown.

    METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 30 undergraduate dental students were shown a CEREC demonstration video. Each operator then captured a digital impression using the intra-oral scanner, and a crown was subsequently milled. All participants underwent a training course before repeating the process. Marginal discrepancy for each crown on its abutment tooth was measured before and after training using a stereomicroscope and was evaluated using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The duration taken for the process was recorded before and after training and evaluated using paired t-test.

    RESULTS: The overall mean ±standard deviation marginal adaptation for the CEREC crowns was 78.15 ± 42.83 μm before training and 52.41 ± 17.12 μm after training. The Wilcoxon signed rank test found significant difference (p 

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