AIMS: 1) To compare the effects of different TCT isomers on inflammation, endothelial activation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). 2) To identify the two most potent TCT isomers in stimulated human endothelial cells. 3) To investigate the effects of TCT isomers on NFκB activation, and protein and gene expression levels in stimulated human endothelial cells.
METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with various concentrations of TCT isomers or α-TOC (0.3-10 µM), together with lipopolysaccharides for 16 h. Supernatant cells were collected and measured for protein and gene expression of cytokines (interleukin-6, or IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or TNF-α), adhesion molecules (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, or ICAM-1; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, or VCAM-1; and e-selectin), eNOS, and NFκB.
RESULTS: δ-TCT is the most potent TCT isomer in the inhibition of IL-6, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and NFκB, and it is the second potent in inhibiting e-selectin and eNOS. γ-TCT isomer is the most potent isomer in inhibiting e-selectin and eNOS, and it is the second most potent in inhibiting is IL-6, VCAM-1, and NFκB. For ICAM-1 protein expression, the most potent is δ-TCT followed by α-TCT. α- and β-TCT inhibit IL-6 at the highest concentration (10 µM) but enhance IL-6 at lower concentrations. γ-TCT markedly increases eNOS expression by 8-11-fold at higher concentrations (5-10 µM) but exhibits neutral effects at lower concentrations.
CONCLUSION: δ- and γ-TCT are the two most potent TCT isomers in terms of the inhibition of inflammation and endothelial activation whilst enhancing eNOS, possibly mediated via the NFκB pathway. Hence, there is a great potential for TCT isomers as anti-atherosclerotic agents.
Objective: This study investigated the safety and efficacy of Eurycoma longifolia in combination with multivitamins (EL+MV) versus placebo on improving quality of life (QoL), mood and stress in moderately stressed healthy participants.
Methods: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study enrolled 93 participants aged 25-65 years, with a body mass index of 18-30 kg/m2, scoring ≤18 in tension and ≤14 in fatigue subscale of Profiles of Mood Scores (POMS) questionnaire and supplemented with EL+MV or placebo. The primary endpoints were QoL measured by 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaire and mood measured by POMS. The secondary endpoint was stress measured by Multi-Modal Stress Questionnaire (MMSQ). The safety of the intervention product was measured by complete metabolic panel, lipid and renal analysis including several immune parameters.
Results: While there were no significant between-group differences, within-group improvements were observed in the SF-12 QoL, POMS and MMSQ domains. In the SF-12 domain, improvements were seen in role limitation due to emotional health (P = 0.05), mental component domain (P < 0.001), emotional well-being (P < 0.001), social functioning (P = 0.002) as well as vitality (P = 0.001) at week 12. An increasing trend in POMS-vigour domain was also observed in the EL+MV group at week 12. A 15% decrease in physical stress domain (P < 0.05) compared with 0.7% in the placebo group was also observed in MMSQ. When the subjects were subgrouped according to age, 25-45 and 46-65 years of age, for primary outcomes, between-group significance was observed in the 25-45 year group in the social functioning domain of SF-12 (P = 0.021) and POMS-vigour (P = 0.036) in the 46-65 year group. No significant changes were observed in vital signs and complete metabolic panel. Regarding immune parameters, the lymphocytes increased significantly in the active group (P≤0.05). In total, 13 adverse events were reported: six on placebo and seven on EL+MV.
Conclusion: EL+MV may support the QoL, mood, stress and immune parameters in healthy participants.
Trial registration: This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02865863).
Objective: This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells.
Methods: The 4T1 cells were treated with freeze-dried coconut water vinegar and subjected to MTT cell viability, BrdU, annexin V/PI apoptosis, cell cycle and wound healing assays for the in vitro analysis. For the in vivo chemopreventive evaluation, mice challenged with 4T1 cells were treated with 0.08or 2.00 mL/kg body weight of fresh coconut water vinegar for 28 days. Tumour weight, apoptosis of tumour cells, metastasis and immunity of untreated mice and coconut water vinegar-treated 4T1 challenged mice were compared.
Results: Freeze-dried coconut water vinegar reduced the cell viability, induced apoptosis and delayed the wound healing effect of 4T1 cells in vitro. In vivo, coconut water vinegar delayed 4T1 breast cancer progression in mice by inducing apoptosis and delaying the metastasis. Furthermore, coconut water vinegar also promoted immune cell cytotoxicity and production of anticancer cytokines. The results indicate that coconut water vinegar delays breast cancer progression by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, suppressing metastasis and activating anti-tumour immunity.
Conclusion: Coconut water vinegar is a potential health food ingredient with a chemopreventive effect.
Methods: In this study, the MKN28 and MKN74 GC cell lines were treated with ethanol extracts of Allium angulosum L., Allium lusitanicum Lam., Allium sativum L. (from Malaysia and Poland), Allium tibeticum Rendle and Allium ursinum L. The cytotoxicity of the extracts and their influence on COX2 and CDH1 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated as well as their influence on doxorubicin's (DOX) efficacy - a drug that has been used in GC treatment.
Results: Among the tested species, ethanol extracts of A. sativum L. (Poland and Malaysia), A. tibeticum Rendle and A. ursinum L. influenced the levels of CDH1 and COX2, but only in the MKN74 cell line. Thus, it is possible that tumours with increased COX2 expression will be more susceptible to garlic treatment. Observed phenomenon was independent of Allium extract's toxicity. In comparison to DOX, tested extracts were more toxic. Moreover, A. sativum revealed synergistic effect with the drug.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicate the potential application of Allium genus to GC chemoprevention and treatment support through CDH restoration and COX2 downregulation. This issue needs further investigations as it might be used in clinics.