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  1. Yida Z, Imam MU, Ismail M, Wong W, Abdullah MA, Ideris A, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2015;59:29046.
    PMID: 26642300 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v59.29046
    N-Acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), a type of sialic acid, has close links with cholesterol metabolism and is often used as a biomarker in evaluating the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, most studies on the health implications of Neu5Ac have focused on its effects on the nervous system, while its effects on cardiovascular risk factors have largely been unreported. Thus, the effects of Neu5Ac on coagulation status in high fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats were evaluated in this study.
  2. Karimi G, Sabran MR, Jamaluddin R, Parvaneh K, Mohtarrudin N, Ahmad Z, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2015;59:29273.
    PMID: 26699936 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v59.29273
    Obesity and overweight are major public health problems. Various factors, such as daily nutritional habits, physical inactivity, and genetic, are related to the prevalence of obesity. Recently, it was revealed that the gut microflora may also play an important role in weight management. Thus, this study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effects of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) compared with those of orlistat in an animal model fed a high-fat diet (HFD).
  3. Ellulu MS, Khaza'ai H, Patimah I, Rahmat A, Abed Y
    Food Nutr Res, 2016;60:29268.
    PMID: 26829184 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.29268
    Obesity is a degree of excess weight that predisposes people to metabolic syndromes via an inflammatory mechanism. Hypertensive and diabetic people have higher risks of developing systemic inflammation. Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC ω-3 PUFAs) can reduce the cardiovascular events and help against inflammation.
  4. Adamu HA, Imam MU, Ooi DJ, Esa NM, Rosli R, Ismail M
    Food Nutr Res, 2016;60:30209.
    PMID: 26842399 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.30209
    Evidence suggests perinatal environments influence the risk of developing insulin resistance.
  5. Arshadi S, Azarbayjani MA, Hajaghaalipor F, Yusof A, Peeri M, Bakhtiyari S, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2015;59:29717.
    PMID: 26699937 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v59.29717
    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed extract in combination with swimming exercise compared to glibenclamide consumption on type 2 diabetic rats.
  6. Ahmad NI, Wan Mahiyuddin WR, Tengku Mohamad TR, Ling CY, Daud SF, Hussein NC, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2016;60:32697.
    PMID: 27534846 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.32697
    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects.
  7. Rahman TA, Hassim NF, Zulkafli N, Muid S, Kornain NK, Nawawi H
    Food Nutr Res, 2016;60:31525.
    PMID: 27799085 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.31525
    Atherosclerosis is the main cause of coronary artery disease -related deaths worldwide. The atheroprotective properties of pure tocotrienols (T3) in the absence of alpha-tocopherol (α-TCP) in vitamin E has not been extensively examined.
  8. Mohd Nasir MT, Nurliyana AR, Norimah AK, Jan Mohamed HJB, Tan SY, Appukutty M, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2017;61(1):1304692.
    PMID: 28469545 DOI: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1304692
    Background: The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective: This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods: Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6-12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results: Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion: Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher.
  9. Jambocus NGS, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally F, Saari N, Mumtaz MW, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2017;61(1):1338919.
    PMID: 28814950 DOI: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1338919
    Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain. Plasma leptin, insulin, adiponectin, and ghrelin of all groups were determined. (1)H NMR and LCMS methods were employed for phytochemical profiling of MLE60. Results: The supplementation of MLE60 did not affect food intake indicating that appetite suppression might not be the main anti-obesity mechanism involved. In the treated groups, MLE60 prevented weight gain, most likely through an inhibition of pancreatic and lipoprotein activity with a positive influence on the lipid profiles and a reduction in LDL levels . MLE60 also attenuated visceral fat deposition in treated subjects with improvement in the plasma levels of obesity-linked factors . (1)Spectral analysis showed the presence of several bioactive compounds with rutin being more predominant. Conclusion: MLE60 shows promise as an anti-obesity agents and warrants further research.
  10. Jinap S, Hajeb P, Karim R, Norliana S, Yibadatihan S, Abdul-Kadir R
    Food Nutr Res, 2016;60:30463.
    PMID: 27356909 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.30463
    Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated.
  11. Muid S, Froemming GR, Rahman T, Ali AM, Nawawi HM
    Food Nutr Res, 2016;60:31526.
    PMID: 27396399 DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v60.31526
    BACKGROUND: Tocotrienols (TCTs) are more potent antioxidants than α-tocopherol (TOC). However, the effectiveness and mechanism of the action of TCT isomers as anti-atherosclerotic agents in stimulated human endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions are not well established.

    AIMS: 1) To compare the effects of different TCT isomers on inflammation, endothelial activation, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). 2) To identify the two most potent TCT isomers in stimulated human endothelial cells. 3) To investigate the effects of TCT isomers on NFκB activation, and protein and gene expression levels in stimulated human endothelial cells.

    METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with various concentrations of TCT isomers or α-TOC (0.3-10 µM), together with lipopolysaccharides for 16 h. Supernatant cells were collected and measured for protein and gene expression of cytokines (interleukin-6, or IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or TNF-α), adhesion molecules (intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1, or ICAM-1; vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, or VCAM-1; and e-selectin), eNOS, and NFκB.

    RESULTS: δ-TCT is the most potent TCT isomer in the inhibition of IL-6, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and NFκB, and it is the second potent in inhibiting e-selectin and eNOS. γ-TCT isomer is the most potent isomer in inhibiting e-selectin and eNOS, and it is the second most potent in inhibiting is IL-6, VCAM-1, and NFκB. For ICAM-1 protein expression, the most potent is δ-TCT followed by α-TCT. α- and β-TCT inhibit IL-6 at the highest concentration (10 µM) but enhance IL-6 at lower concentrations. γ-TCT markedly increases eNOS expression by 8-11-fold at higher concentrations (5-10 µM) but exhibits neutral effects at lower concentrations.

    CONCLUSION: δ- and γ-TCT are the two most potent TCT isomers in terms of the inhibition of inflammation and endothelial activation whilst enhancing eNOS, possibly mediated via the NFκB pathway. Hence, there is a great potential for TCT isomers as anti-atherosclerotic agents.

  12. Khoo HE, Azlan A, Tang ST, Lim SM
    Food Nutr Res, 2017;61(1):1361779.
    PMID: 28970777 DOI: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1361779
    Anthocyanins are colored water-soluble pigments belonging to the phenolic group. The pigments are in glycosylated forms. Anthocyanins responsible for the colors, red, purple, and blue, are in fruits and vegetables. Berries, currants, grapes, and some tropical fruits have high anthocyanins content. Red to purplish blue-colored leafy vegetables, grains, roots, and tubers are the edible vegetables that contain a high level of anthocyanins. Among the anthocyanin pigments, cyanidin-3-glucoside is the major anthocyanin found in most of the plants. The colored anthocyanin pigments have been traditionally used as a natural food colorant. The color and stability of these pigments are influenced by pH, light, temperature, and structure. In acidic condition, anthocyanins appear as red but turn blue when the pH increases. Chromatography has been largely applied in extraction, separation, and quantification of anthocyanins. Besides the use of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural dyes, these colored pigments are potential pharmaceutical ingredients that give various beneficial health effects. Scientific studies, such as cell culture studies, animal models, and human clinical trials, show that anthocyanidins and anthocyanins possess antioxidative and antimicrobial activities, improve visual and neurological health, and protect against various non-communicable diseases. These studies confer the health effects of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins, which are due to their potent antioxidant properties. Different mechanisms and pathways are involved in the protective effects, including free-radical scavenging pathway, cyclooxygenase pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and inflammatory cytokines signaling. Therefore, this review focuses on the role of anthocyanidins and anthocyanins as natural food colorants and their nutraceutical properties for health. Abbreviations: CVD: Cardiovascular disease VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor.
  13. Mohamad NE, Yeap SK, Ky H, Ho WY, Boo SY, Chua J, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2017;61(1):1368322.
    PMID: 29056887 DOI: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1368322
    Obesity has become a serious health problem worldwide. Various types of healthy food, including vinegar, have been proposed to manage obesity. However, different types of vinegar may have different bioactivities. This study was performed to evaluate the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory effects of coconut water vinegar on high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Changes in the gut microbiota of the mice were also evaluated. To induce obesity, C57/BL mice were continuously fed an HFD for 33 weeks. Coconut water vinegar (0.08 and 2 ml/kg body weight) was fed to the obese mice from early in week 24 to the end of week 33. Changes in the body weight, fat-pad weight, serum lipid profile, expression of adipogenesis-related genes and adipokines in the fat pad, expression of inflammatory-related genes, and nitric oxide levels in the livers of the untreated and coconut water vinegar-treated mice were evaluated. Faecal samples from the untreated and coconut water vinegar-treated mice (2 ml/kg body weight) were subjected to 16S metagenomic analysis to compare their gut microbiota. The oral intake of coconut water vinegar significantly (p 
  14. George A, Udani J, Abidin NZ, Yusof A
    Food Nutr Res, 2018;62.
    PMID: 30574050 DOI: 10.29219/fnr.v62.1374
    Background: The use of alternative and complementary medicines to alleviate stress has increased to avoid the negative effects of pharmaceutical drugs.

    Objective: This study investigated the safety and efficacy of Eurycoma longifolia in combination with multivitamins (EL+MV) versus placebo on improving quality of life (QoL), mood and stress in moderately stressed healthy participants.

    Methods: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study enrolled 93 participants aged 25-65 years, with a body mass index of 18-30 kg/m2, scoring ≤18 in tension and ≤14 in fatigue subscale of Profiles of Mood Scores (POMS) questionnaire and supplemented with EL+MV or placebo. The primary endpoints were QoL measured by 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) questionnaire and mood measured by POMS. The secondary endpoint was stress measured by Multi-Modal Stress Questionnaire (MMSQ). The safety of the intervention product was measured by complete metabolic panel, lipid and renal analysis including several immune parameters.

    Results: While there were no significant between-group differences, within-group improvements were observed in the SF-12 QoL, POMS and MMSQ domains. In the SF-12 domain, improvements were seen in role limitation due to emotional health (P = 0.05), mental component domain (P < 0.001), emotional well-being (P < 0.001), social functioning (P = 0.002) as well as vitality (P = 0.001) at week 12. An increasing trend in POMS-vigour domain was also observed in the EL+MV group at week 12. A 15% decrease in physical stress domain (P < 0.05) compared with 0.7% in the placebo group was also observed in MMSQ. When the subjects were subgrouped according to age, 25-45 and 46-65 years of age, for primary outcomes, between-group significance was observed in the 25-45 year group in the social functioning domain of SF-12 (P = 0.021) and POMS-vigour (P = 0.036) in the 46-65 year group. No significant changes were observed in vital signs and complete metabolic panel. Regarding immune parameters, the lymphocytes increased significantly in the active group (P≤0.05). In total, 13 adverse events were reported: six on placebo and seven on EL+MV.

    Conclusion: EL+MV may support the QoL, mood, stress and immune parameters in healthy participants.

    Trial registration: This study has been registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02865863).

  15. Mohamad NE, Yeap SK, Abu N, Lim KL, Zamberi NR, Nordin N, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2019;63.
    PMID: 30814922 DOI: 10.29219/fnr.v63.1616
    Background: Coconut water and vinegars have been reported to possess potential anti-tumour and immunostimulatory effects. However, the anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory and immunostimulatory effects of coconut water vinegar have yet to be tested.

    Objective: This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo anti-tumour effects of coconut water vinegar on 4T1 breast cancer cells.

    Methods: The 4T1 cells were treated with freeze-dried coconut water vinegar and subjected to MTT cell viability, BrdU, annexin V/PI apoptosis, cell cycle and wound healing assays for the in vitro analysis. For the in vivo chemopreventive evaluation, mice challenged with 4T1 cells were treated with 0.08or 2.00 mL/kg body weight of fresh coconut water vinegar for 28 days. Tumour weight, apoptosis of tumour cells, metastasis and immunity of untreated mice and coconut water vinegar-treated 4T1 challenged mice were compared.

    Results: Freeze-dried coconut water vinegar reduced the cell viability, induced apoptosis and delayed the wound healing effect of 4T1 cells in vitro. In vivo, coconut water vinegar delayed 4T1 breast cancer progression in mice by inducing apoptosis and delaying the metastasis. Furthermore, coconut water vinegar also promoted immune cell cytotoxicity and production of anticancer cytokines. The results indicate that coconut water vinegar delays breast cancer progression by inducing apoptosis in breast cancer cells, suppressing metastasis and activating anti-tumour immunity.

    Conclusion: Coconut water vinegar is a potential health food ingredient with a chemopreventive effect.

  16. Korga A, Ostrowska M, Iwan M, Skierucha M, Józefczyk A, Pawłowski P, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2019;63.
    PMID: 31297043 DOI: 10.29219/fnr.v63.3449
    Background: Gastric cancer (GC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Its aetiology is multifactorial, but the major risk factor is a high in salt diet. During gastric carcinogenesis, cadherin-1 (CDH1) down-expression and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) overexpression may be observed. The intensity of these alterations contributes to the GC invasion, its metastases and poor prognosis. As the diet plays a significant role in the aetiology of GC, it is reasonable to include the nutritional chemoprevention agents. One of the plant genus demonstrating chemoprotective properties is Allium genus, which includes garlic. The relationship between CDH1 and COX2 in GC cells treated with Allium species extract has never been evaluated.

    Methods: In this study, the MKN28 and MKN74 GC cell lines were treated with ethanol extracts of Allium angulosum L., Allium lusitanicum Lam., Allium sativum L. (from Malaysia and Poland), Allium tibeticum Rendle and Allium ursinum L. The cytotoxicity of the extracts and their influence on COX2 and CDH1 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated as well as their influence on doxorubicin's (DOX) efficacy - a drug that has been used in GC treatment.

    Results: Among the tested species, ethanol extracts of A. sativum L. (Poland and Malaysia), A. tibeticum Rendle and A. ursinum L. influenced the levels of CDH1 and COX2, but only in the MKN74 cell line. Thus, it is possible that tumours with increased COX2 expression will be more susceptible to garlic treatment. Observed phenomenon was independent of Allium extract's toxicity. In comparison to DOX, tested extracts were more toxic. Moreover, A. sativum revealed synergistic effect with the drug.

    Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicate the potential application of Allium genus to GC chemoprevention and treatment support through CDH restoration and COX2 downregulation. This issue needs further investigations as it might be used in clinics.

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