Gallic acid has been suggested as a potential antimicrobial for the control of Campylobacter but its effectiveness is poorly studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of gallic acid against Campylobacter jejuni (n = 8) and Campylobacter coli (n = 4) strains was determined. Gallic acid inhibited the growth of five C. jejuni strains and three C. coli strains (MIC: 15.63-250 μg mL(-1)). Gallic acid was only bactericidal to two C. coli strains (MBC: 125 and 62.5 μg mL(-1)). The mechanism of the bactericidal effect against these two strains (and selected non-susceptible controls) was investigated by determining decimal reduction times and by monitoring the loss of cellular content and calcium ions, and changes in cell morphology. Gallic acid did not result in a loss of cellular content or morphological changes in the susceptible strains as compared to the controls. Gallic acid resulted in a loss of calcium ions (0.58-1.53 μg mL(-1) and 0.54-1.17 μg mL(-1), respectively, over a 180 min period) from the susceptible strains but not the controls. Gallic acid is unlikely to be an effective antimicrobial against Campylobacter in a practical sense unless further interventions to ensure an effective bactericidal mode of action against all strains are developed.
To date, the exact route and mode of transmission of Helicobacter pylori remains elusive. The detection of H. pylori in food using molecular approaches has led us to postulate that the gastric pathogen may survive in the extragastric environment for an extended period. In this study, we show that H. pylori prolongs its survival by forming biofilm and micro-colonies on vegetables. The biofilm forming capability of H. pylori is both strain and vegetable dependent. H. pylori strains were classified into high and low biofilm formers based on their highest relative biofilm units (BU). High biofilm formers survived longer on vegetables compared to low biofilm formers. The bacteria survived better on cabbage compared to other vegetables tested. In addition, images captured on scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopes revealed that the bacteria were able to form biofilm and reside as micro-colonies on vegetable surfaces, strengthening the notion of possible survival of H. pylori on vegetables for an extended period of time. Taken together, the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm on vegetables (a common food source for human) potentially plays an important role in its survival, serving as a mode of transmission of H. pylori in the extragastric environment.
This study investigated the removal of bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, using sonication, and examined its effect on the attachment of Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells to plant cell walls. S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 cells were subjected to sonication at 20 kHz to remove surface structures without affecting cell viability. Effective removal of flagella was determined by staining flagella of sonicated cells with Ryu's stain and enumerating the flagella remaining by direct microscopic counting. The attachment of sonicated S. Typhimurium cells to bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models and cut plant material (potato, apple, lettuce) was then evaluated. Varying concentrations of pectin and/or xyloglucan were used to produce a range of bacterial cellulose-based plant cell wall models. As compared to the non-sonicated controls, sonicated S. Typhimurium cells attached in significantly lower numbers (between 0.5 and 1.0 log CFU/cm(2)) to all surfaces except to the bacterial cellulose-only composite without pectin and xyloglucan. Since attachment of S. Typhimurium to the bacterial cellulose-only composite was not affected by sonication, this suggests that bacterial surface structures, particularly flagella, could have specific interactions with pectin and xyloglucan. This study indicates that sonication may have potential applications for reducing Salmonella attachment during the processing of fresh produce.
Campylobacter jejuni survival in aerobic environments has been suggested to be mediated by biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by eight C. jejuni strains under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions in different broths (Mueller-Hinton (MH), Bolton and Brucella) was quantified. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the broths under both incubation atmospheres was determined. Biofilm formation for all strains was highest in MH broth under both incubation atmospheres. Four strains had lower biofilm formation in MH under aerobic as compared to microaerobic incubation, while biofilm formation by the other four strains did not differ under the 2 atm. Two strains had higher biofilm formation under aerobic as compared to microaerobic atmospheres in Bolton broth. Biofilm formation by all other strains in Bolton, and all strains in Brucella broth, did not differ under the 2 atm. Under aerobic incubation DO levels in MH > Brucella > Bolton broth. Under microaerobic conditions levels in MH = Brucella > Bolton broth. Levels of DO in MH and Brucella broth were lower under microaerobic conditions but those of Bolton did not differ under the 2 atm. Experimental conditions and especially the DO of broth media confound previous conclusions drawn about aerobic biofilm formation by C. jejuni.
The practices of preparing traditional foods in the Arctic are rapidly disappearing. Traditional foods of the Arctic represent a rarity among food studies in that they are meat-sourced and prepared in non-industrial settings. These foods, generally consumed without any heating step prior to consumption, harbor an insofar undescribed microbiome. The food-associated microbiomes have implications not only with respect to disease risk, but might also positively influence host health by transferring a yet unknown diversity of live microbes to the human gastrointestinal tract. Here we report the first study of the microbial composition of traditionally dried fish prepared according to Greenlandic traditions and their industrial counterparts. We show that dried capelin prepared according to traditional methods have microbiomes clearly different from industrially prepared capelin, which also have more homogenous microbiomes than traditionally prepared capelin. Interestingly, the locally preferred type of traditionally dried capelin, described to be tastier than other traditionally dried capelin, contains bacteria that potentially confer distinct taste. Finally, we show that dried cod have comparably more homogenous microbiomes when compared to capelin and that in general, the environment of drying is a major determinant of the microbial composition of these indigenous food products.
This study aims to determine physio-chemical properties of tempoyak, characterise the various indigenous species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) present at different stages of fermentation and also to determine the survival of selected foodborne pathogens in tempoyak. The predominant microorganisms present in tempoyak were LAB (8.88-10.42 log CFU/g). Fructobacillus durionis and Lactobacillus plantarum were the dominant members of LAB. Other LAB species detected for the first time in tempoyak were a fructophilic strain of Lactobacillus fructivorans, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Lactobacillus collinoides and Lactobacillus paracasei. Heterofermentative Leuconostoc mesenteroides and F. durionis were predominant in the initial stage of fermentation, and as fermentation proceeded, F. durionis remained predominant, but towards the end of fermentation, homofermentative Lb. plantarum became the predominant species. Lactic, acetic and propionic acids were present in concentrations ranging from 0.30 to 9.65, 0.51 to 7.14 and 3.90 to 7.31 mg/g, respectively. Genotyping showed a high degree of diversity among F. durionis and Lb. plantarum isolates, suggesting different sources of LAB. All tested Lb. plantarum and F. durionis (except for one isolate) isolates were multidrug resistant. Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were not detected. However, survival study showed that these pathogens could survive up to 8-12 days. The results aiming at improving the quality and safety of tempoyak.
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) combined with powerful bioinformatic approaches are revolutionising food microbiology. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of single isolates allows the most detailed comparison possible hitherto of individual strains. The two principle approaches for strain discrimination, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and genomic multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) are showing concordant results for phylogenetic clustering and are complementary to each other. Metabarcoding and metagenomics, applied to total DNA isolated from either food materials or the production environment, allows the identification of complete microbial populations. Metagenomics identifies the entire gene content and when coupled to transcriptomics or proteomics, allows the identification of functional capacity and biochemical activity of microbial populations. The focus of this review is on the recent use and future potential of NGS in food microbiology and on current challenges. Guidance is provided for new users, such as public health departments and the food industry, on the implementation of NGS and how to critically interpret results and place them in a broader context. The review aims to promote the broader application of NGS technologies within the food industry as well as highlight knowledge gaps and novel applications of NGS with the aim of driving future research and increasing food safety outputs from its wider use.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus are the leading causes of seafood associated infections and mortality in the United States. The main syndromes caused by these pathogens are gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia. This article reviewed the antibiotic resistance profile of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in the United States and other countries including Italy, Brazil, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, China, India, Iran, South Africa and Australia. The awareness of antimicrobial resistance of these two pathogens is not as well documented as other foodborne bacterial pathogens. Vibrio spp. are usually susceptible to most antimicrobials of veterinary and human significance. However, many studies reported that V. vulnificus and V. parahaemolyticus showed multiple-antibiotic resistance due to misuse of antibiotics to control infections in aquaculture production. In addition, both environmental and clinical isolates showed similar antibiotic resistance profiles. Most frequently observed antibiotic resistance profiles involved ampicillin, penicillin and tetracycline regardless of the countries. The presence of multiple-antibiotic resistant bacteria in seafood and aquatic environments is a major concern in fish and shellfish farming and human health.
During commercial production of liquid egg yolk (LEY), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) is used to improve its emulsification capacity and thermal stability. The enzymatic treatment may occur at elevated temperatures such as 50 °C, potentially allowing foodborne pathogens, such as Bacillus cereus, to grow. Little knowledge is available concerning growth of B. cereus in LEY during PLA2 treatment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the growth kinetics of B. cereus during PLA2 treatment using pathogenic B. cytotoxicus NVH391-98, the most thermotolerant member in the B. cereus group, as a surrogate. Inoculated LEY samples were placed in precision programmable incubators to observe the growth of B. cytotoxicus NVH391-98 under multiple isothermal and dynamic temperature conditions between 20 and 53 °C. The bacterial growth was described using the differential Baranyi model coupled with two different secondary models. The kinetic parameters were determined using one-step dynamic inverse analysis of multiple growth curves. The least square method was used in combination with the 4th order Runge-Kutta method to solve the differential Baranyi model using multiple growth curves to determine the cardinal kinetic parameters. The results showed that B. cytotoxicus NVH391-98 can grow prolifically at 50 °C. The estimated minimum, optimum and maximum temperatures were 16.7 or 18.5, 47.8 or 48.1, and 52.1 or 52.4 °C, respectively, depending on the secondary models, with an optimum growth rate of 2.1 log colony-forming-unit (CFU)/g per hour. The dynamic model is validated using isothermal curves with reasonable accuracy. B. cytotoxicus died off slowly at 15 °C. At 55 °C, thermal inactivation was observed, with a D value of approximately 2.7 h. Holding at 55 °C or below 15 °C can effectively prevent the growth of B. cytotoxicus in egg yolk.