The growing demand for fresh-like food products has encouraged the development of hurdle technology of non-thermal processing. In this study, freshly squeezed Chokanan mango juice was treated by paired combinations of sonication (for 15 and 30 min at 25 ℃, 40 kHz frequency) and UV-C treatment (for 15 and 30 min at 25 ℃). Selected physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities, microbial inactivation and other quality parameters of combined treated juice were compared to conventional thermal treatment (at 90 ℃ for 60 s). After thermal and combined treatment, no significant changes occurred in physicochemical properties. A significant increase in extractability of carotenoids (15%), polyphenols (37%), flavonoids (35%) and enhancement in antioxidant capacity was observed after combined treatment. Thermal and combined treatment exhibited significant reduction in microbial load. Results obtained support the use of sonication and UV-C in a hurdle technology to improve the quality of Chokanan mango juice along with safety standards.
Freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberry fruit juice was exposed to ultraviolet radiation (254 nm) at room temperature (25 ℃ ± 1 ℃) for 15, 30 and 60 min with 0 min serving as control. Results revealed decrease in pH, total soluble solids and titratable acidity, while colour parameters (L*, a* and b* values) and clarity of juice (% transmittance) increased significantly. All the results corresponded to exposure time to ultraviolet radiation. Bioactive compounds (total phenolics, ascorbic acid and anthocyanins) decreased along with a recorded reduction in polyphenol oxidase enzyme and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities, which were again dependent on exposure time. Results on the microbial studies showed significant reduction by 2-log cycles in aerobic plate count as well as in total yeast and mould counts. Though negative results were observed for certain parameters, this is the first time it was endeavoured to demonstrate the impact of ultraviolet radiation radiation on freshly prepared, hand-pressed strawberries juice.
This study investigated the survival of encapsulated potential probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum which isolated from fermented cocoa beans. κ-Carrageenan was used to encapsulate the probiotic. Encapsulation techniques such as emulsification, freeze-drying or extrusion were adopted to encapsulate the probiotic. Freeze-drying and extrusion methods showed higher (p
Response surface methodology was applied to study the optimization of palm kernel cake protein (PKCP) hexametaphosphate-assisted extraction. The optimum PKCP yield (28.37%) when extracted using 1.50% sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP) of pH 10, at 50 °C, and the 1:70 (w/v) ratio of cake-to-solvent was significantly (P
The substitution of milk fat with virgin coconut oil (VCO) was used to produce nutritious ice cream with pleasant coconut flavor and aroma. Three formulations were developed whereby formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 was substituted with 4%, 8% and 12% of VCO, respectively. The physicochemical properties of ice creams analyzed include overrun, meltdown, pH, titratable acidity, total solid, protein and fat content. The fatty acids profile of VCO formulated ice creams and their stabilities over 3 and 6 weeks storage were studied respectively using gas chromatography (GC). Qualitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and consumer affective test were performed among the trained and untrained panelists. Significant differences (p < 0.05) of overrun, pH, total solid, protein and fat content between ice cream formulations were observed except titratable acidity. Increased VCO content in ice cream formulations lowered the melting resistance of ice cream. For GC analysis, the major fatty acid identified was lauric acid. Upon storage time, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acid decreased but the concentration of saturated fatty acid increased. The result of QDA showed that formulation VCO4, VCO8 and VCO12 were significantly (p < 0.05) different in attributes of color, firmness and smoothness as compared to the control ice cream. Formulation VCO12 was highly accepted by panelists in terms of the acceptance level of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor and overall acceptability. Hence, it has a potential marketable value.
Worldwide, apple juice is the second most popular juice, after orange juice. It is susceptible to enzymatic browning spoilage by polyphenoloxidase, an endogenous enzyme. In this study, Royal Gala apple juice was treated by thermosonication (TS: 1.3 W/mL, 58 ℃, 10 min), pulsed electric field (PEF: 24.8 kV/cm, 60 pulses, 169 µs treatment time, 53.8 ℃) and heat (75 ℃, 20 min) and stored at 3.0 ℃ and 20.0 ℃ for 30 days. A sensory analysis was carried out after processing. The polyphenoloxidase activity, antioxidant activity and total color difference of the apple juice were determined before and after processing and during storage. The sensory analysis revealed that thermosonication and pulsed electric field juices tasted differently from the thermally treated juice. Apart from the pulsed electric field apple juice stored at room temperature, the processed juice was stable during storage, since the pH and soluble solids remained constant and fermentation was not observed. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. Along storage, the juices' antioxidant activity decreased and total color difference increased (up to 6.8). While the antioxidant activity increased from 86 to 103% with thermosonication and was retained after pulsed electric field, thermal processing reduced it to 67%. The processing increased the total color difference slightly. No differences in the total color difference of the juices processed by the three methods were registered after storage. Thermosonication and pulsed electric field could possibly be a better alternative to thermal preservation of apple juice, but refrigerated storage is recommended for pulsed electric field apple juice.
This study investigated the influence of pregelatinized high-amylose maize starch and chilling treatment on the physical and textural properties of canned rice noodles thermally processed in a retort. Rice noodles were prepared from rice flour partially substituted with pregelatinized high-amylose maize starch (Hylon VII™) in the ratios 0, 5, 10, and 15% (wt/wt). High-amylose maize starch improved the texture and brightness of fresh (not retorted) noodles. Chilling treatment led to significant (P ≤ 0.05) improvement in the texture of fresh noodles at all levels of substitution with high-amylose starch. The highest hardness was recorded at 15% amylose level in chilled nonretorted noodles. Retort processing induced a major loss of quality through water absorption, retort cooking loss, decreased noodle hardness, and lightness. However, the results showed that amylose and chilling treatment positively reduced the impact of retorting. For each level of amylose substitution, a low retort cooking loss and increased noodle hardness were associated with a chilling treatment. For both chilled and nonchilled noodles, retort cooking loss and hardness increased with increasing levels of amylose substitution.
This study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of using commercial starter cultures for quality improvement of spreadable processed cheese manufactured from ultrafiltered milk retentates. Compared to control, six samples of ultrafiltered milk retentate were incubated at 25 ℃ with starter cultures CHN-22, FRC-60, and ABT-8. Three samples were incubated for 24 h and the others were incubated for 72 h. Physicochemical, microbiological, and organoleptic characteristics in all treatments during the 90-day cold storage (6 ± 2 ℃) period were determined. The results showed that protein content of all treatments was significantly lower than the control. Utilization of starter cultures in ultrafiltered processed cheese production increased titratable acidity, where titratable acidity of the treatments (PC22-3, PC60-3, and PC8-3) was significantly higher than the other treatments and the control. PC8-1, PC60-1, and PC22-1 treatments were the highest penetrometer readings and with low firmness. All treatments had higher water soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen%, total bacterial viable and lactic acid bacterial counts especially PC22-3, PC60-3, and PC8-3 compared to the control. The results revealed that PC60-1 and PC22-3 treatments gained the highest acceptability scores than PC60-3, PC22-1, and the control.
Antimicrobial coated films were produced by an innovative method that allowed surface modification of commercial low-density polyethylene films so that well-defined antimicrobial surfaces could be prepared. A Pluronic™ surfactant and a polystyrene-polyethylene oxide block copolymer were employed to develop modified materials. The Pluronic™ surfactant provided a more readily functionalised film surface, while block copolymer provided a reactive interface which was important in providing a route to silver nanoparticles that were well adhered to the surface. Antimicrobial films containing silver were manufactured using a spray coater and the amount of silver used for coating purposes varied by the concentration of the silver precursor (silver nitrate) or the number of silver coatings applied. Potential antimicrobial activity of manufactured silver-coated low-density polyethylene films was tested against Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus aureus and microflora isolated from raw chicken. The microbiological and physicochemical quality of chicken breast fillets wrapped with silver-coated low-density polyethylene films followed by vacuum skin packaging was also assessed during storage. Antimicrobial activity of developed silver-coated low-density polyethylene films was dependent ( p
Kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed oil has been proven for its multi-pharmacological benefits; however, its poor water solubility and stability have limited its industrial applications. This study was aimed to further improve the stability of pre-developed kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions by using food-grade ternary emulsifiers. The effects of emulsifier concentration (1, 5, 10, 15% w/w), homogenisation pressure (16,000, 22,000, 28,000 psi), and homogenisation cycles (three, four, five cycles) were studied to produce high stability of kenaf seed oil-in-water nanoemulsions using high pressure homogeniser. Generally, results showed that the emulsifier concentration and homogenisation conditions had great effect ( p
Strawberry puree was processed for 15 min using thermal (65 ℃), high-pressure processing (600 MPa, 48 ℃), and ultrasound (24 kHz, 1.3 W/g, 33 ℃). These conditions were selected based on similar polyphenoloxidase inactivation (11%-18%). The specific energies required for the above-mentioned thermal, high-pressure processing, and power ultrasound processes were 240, 291, and 1233 kJ/kg, respectively. Then, the processed strawberry was stored at 3 ℃ and room temperature for 30 days. The constant pH (3.38±0.03) and soluble solids content (9.03 ± 0.25°Brix) during storage indicated a microbiological stability. Polyphenoloxidase did not reactivate during storage. The high-pressure processing and ultrasound treatments retained the antioxidant activity (70%-74%) better than the thermal process (60%), and high-pressure processing was the best treatment after 30 days of ambient storage to preserve antioxidant activity. Puree treated with ultrasound presented more color retention after processing and after ambient storage than the other preservation methods. For the three treatments, the changes of antioxidant activity and total color difference during storage were described by the fractional conversion model with rate constants k ranging between 0.03-0.09 and 0.06-0.22 day - 1, respectively. In resume, high-pressure processing and thermal processes required much less energy than ultrasound for the same polyphenoloxidase inactivation in strawberry. While high-pressure processing retained better the antioxidant activity of the strawberry puree during storage, the ultrasound treatment was better in terms of color retention.
The effects of thermosonication on the quality of a stingless bee honey, the Kelulut, were studied using processing temperature from 45 to 90 ℃ and processing time from 30 to 120 minutes. Physicochemical properties including water activity, moisture content, color intensity, viscosity, hydroxymethylfurfural content, total phenolic content, and radical scavenging activity were determined. Thermosonication reduced the water activity and moisture content by 7.9% and 16.6%, respectively, compared to 3.5% and 6.9% for conventional heating. For thermosonicated honey, color intensity increased by 68.2%, viscosity increased by 275.0%, total phenolic content increased by 58.1%, and radical scavenging activity increased by 63.0% when compared to its raw form. The increase of hydroxymethylfurfural to 62.46 mg/kg was still within the limits of international standards. Optimized thermosonication conditions using response surface methodology were predicted at 90 ℃ for 111 minutes. Thermosonication was revealed as an effective alternative technique for honey processing.
Foodborne pathogens may cause foodborne illness, which is among the major health problems worldwide. Since the therapeutic options for the treatment of the disease are becoming limited as a result of antibacterial resistance, there is an increasing interest to search for new alternatives of antibacterial. Bioactive essential oils from Curcuma sp become potential sources of novel antibacterial substances. The antibacterial activity of Curcuma heyneana essential oil (CHEO) was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, and Bacillus cereus. The principal constituents of CHEO are ar-turmerone, β-turmerone, α-zingiberene, α-terpinolene, 1,8-cineole, and camphor. CHEO exhibited the strongest antibacterial activity against E. coli with a MIC of 3.9 µg/mL, which is comparable to that of tetracycline. The combination of CHEO (0.97 µg/mL) and tetracycline (0.48 µg/mL) produced a synergistic effect with a FICI of 0.37. Time-kill assay confirmed that CHEO enhanced the activity of tetracycline. The mixture disrupted membrane permeability of E. coli and induced cell death. CHEO at MIC of 3.9 and 6.8 µg/mL significantly reduced the formation of biofilm in E. coli. The findings suggest that CHEO has the potential to be an alternative source of antibacterial agents against foodborne pathogens, particularly E. coli.
In a bid to produce rice flour noodles with improved texture and reduced cooking time, rice flour-soy protein isolate noodles (RNS) were structurally enhanced by a combined treatment (COM) of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) with glucono-δ-lactone (GDL). The RNS-COM was either dried using superheated steam (SHS) to yield RNS-COM-SHS or steamed for 10 min (S10) before air drying to produce RNS-COM-S10 noodles. Control samples were SHS-dried rice flour (RN-SHS) and air-dried RN-S10 noodles. In general, textural and microstructural properties indicated higher textural properties and a more robust network in RNS-COM-SHS and RNS-COM-S10 than in other noodles. However, optimum cooking time (P < 0.5) was in the order; RN-SHS, RNS-COM-SHS < RN-S10 < RNS-COM-S10. As a result of the COM treatment, structurally enhanced noodles were more resistant to cooking. As applied in RNS-COM-SHS noodles, SHS was able to improve cooking quality, probably through the formation of bigger and evenly spread pores that had promoted faster gelatinisation of starch, with a high order of relative starch crystallinity.