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  1. Chiu HM, Ching JY, Wu KC, Rerknimitr R, Li J, Wu DC, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2016 Mar;150(3):617-625.e3.
    PMID: 26627608 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.11.042
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Age, sex, smoking, and family history are risk factors for colorectal cancer in Asia. The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) scoring system was developed to identify subjects with a high risk for advanced neoplasm (AN). We tested an algorithm that combined APCS scores with fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in colorectal cancer screening.
    METHODS: We performed a multicenter prospective study, enrolling asymptomatic individuals older than 40 years old in 12 Asia-Pacific regions from December 2011 to December 2013. APCS scores were calculated for each individual (0-1 = low risk [LR], 2-3 = medium risk [MR], and 4-7 = high risk [HR] for AN). LR and MR subjects were offered FIT and referred for early colonoscopies if FIT results were positive. HR subjects were offered colonoscopies. The proportions of subjects with ANs were determined for each group based on colonoscopy findings; odd ratios for LR and MR subjects were calculated compared to LR individuals. We calculated the sensitivity of the APCS-FIT algorithm in identifying subjects with AN.
    RESULTS: A total of 5657 subjects were recruited: 646 subjects (11.4%) were considered LR, 3243 subjects (57.3%) were considered MR, and 1768 subjects (31.3%) were considered HR for AN. The proportions of individuals with an AN in these groups were 1.5%, 5.1%, and 10.9%, respectively. Compared with LR group, MR and HR subjects had a 3.4-fold increase and a 7.8-fold increase in risk for AN, respectively. A total of 70.6% subjects with AN (95% confidence interval: 65.6%-75.1%) and 95.1% subjects with invasive cancers (95% confidence interval: 82.2%-99.2%) were correctly instructed to undergo early colonoscopy examination.
    CONCLUSIONS: The APCS scoring system, which is based on age, sex, family history, and smoking, is a useful tool for determining risk for colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma in asymptomatic subjects. Use of the APCS score-based algorithm in triaging subjects for FIT or colonoscopy can substantially reduce colonoscopy workload.
  2. Rampal S, Yang MH, Sung J, Son HJ, Choi YH, Lee JH, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2014 Jul;147(1):78-87.e3.
    PMID: 24632359 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.03.006
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diabetes is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. We studied the association between markers of glucose metabolism and metabolic syndrome and the presence of colorectal adenomas in a large number of asymptomatic men and women attending a health screening program in South Korea. We also investigated whether these associations depend on adenoma location.
    METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, we measured fasting levels of glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, and C-peptide and calculated homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) values (used to quantify insulin resistance) for 19,361 asymptomatic South Korean subjects who underwent colonoscopy examinations from January 2006 to June 2009. Participants completed a standardized self-administered health questionnaire and a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Blood samples were collected on the day of the colonoscopy; fasting blood samples were also collected. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the associations of glucose markers with the prevalence of any adenoma.
    RESULTS: Using detailed multivariable-adjusted dose-response models, the prevalence ratios (aPR, 95% confidence interval [CI]) for any adenoma, comparing the 90th with the 10th percentile, were 1.08 (1.00-1.16; P = .04) for fasting glucose, 1.07 (0.99-1.15; P = .10) for insulin, 1.09 (1.02-1.18, P = .02) for HOMA, 1.09 (1.01-1.17; P = .02) for hemoglobin A1c, and 1.14 (1.05-1.24; P = .002) for C-peptide. The corresponding ratios for nonadvanced adenomas were 1.11 (0.99-1.25; P = .08), 1.10 (0.98-1.24; P = .12), 1.15 (1.02-1.29; P = .02), 1.14 (1.01-1.28; P = .03), and 1.20 (1.05-1.37; P = .007), respectively. The corresponding ratios for advanced adenomas were 1.32 (0.94-1.84; P = .11), 1.23 (0.87-1.75; P = .24), 1.30 (0.92-1.85; P = .14), 1.13 (0.79-1.61; P = .50), and 1.67 (1.15-2.42; P = .007), respectively. Metabolic syndrome was associated with the prevalence of any adenoma (aPR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.13-1.24; P < .001), nonadvanced adenoma (aPR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20-1.40; P < .001), and advanced adenoma (aPR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.14-1.78; P = .002). Associations were similar for adenomas located in the distal versus proximal colon.
    CONCLUSIONS: Increasing levels of glucose, HOMA values, levels of hemoglobin A1c and C-peptide, and metabolic syndrome are significantly associated with the prevalence of adenomas. Adenomas should be added to the list of consequences of altered glucose metabolism.
  3. Ng SC, Zeng Z, Niewiadomski O, Tang W, Bell S, Kamm MA, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2016 Jan;150(1):86-95.e3; quiz e13-4.
    PMID: 26385074 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2015.09.005
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Asia, but little is known about disease progression in this region. The Asia-Pacific Crohn's and Colitis Epidemiology Study was initiated in 2011, enrolling subjects from 8 countries in Asia (China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Macau, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) and Australia. We present data from this ongoing study.
    METHODS: We collected data on 413 patients diagnosed with IBD (222 with ulcerative colitis [UC], 181 with Crohn's disease [CD], 10 with IBD unclassified; median age, 37 y) from 2011 through 2013. We analyzed the disease course and severity and mortality. Risks for medical and surgical therapies were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis.
    RESULTS: The cumulative probability that CD would change from inflammatory to stricturing or penetrating disease was 19.6%. The cumulative probabilities for use of immunosuppressants or anti-tumor necrosis factor agents were 58.9% and 12.0% for patients with CD, and 12.7% and 0.9% for patients with UC, respectively. Perianal CD was associated with an increased risk of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy within 1 year of its diagnosis (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.09). The cumulative probabilities for surgery 1 year after diagnosis were 9.1% for patients with CD and 0.9% for patients with UC. Patients with CD and penetrating disease had a 7-fold increase for risk of surgery, compared with patients with inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 7.67; 95% confidence interval, 3.93-14.96). The overall mortality for patients with IBD was 0.7%.
    CONCLUSIONS: In a prospective population-based study, we found that the early course of disease in patients with IBD in Asia was comparable with that of the West. Patients with CD frequently progress to complicated disease and have accelerated use of immunosuppressants. Few patients with early stage UC undergo surgery in Asia. Increasing our understanding of IBD progression in different populations can help optimize therapy and improve outcomes.
    KEYWORDS: ACCESS; Natural History; Risk Factor; Treatment
  4. Ng SC, Tang W, Ching JY, Wong M, Chow CM, Hui AJ, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2013 Jul;145(1):158-165.e2.
    PMID: 23583432 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.007
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are becoming more common in Asia, but epidemiologic data are lacking. The Asia-Pacific Crohn's and Colitis Epidemiology Study aimed to determine the incidence and phenotype of IBD in 8 countries across Asia and in Australia.

    METHODS: We performed a prospective, population-based study of IBD incidence in predefined catchment areas, collecting data for 1 year, starting on April 1, 2011. New cases were ascertained from multiple overlapping sources and entered into a Web-based database. Cases were confirmed using standard criteria. Local endoscopy, pathology, and pharmacy records were searched to ensure completeness of case capture.

    RESULTS: We identified 419 new cases of IBD (232 of ulcerative colitis [UC], 166 of Crohn's disease [CD], and 21 IBD-undetermined). The crude annual overall incidence values per 100,000 individuals were 1.37 for IBD in Asia (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51; 0.76 for UC, 0.54 for CD, and 0.07 for IBD-undetermined) and 23.67 in Australia (95% confidence interval: 18.46-29.85; 7.33 for UC, 14.00 for CD, and 2.33 for IBD-undetermined). China had the highest incidence of IBD in Asia (3.44 per 100,000 individuals). The ratios of UC to CD were 2.0 in Asia and 0.5 in Australia. Median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 5.5 months (interquartile range, 1.4-15 months). Complicated CD (stricturing, penetrating, or perianal disease) was more common in Asia than Australia (52% vs 24%; P = .001), and a family history of IBD was less common in Asia (3% vs 17%; P < .001).

    CONCLUSIONS: We performed a large-scale population-based study and found that although the incidence of IBD varies throughout Asia, it is still lower than in the West. IBD can be as severe or more severe in Asia than in the West. The emergence of IBD in Asia will result in the need for specific health care resources, and offers a unique opportunity to study etiologic factors in developing nations.

  5. Moayyedi P, Eikelboom JW, Bosch J, Connolly SJ, Dyal L, Shestakovska O, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2019 08;157(2):403-412.e5.
    PMID: 31054846 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.041
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk.

    METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation.

    RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528).

    CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.

  6. Moayyedi P, Eikelboom JW, Bosch J, Connolly SJ, Dyal L, Shestakovska O, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2019 09;157(3):682-691.e2.
    PMID: 31152740 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.05.056
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial.

    METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up.

    RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.

  7. Sperber AD, Bangdiwala SI, Drossman DA, Ghoshal UC, Simren M, Tack J, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2021 01;160(1):99-114.e3.
    PMID: 32294476 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2020.04.014
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Although functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), now called disorders of gut-brain interaction, have major economic effects on health care systems and adversely affect quality of life, little is known about their global prevalence and distribution. We investigated the prevalence of and factors associated with 22 FGIDs, in 33 countries on 6 continents.

    METHODS: Data were collected via the Internet in 24 countries, personal interviews in 7 countries, and both in 2 countries, using the Rome IV diagnostic questionnaire, Rome III irritable bowel syndrome questions, and 80 items to identify variables associated with FGIDs. Data collection methods differed for Internet and household groups, so data analyses were conducted and reported separately.

    RESULTS: Among the 73,076 adult respondents (49.5% women), diagnostic criteria were met for at least 1 FGID by 40.3% persons who completed the Internet surveys (95% confidence interval [CI], 39.9-40.7) and 20.7% of persons who completed the household surveys (95% CI, 20.2-21.3). FGIDs were more prevalent among women than men, based on responses to the Internet survey (odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.6-1.7) and household survey (odds ratio, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.3-1.4). FGIDs were associated with lower quality of life and more frequent doctor visits. Proportions of subjects with irritable bowel syndrome were lower when the Rome IV criteria were used, compared with the Rome III criteria, in the Internet survey (4.1% vs 10.1%) and household survey (1.5% vs 3.5%).

    CONCLUSIONS: In a large-scale multinational study, we found that more than 40% of persons worldwide have FGIDs, which affect quality of life and health care use. Although the absolute prevalence was higher among Internet respondents, similar trends and relative distributions were found in people who completed Internet vs personal interviews.

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