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  1. Tan DB, Yong YK, Tan HY, Kamarulzaman A, Tan LH, Lim A, et al.
    HIV Med, 2008 May;9(5):307-16.
    PMID: 18400078 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2008.00565.x
    A proportion of HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART) develop immune restoration disease (IRD). Immunological characteristics of IRD were investigated in a cohort of HIV patients beginning therapy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  2. Do TC, Boettiger D, Law M, Pujari S, Zhang F, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    HIV Med, 2016 08;17(7):542-9.
    PMID: 27430354 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12358
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics associated with current smoking in an Asian HIV-positive cohort, to calculate the predictive risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction (MI), and to identify the impact that simulated interventions may have.

    METHODS: Logistic regression analysis was used to distinguish associated current smoking characteristics. Five-year predictive risks of CVD, CHD and MI and the impact of simulated interventions were calculated utilizing the Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs Study (D:A:D) algorithm.

    RESULTS: Smoking status data were collected from 4274 participants and 1496 of these had sufficient data for simulated intervention calculations. Current smoking prevalence in these two groups was similar (23.2% vs. 19.9%, respectively). Characteristics associated with current smoking included age > 50 years compared with 30-39 years [odds ratio (OR) 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.83], HIV exposure through injecting drug use compared with heterosexual exposure (OR 3.03; 95% CI 2.25-4.07), and receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) at study sites in Singapore, South Korea, Malaysia, Japan and Vietnam in comparison to Thailand (all OR > 2). Women were less likely to smoke than men (OR 0.11; 95% CI 0.08-0.14). In simulated interventions, smoking cessation demonstrated the greatest impact in reducing CVD and CHD risk and closely approximated the impact of switching from abacavir to an alternate antiretroviral in the reduction of 5-year MI risk.

    CONCLUSIONS: Multiple interventions could reduce CVD, CHD and MI risk in Asian HIV-positive patients, with smoking cessation potentially being the most influential.

  3. Leng CY, Low HC, Chua LL, Chong ML, Sulaiman H, Azwa I, et al.
    HIV Med, 2017 05;18(5):321-331.
    PMID: 27649852 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12432
    OBJECTIVES: Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers disproportionately affect those infected with HIV despite effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). The primary aim of this study was to quantify HPV16 and HPV52 E6-specific interferon (IFN)-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) T-cell responses, a correlate of protective immunity, in the first year following cART initiation and subsequently in those patients with suboptimal (sIR) and optimal (oIR) immune reconstitution.

    METHODS: Ninety-four HIV-infected patients were recruited to the study; a longitudinal cohort of patients recruited just prior to commencing cART and followed up for 48 weeks (n = 27), and a cross-sectional cohort (n = 67) consisting of patients with sIR (CD4 T-cell count < 350 cells/μL) and oIR (CD4 T-cell count > 500 cells/μL) after a minimum of 2 years on cART. Controls (n = 29) consisted of HIV-negative individuals. IFN-γ ELISPOT responses against HPV16 and HPV52 E6 were correlated to clinical characteristics, anal and oral HPV carriage, T-cell maturational subsets, markers of activation, senescence and T-regulatory cells.

    RESULTS: HPV16 and HPV52 E6-specific T-cell responses were detected in only one of 27 patients (3.7%) during the initial phase of immune recovery. After at least 2 years of cART, those who achieved oIR had significantly higher E6-specific responses (9 of 34; 26.5%) compared with those with sIR (2 of 32; 6.3%) (P = 0.029). Apart from higher CD4 T-cell counts and lower CD4 T-cell activation, no other immunological correlates were associated with the detection of HPV16 and HPV52 E6-specific responses.

    CONCLUSIONS: HPV16 and HPV52 E6-specific IFN-γ T-cell responses, a correlate of protective immunity, were detected more frequently among HIV-infected patients who achieved optimal immune recovery on cART (26.5%) compared with those with suboptimal recovery (6.3%).

  4. Jiamsakul A, Yunihastuti E, Van Nguyen K, Merati TP, Do CD, Ditangco R, et al.
    HIV Med, 2018 Apr 23.
    PMID: 29683253 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12621
  5. Bijker R, Jiamsakul A, Uy E, Kumarasamy N, Ditango R, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    HIV Med, 2019 03;20(3):183-191.
    PMID: 30620108 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12687
    OBJECTIVES: With aging of the HIV-positive population, cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly contributes to morbidity and mortality. We investigated CVD-related and other causes of death (CODs) and factors associated with CVD in a multi-country Asian HIV-positive cohort.

    METHODS: Patient data from 2003-2017 were obtained from the Therapeutics, Research, Education and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). We included patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with > 1 day of follow-up. Cumulative incidences were plotted for CVD-related, AIDS-related, non-AIDS-related, and unknown CODs, and any CVD (i.e. fatal and nonfatal). Competing risk regression was used to assess risk factors of any CVD.

    RESULTS: Of 8069 patients with a median follow-up of 7.3 years [interquartile range (IQR) 4.4-10.7 years], 378 patients died [incidence rate (IR) 6.2 per 1000 person-years (PY)], and this total included 22 CVD-related deaths (IR 0.36 per 1000 PY). Factors significantly associated with any CVD event (IR 2.2 per 1000 PY) were older age [sub-hazard ratio (sHR) 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.58 for age 41-50 years; sHR 5.52; 95% CI 3.43-8.91 for ≥ 51 years, compared with < 40 years], high blood pressure (sHR 1.62; 95% CI 1.04-2.52), high total cholesterol (sHR 1.89; 95% CI 1.27-2.82), high triglycerides (sHR 1.55; 95% CI 1.02-2.37) and high body mass index (BMI) (sHR 1.66; 95% CI 1.12-2.46). CVD crude IRs were lower in the later ART initiation period and in lower middle- and upper middle-income countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The development of fatal and nonfatal CVD events in our cohort was associated with older age, and treatable risk factors such as high blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol and BMI. Lower CVD event rates in middle-income countries may indicate under-diagnosis of CVD in Asian-Pacific resource-limited settings.

  6. Mohd Salleh NA, Fairbairn N, Nolan S, Barrios R, Shoveller J, Richardson L, et al.
    HIV Med, 2019 10;20(9):606-614.
    PMID: 31359615 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12777
    OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the association between dispensation of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the same facility, across multiple low-barrier dispensing outlets, and achieving optimal adherence to ART among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD).

    METHODS: We used data from the AIDS Care Cohort to Evaluate Exposure to Survival Services (ACCESS) study, a long-running study of a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive PWUD, linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records in Vancouver, Canada, a setting of no-cost, universal access to HIV care. The longitudinal relationship between MMT-ART dispensation at the same facility and the odds of ≥ 95% ART adherence was analysed using multivariable generalized linear mixed-effects modelling. We conducted a further analysis using a marginal structural mode with inverse probability of treatment weights as a sensitivity analysis.

    RESULTS: This study included data on 1690 interviews of 345 ART- and MMT-exposed participants carried out between June 2012 and December 2017. In the final multivariable model, MMT-ART dispensation, compared with nondispensation at the same facility, was associated with greater odds of achieving ≥ 95% adherence [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.96]. A marginal structural model estimated a 1.48 (95% CI 1.15-1.80) greater odds of ≥ 95% adherence among participants who reported MMT-ART dispensation at the same facility compared with those who did not.

    CONCLUSIONS: The odds of achieving optimal adherence to ART were 56% higher during periods in which MMT and ART medications were dispensed at the same facility, in a low-barrier setting. Our findings highlight the need to consider a simpler integrated approach with medication dispensation at the same facility in low-threshold settings.

  7. Jiamsakul A, Kiertiburanakul S, Ng OT, Chaiwarith R, Wong W, Ditangco R, et al.
    HIV Med, 2019 08;20(7):439-449.
    PMID: 30980495 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12734
    OBJECTIVES: With earlier antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, time spent in HIV care is expected to increase. We aimed to investigate loss to follow-up (LTFU) in Asian patients who remained in care 5 years after ART initiation.

    METHODS: Long-term LTFU was defined as LTFU occurring after 5 years on ART. LTFU was defined as (1) patients not seen in the previous 12 months; and (2) patients not seen in the previous 6 months. Factors associated with LTFU were analysed using competing risk regression.

    RESULTS: Under the 12-month definition, the LTFU rate was 2.0 per 100 person-years (PY) [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.2 among 4889 patients included in the study. LTFU was associated with age > 50 years [sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 1.64; 95% CI 1.17-2.31] compared with 31-40 years, viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL (SHR 1.86; 95% CI 1.16-2.97) compared with viral load < 1000 copies/mL, and hepatitis C coinfection (SHR 1.48; 95% CI 1.06-2.05). LTFU was less likely to occur in females, in individuals with higher CD4 counts, in those with self-reported adherence ≥ 95%, and in those living in high-income countries. The 6-month LTFU definition produced an incidence rate of 3.2 per 100 PY (95% CI 2.9-3.4 and had similar associations but with greater risks of LTFU for ART initiation in later years (2006-2009: SHR 2.38; 95% CI 1.93-2.94; and 2010-2011: SHR 4.26; 95% CI 3.17-5.73) compared with 2003-2005.

    CONCLUSIONS: The long-term LTFU rate in our cohort was low, with older age being associated with LTFU. The increased risk of LTFU with later years of ART initiation in the 6-month analysis, but not the 12-month analysis, implies that there was a possible move towards longer HIV clinic scheduling in Asia.

  8. Han WM, Jiamsakul A, Jantarapakde J, Yunihastuti E, Choi JY, Ditangco R, et al.
    HIV Med, 2020 Nov 17.
    PMID: 33200864 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.13017
    OBJECTIVES: We conducted a longitudinal cohort analysis to evaluate the association of pre-treatment body mass index (BMI) with CD4 recovery, virological failure (VF) and cardiovascular risk disease (CVD) markers among people living with HIV (PLHIV).

    METHODS: Participants who were enrolled between January 2003 and March 2019 in a regional Asia HIV cohort with weight and height measurements prior to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation were included. Factors associated with mean CD4 increase were analysed using repeated-measures linear regression. Time to first VF after 6 months on ART and time to first development of CVD risk markers were analysed using Cox regression models. Sensitivity analyses were done adjusting for Asian BMI thresholds.

    RESULTS: Of 4993 PLHIV (66% male), 62% had pre-treatment BMI in the normal range (18.5-25.0 kg/m2 ), while 26%, 10% and 2% were underweight ( 30 kg/m2 ), respectively. Both higher baseline and time-updated BMI were associated with larger CD4 gains compared with normal BMI. After adjusting for Asian BMI thresholds, higher baseline BMIs of 23-27.5 and > 27.5 kg/m2 were associated with larger CD4 increases of 15.6 cells/µL [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-28.3] and 28.8 cells/µL (95% CI: 6.6-50.9), respectively, compared with normal BMI (18.5-23 kg/m2 ). PLHIV with BMIs of 25-30 and > 30 kg/m2 were 1.27 times (95% CI: 1.10-1.47) and 1.61 times (95% CI: 1.13-2.24) more likely to develop CVD risk factors. No relationship between pre-treatment BMI and VF was observed.

    CONCLUSIONS: High pre-treatment BMI was associated with better immune reconstitution and CVD risk factor development in an Asian PLHIV cohort.

  9. Ross J, Jiamsakul A, Kumarasamy N, Azwa I, Merati TP, Do CD, et al.
    HIV Med, 2020 Nov 05.
    PMID: 33151020 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.13006
    OBJECTIVES: To assess second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) virological failure and HIV drug resistance-associated mutations (RAMs), in support of third-line regimen planning in Asia.

    METHODS: Adults > 18 years of age on second-line ART for ≥ 6 months were eligible. Cross-sectional data on HIV viral load (VL) and genotypic resistance testing were collected or testing was conducted between July 2015 and May 2017 at 12 Asia-Pacific sites. Virological failure (VF) was defined as VL > 1000 copies/mL with a second VL > 1000 copies/mL within 3-6 months. FASTA files were submitted to Stanford University HIV Drug Resistance Database and RAMs were compared against the IAS-USA 2019 mutations list. VF risk factors were analysed using logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Of 1378 patients, 74% were male and 70% acquired HIV through heterosexual exposure. At second-line switch, median [interquartile range (IQR)] age was 37 (32-42) years and median (IQR) CD4 count was 103 (43.5-229.5) cells/µL; 93% received regimens with boosted protease inhibitors (PIs). Median duration on second line was 3 years. Among 101 patients (7%) with VF, CD4 count > 200 cells/µL at switch [odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17-0.77 vs. CD4 ≤ 50) and HIV exposure through male-male sex (OR = 0.32, 95% CI: 0.17-0.64 vs. heterosexual) or injecting drug use (OR = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.12-0.49) were associated with reduced VF. Of 41 (41%) patients with resistance data, 80% had at least one RAM to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), 63% to NRTIs, and 35% to PIs. Of those with PI RAMs, 71% had two or more.

    CONCLUSIONS: There were low proportions with VF and significant RAMs in our cohort, reflecting the durability of current second-line regimens.

  10. Rupasinghe D, Kiertiburanakul S, Kamarulzaman A, Zhang F, Kumarasamy N, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    HIV Med, 2020 07;21(6):397-402.
    PMID: 31852025 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12836
    OBJECTIVES: Early mortality among those still initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with advanced stages of HIV infection in resource-limited settings remains high despite recommendations for universal HIV treatment. We investigated risk factors associated with early mortality in people living with HIV (PLHIV) starting ART at low CD4 levels in the Asia-Pacific.

    METHODS: PLHIV enrolled in the Therapeutics, Research, Education and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) who initiated ART with a CD4 count  1 year were censored at 12 months. Competing risk regression was used to analyse risk factors with loss to follow-up as a competing risk.

    RESULTS: A total of 1813 PLHIV were included in the study, of whom 74% were male. With 73 (4%) deaths, the overall first-year mortality rate was 4.27 per 100 person-years (PY). Thirty-eight deaths (52%) were AIDS-related, 10 (14%) were immune reconstituted inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-related, 13 (18%) were non-AIDS-related and 12 (16%) had an unknown cause. Risk factors included having a body mass index (BMI)  100 cells/μL: SHR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05-0.26) was associated with reduced hazard for mortality compared to CD4 count ≤ 25 cells/μL.

    CONCLUSIONS: Fifty-two per cent of early deaths were AIDS-related. Efforts to initiate ART at CD4 counts > 50 cell/μL are associated with improved short-term survival rates, even in those with late stages of HIV disease.

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