METHODS: The NFS was calculated and LSM obtained for consecutive adult NAFLD patients scheduled for liver biopsy. The accuracy of predicting advanced fibrosis using either modality and in combination were assessed. An algorithm combining the NFS and LSM was developed from a training cohort and subsequently tested in a validation cohort.
RESULTS: There were 101 and 46 patients in the training and validation cohort, respectively. In the training cohort, the percentages of misclassifications using the NFS alone, LSM alone, LSM alone (with grey zone), both tests for all patients and a 2-step approach using LSM only for patients with indeterminate and high NFS were 5.0, 28.7, 2.0, 2.0 and 4.0 %, respectively. The percentages of patients requiring liver biopsy were 30.7, 0, 36.6, 36.6 and 18.8 %, respectively. In the validation cohort, the percentages of misclassifications were 8.7, 28.3, 2.2, 2.2 and 8.7 %, respectively. The percentages of patients requiring liver biopsy were 28.3, 0, 41.3, 43.5 and 19.6 %, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: The novel 2-step approach further reduced the number of patients requiring a liver biopsy whilst maintaining the accuracy to predict advanced fibrosis. The combination of NFS and LSM for all patients provided no apparent advantage over using either of the tests alone.
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on medical students from the University of Malaya. Diagnosis of NAFLD was by transabdominal ultrasonography and following exclusion of significant alcohol intake and other causes of chronic liver disease.
RESULTS: Data of 469 subjects were analyzed (mean age 23.2 ± 2.4 years, 40.3 % male). The racial distribution was: Chinese 53.9 %, Malay 30.5 % and Indian 15.6 %. The overall prevalence of NAFLD was 7.9 %. Subjects with NAFLD were older, had greater BMI and WC, higher SBP and DBP, higher FBS, serum TG and LDL levels, and lower serum HDL level. The prevalence of NAFLD was higher among males compared to females (17.9 % vs. 3.3 %, p
METHODS: Consecutive subjects who came for a health checkup at a suburban medical facility were recruited for the study. All individuals had clinical assessments, anthropometric measurements, blood tests, and ultrasonography of the liver performed. Those with significant alcohol consumption and history of chronic liver disease were excluded.
RESULTS: Of the 1,621 "health screened" individuals analyzed, 368 (22.7 %) were found to have NAFLD. They comprised Chinese 1,269 (78.3 %), Malay 197 (12.1 %), and Indian 155 (9.6 %). Males and "older" age group ≥45 years had high prevalence rates with the highest in Indian (68.2 %) and Malay (64.7 %) males. Chinese females <45 years had the lowest prevalence of 5.2 %. A significant increase in the prevalence of fatty liver between age <45 years and ≥45 years was seen in female of all three races but in male, this increase was seen only among the Indians. NAFLD was strongly associated with diabetes mellitus, glucose intolerance, body mass index ≥23, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension.
CONCLUSION: NAFLD is common in suburban Malaysian population. Older Indian and Malay males have an inordinately high prevalence of the disease.
METHODS: A total of 1402 ACLF patients, enrolled in the APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) with 90-day follow-up, were analyzed. An ACLF score was developed in a derivation cohort (n = 480) and was validated (n = 922).
RESULTS: The overall survival of ACLF patients at 28 days was 51.7%, with a median of 26.3 days. Five baseline variables, total bilirubin, creatinine, serum lactate, INR and hepatic encephalopathy, were found to be independent predictors of mortality, with AUROC in derivation and validation cohorts being 0.80 and 0.78, respectively. AARC-ACLF score (range 5-15) was found to be superior to MELD and CLIF SOFA scores in predicting mortality with an AUROC of 0.80. The point scores were categorized into grades of liver failure (Gr I: 5-7; II: 8-10; and III: 11-15 points) with 28-day cumulative mortalities of 12.7, 44.5 and 85.9%, respectively. The mortality risk could be dynamically calculated as, with each unit increase in AARC-ACLF score above 10, the risk increased by 20%. A score of ≥11 at baseline or persisting in the first week was often seen among nonsurvivors (p = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: The AARC-ACLF score is easy to use, dynamic and reliable, and superior to the existing prediction models. It can reliably predict the need for interventions, such as liver transplant, within the first week.
METHODS: A longitudinal study of biopsy-proven NAFLD patients was conducted at the Asian tertiary hospital from November 2012 to January 2017. Patients with paired liver biopsies and LSM were followed prospectively for liver-related and non-liver related complications, and survival.
RESULTS: The data for 113 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients (mean age 51.3 ± 10.6 years, male 50%) were analyzed. At baseline, advanced fibrosis based on histology and LSM was observed in 22 and 46%, respectively. Paired liver biopsy and LSM at 1-year interval was available in 71 and 80% of patients, respectively. High-risk cases (defined as patients with advanced fibrosis at baseline who had no fibrosis improvement, and patients who developed advanced fibrosis on repeat assessment) were seen in 23 and 53% of patients, based on paired liver biopsy and LSM, respectively. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was independently associated with high-risk cases. The median follow-up was 37 months with a total follow-up of 328 person-years. High-risk cases based on paired liver biopsy had significantly higher rates of liver-related complications (p = 0.002) but no difference in other outcomes. High-risk patients based on paired LSM had a significantly higher rate of liver-related complications (p = 0.046), cardiovascular events (p = 0.025) and composite outcomes (p = 0.006).
CONCLUSION: Repeat LSM can predict liver-related complications, similar to paired liver biopsy, and may be useful in identifying patients who may be at an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Further studies in a larger cohort and with a longer follow-up should be carried out to confirm these observations.
METHODS: A prospective-retrospective cohort of 985 patients was identified from the APASL-ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) database and the Chinese Study Group. Complications of ACLF (ascites, infection, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatic encephalopathy, upper gastrointestinal bleeding) as well as cirrhosis and the current main prognostic models were measured for their predictive ability for 28- or 90-day mortality.
RESULTS: A total of 709 patients with HBV-ACLF as defined by the AARC criteria were enrolled. Among these HBV-ACLF patients, the cirrhotic group showed significantly higher mortality and complications than the non-cirrhotic group. A total of 36.1% and 40.1% of patients met the European Association for the Study of Liver (EASL)-Chronic Liver Failure consortium (CLIF-C) criteria in the non-cirrhotic and cirrhotic groups, respectively; these patients had significantly higher rates of mortality and complications than those who did not satisfy the CLIF-C criteria. Furthermore, among patients who did not meet the CLIF-C criteria, the cirrhotic group exhibited higher mortality and complication rates than the non-cirrhotic group, without significant differences in organ failure. The Tongji prognostic predictor model score (TPPMs), which set the number of complications as one of the determinants, showed comparable or superior ability to the Chinese Group on the Study of Severe Hepatitis B-ACLF score (COSSH-ACLFs), APASL-ACLF Research Consortium score (AARC-ACLFs), CLIF-C organ failure score (CLIF-C OFs), CLIF-C-ACLF score (CLIF-C-ACLFs), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score (MELDs) and MELD-sodium score (MELD-Nas) in HBV-ACLF patients, especially in cirrhotic HBV--ACLF patients. Patients with two (OR 4.70, 1.88) or three (OR 8.27, 2.65) complications had a significantly higher risk of 28- or 90-day mortality, respectively.
CONCLUSION: The presence of complications is a major risk factor for mortality in HBV-ACLF patients. TPPM possesses high predictive ability in HBV-ACLF patients, especially in cirrhotic HBV-ACLF patients.