The presence of lymph node (LN) metastasis significantly affects the survival of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Successful detection and removal of positive LNs are crucial in the treatment of this disease. Current evaluation methods still have their limitations in detecting the presence of tumor cells in the LNs, where up to a third of clinically diagnosed metastasis-negative (N0) patients actually have metastasis-positive LNs in the neck. We developed a molecular signature in the primary tumor that could predict LN metastasis in OSCC. A total of 211 cores from 55 individuals were included in the study. Eleven proteins were evaluated using immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray. Of the 11 biomarkers evaluated using receiver operating curve analysis, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (HER-2/neu), laminin, gamma 2 (LAMC2), and ras homolog family member C (RHOC) were found to be significantly associated with the presence of LN metastasis. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering-demonstrated expression patterns of these 4 proteins could be used to differentiate specimens that have positive LN metastasis from those that are negative for LN metastasis. Collectively, EGFR, HER-2/neu, LAMC2, and RHOC have a specificity of 87.5% and a sensitivity of 70%, with a prognostic accuracy of 83.4% for LN metastasis. We also demonstrated that the LN signature could independently predict disease-specific survival (P = .036). The 4-protein LN signature validated in an independent set of samples strongly suggests that it could reliably distinguish patients with LN metastasis from those who were metastasis-free and therefore could be a prognostic tool for the management of patients with OSCC.
A retrospective study was conducted to investigate whether there was a correlation between the histological pattern of renal amyloidosis, the chemical type of amyloid protein involved and the clinical presentation. Eighteen consecutive cases of systemic amyloidosis that had renal biopsies processed and examined histopathologically at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur were reviewed. The age range of patients was 25 to 64 yrs (mean, 46 yrs). The male:female ratio was 2.6:1. Three patients were Malay, 9 Chinese, 3 Indian, 1 Indonesian, 1 Iban, and 1 Bisaya. According to the predominant site of amyloid deposition, 14 cases showed a glomerular pattern and 4 a vascular pattern. 8 cases were designated as 2 anti-human amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis on the basis of permanganate-sensitivity and immunoreactivity of deposits with anti-human AA protein antibody. Ten cases contained deposits that were permanganate-resistant and nonimmunoreactive for AA protein and were designated as AL in type. The histomorphologic pattern of renal amyloidosis did not provide a reliable means of differentiating AA from AL amyloidosis. The glomerular pattern tended to present with renal manifestations such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic renal failure, whereas the vascular pattern tended to present with nonrenal manifestations such as diarrhoea. These findings may have a bearing on the pathophysiology of amyloidosis and provide clues to appropriate management.
Congo red screening of 211 consecutive cardiac biopsy specimens obtained during cardiac surgery from 167 patients revealed 26 (16%) instances of isolated atrial amyloidosis (IAA). The ages of IAA-positive patients ranged from 25 to 52 years (mean age, 39 years). Twenty-three (88%) IAA-positive biopsy specimens were from patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD) while three (12%) were from patients with an atrial septal defect (ASD). The prevalence of IAA in the CRHD patients was 23%, appreciably higher than that in the ASD patients (15%) and in other patients with atrial biopsies. The prevalence of IAA in both CRHD and ASD patients was significantly higher (P < .001) than in controls. Controls consisted of 247 healthy adults who were autopsied after traumatic deaths, with an age range of 18 to 89 years (mean age, 38 years). Only seven (3%) control subjects were IAA positive; all were over 40 years of age. Isolated atrial amyloidosis deposits were permanganate resistant and immunohistochemically positive for human amyloid P (AP) protein and negative for human amyloid-associated (AA) protein and immunoglobulin light chains. They were observed as fine congophilic and birefringent deposits in intramyocardial vessel walls, along the myocardial sarcolemma, and in the subendocardium. There was associated myocyte hypertrophy but no atrophy. Electron microscopy demonstrated typical nonbranching amyloid fibrils. It is postulated that stretching of the atria in chronic heart disease results in a raised prevalence of IAA. Recent reports that IAA contains atrial natriuretic peptide, a polypeptide hormone product of atrial myocytes, supports this view.
Biopsy and necropsy tissue from 31 unselected patients with systemic amyloidosis, in which there was histologic evidence of liver involvement, were reviewed with reference to the location and pattern of amyloid deposition in the liver. Amyloidosis was classified into AA and AL types on the basis of immunohistochemistry and permanganate reaction of the amyloid deposits. Nineteen were categorized as AA (secondary) and 12 as AL (primary) amyloidosis. Deposition of AA amyloid was limited to the walls of vessels in the portal tract, constituting a "vascular" pattern. In AL amyloidosis, the deposits exhibited a "sinusoidal" pattern in that they were seen along hepatic sinusoids as well as in vessel walls. This difference was statistically significant (P less than .001). The histologic pattern of liver infiltration offers a valuable clue in the classification of systemic amyloidosis and provides information that may be useful in the selection of patients for therapy.
Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) has been known to frequently express androgen receptor (AR). Therefore, androgens could play roles in the biological behavior of Paget cells. 5α-Reductase (5α-red) types 1 and 2 and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 (17β-HSD5) are pivotal in situ regulators of androgen production in androgen-responsive tissues including androgen-dependent neoplasms. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized AR, androgen-producing enzymes, and their transcription factors to assess the state of in situ androgen production and actions and its correlation of invasiveness in EMPD. We studied 51 cases of EMPD with known clinicopathological status. AR, 5α-red1, 17β-HSD5, and β-catenin immunoreactivity was evaluated by using the modified H-score method while cyclin D1, p53, forkhead box protein P1, and a proliferation marker, Ki-67, were quantified using labeling index. The mean scores of AR, 5α-red1, and 17β-HSD5 in invasive EMPD were all significantly higher than noninvasive EMPD (P < .0001). Ki-67 labeling index as well as the cyclin D1 score was also significantly higher in invasive than noninvasive lesions of EMPD. These results demonstrated that androgen receptor and androgen-producing enzymes were both associated with cell cycle regulation and subsequently the invasiveness of EMPD lesions and could also indicate those above as potential markers of invasive potentials in EMPD.
To determine whether cytopathology whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials aid learning by postgraduate trainees, we designed a randomized crossover trial to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative impact of whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials compared with traditional glass slide and textbook methods of learning cytopathology. Forty-three anatomical pathology registrars were recruited from Australia, New Zealand, and Malaysia. Online assessments were used to determine efficacy, whereas user experience and perceptions of efficiency were evaluated using online Likert scales and open-ended questions. Outcomes of online assessments indicated that, with respect to performance, learning with whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials was equivalent to using traditional methods. High-impact learning, efficiency, and equity of learning from virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials were strong themes identified in open-ended responses. Participants raised concern about the lack of z-axis capability in the cytopathology whole slide images, suggesting that delivery of z-stacked whole slide images online may be important for future educational development. In this trial, learning cytopathology with whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials was found to be as effective as and perceived as more efficient than learning from glass slides and textbooks. The use of whole slide images and virtual microscopy adaptive tutorials has the potential to provide equitable access to effective learning from teaching material of consistently high quality. It also has broader implications for continuing professional development and maintenance of competence and quality assurance in specialist practice.
Deregulation of several genes involved in cell cycle control has been reported in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). This study aimed to investigate the expression of tumor suppressor proteins (P16(INK4A), retinoblastoma protein, and p53) in cHL in relation to the proliferation and apoptosis of Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (H/RS) cells, correlating with the status of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A total of 66 cHL cases and 10 nonneoplastic reactive lymphoid tissues were retrieved from the archives. Immunohistochemistry technique was used for the detection of protein expression. Presence of EBV infection was detected by EBV early RNA in situ hybridization. p16(INK4A) gene deletion status was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Expression of P16(INK4A) was observed in 49.2% of the cases, whereas positive retinoblastoma protein and p53 expressions in the H/RS cells were detected in 89.1% and 81.5% of the cases, respectively. Epstein-Barr virus positivity was detected in 53.0% of the cases. Proliferation marker, Ki-67 expression, was observed in 86.7% of the cases. There was no significant correlation between the expression of the various tumor suppressor proteins and Ki-67. Retinoblastoma protein and p53 were also not associated with the presence of EBV. An inverse relationship was observed between the expression of P16(INK4A) and the presence of EBV. There were no significant homozygous or hemizygous deletions of the p16(INK4A) gene. However, an aberrant copy number of chromosome 9 with the loss of one or more p16(INK4A) loci was detected in all cases assessable by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Loss of function of one or more tumor suppressor proteins may be involved in defective cell regulation of H/RS cells. Epstein-Barr virus may have a role in inhibiting P16(INK4A) expression, thus resulting in a perturbed p16(INK4A)-Rb cell cycle checkpoint.
Sex steroids have been postulated to influence skin development and functions as well as its pathogenesis. MCC occurs in both sexes; however, the specific differences in pathogenesis among sexes have yet to be conclusively defined. The detailed status of sex steroid receptors (AR, PRA and PRB, and ERα, ERβ) are also unknown in MCC patients. We first immunolocalized sex steroid receptors and compared the results with immunolocalization of relevant transcription factors including SOX2, FOXA1, and Bcl-2 and Ki-67 in 18 cases of MCCs. AR, PRA, PRB, ERα, ERβ, Bcl-2, SOX2, and FOXA1 immunoreactivity was evaluated by using the modified H score method, and Ki-67 was quantified using labeling index. ERβ immunoreactivity was markedly present in all the cases of MCC examined, with relatively weak immunoreactivity of ERα, AR, PRA, and PRB. The status of ERβ immunoreactivity was also significantly correlated with Ki-67 labeling index and Bcl-2 score. These results demonstrated that ERβ could be associated with regulation of both cell proliferation and apoptosis in MCCs.
The expression statuses of sex steroid receptors and sex steroid-synthesizing/metabolizing enzymes have been reported in primary prostate cancer lesions, but that in metastatic lymph nodes has remained unknown. Therefore, in this study, we immunolocalized these proteins in primary tumors and paired metastatic lymph nodes of prostate cancer and correlated the findings with clinicopathological factors of individual patients. The expression statuses of AR and ER β was significantly increased in metastatic lymph nodes compared with primary lesions, whereas that of 17βHSD1, 17βHSD2, 17βHSD5, and STS immunoreactivity was decreased in metastatic lymph nodes. In metastatic lymph nodes, the status of 5α2 was significantly correlated with that of AR. In addition, 17βHSD5-, 5α1-, STS-, and EST-positive cases were significantly associated with Gleason score (GS) status (GS > 8 versus GS < 7) in metastatic lymph nodes. Results of our present study did demonstrate that in situ androgen and estrogen metabolism and action play roles in pathophysiology of prostate cancer in metastatic lymph nodes, but these steroidogenic effects could be different from those in primary lesions.