MATERIALS AND METHODS: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400) visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between August and October 2007. The participants answered a questionnaire (Malay and English versions) which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, and willingness to donate eyes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed at 5% level of significance.
RESULTS: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 276 (69%) participants. Multivariate analysis showed that awareness was more among females when compared to males (P = 0.009). Of the 276 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 34.42% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the Indian race (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.02). Educational status did not influence the willingness to donate eyes.
CONCLUSIONS: Although majority of participants were aware of eye donation, willingness to donate eyes was poor.
Methods: A new Hindi visual acuity chart was designed to logMAR specifications using Hindi optotypes experimentally selected to have similar relative legibility under equivalent spherical and cylindrical defocus. The chart calibration study was carried out in a large clinical setup in India. Participants who were literate in English and Hindi participated in the study. Visual acuity was measured with the new Hindi logMAR chart and a modified ETDRS (m-ETDRS) logMAR chart. The method of presentation was randomized between the charts. Repeat visual acuity was measured on a subsequent day with a second version of the Hindi logMAR chart.
Results: The Hindi logMAR chart correlated highly with the m-ETDRS logMAR chart (r2 = 0.92); however, the mean visual acuity difference (Hindi logMAR-m-ETDRS logMAR) was nearly one and half lines (0.13 logMAR, 95% confidence interval [CI] = ±0.15 logMAR). The Hindi logMAR chart also proved to be highly repeatable (r2 = 0.99; mean difference 0.005, 95% CI = ±0.04 logMAR).
Conclusion: This study reports the first standardized visual acuity chart developed in Hindi incorporating equal letter legibility and logMAR chart design features. The Hindi logMAR visual acuity chart provides a valid and repeatable tool for the measurement of visual acuity in native Hindi language speakers. Future use of the new Hindi chart should incorporate an increase in optotype size of 0.13 logMAR.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Eye Database from 2007 to 2014. Demographic features, ocular comorbidities, technique of surgery, grade of surgeons, types of intraoperative complications, and reasons for not obtaining good visual acuity following intraoperative complications were studied. Statistics was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.
RESULTS: Out of 12,992 eyes, 6.1% had intraoperative complications. The highest rate of complications was when more trainees (medical officers [MOs] and gazetting specialists) operated. Posterior capsule rupture (PCR) was the most common complication followed by vitreous loss and zonular dehiscence. Those aged below 40 years had more complications (P < 0.05), and females had more complications. Ethnicity did not affect complications. Pseudoexfoliation was the only comorbidity causing complications (P < 0.05). Phacolytic lenses had 8.118 times the odds of getting intraoperative complications. MOs and gazetting specialists got more complications. Good outcomes were obtained in cases without complications and those operated by specialists. High astigmatism was the main reason for poorer outcomes.
CONCLUSION: Intraoperative complications were caused mostly by less experienced doctors and had poorer outcomes. Age below 40 years, females, the presence of pseudoexfoliation and phacolytic lenses had more complications. PCR was the most common complication.
Materials: This is an interventional study that involved 57 eyes of 45 patients with symptomatic floaters for more than 3 months. Patients underwent one to three sessions of vitreolysis via Neodymiun-doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. We examined the CSF using the computer programs Freiburg Acuity and Contrast Test (FrACT) and VRQoL survey using the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) before, and 1 month after, vitreolysis.
Results: Twelve patients had both eyes lasered and 33 patients had one eye lasered. The mean CSF improved from 3.20 ± 0.85%W to 2.64 ± 0.63%W 1 month after vitreolysis. Each use of the laser showed a significant mean difference in CSF (%W) as analyzed by paired t-test before and after the first laser (0.29 ± 0.49%W [P ≤ 0.001]); after the first and second laser (0.35 ± 0.53%W [P = 0.01]); and after second and third laser (0.21 ± 0.31%W [P = 0.02]). There was improvement in the median of four subscales in NEI VFQ-25 scores post treatment: general vision (z = -3.30, P = 0.001), near activity (z = 3.396, P = 0.001, distance activity (z = -2.788, P = 0.005), and mental health (z = -2.219, P = 0.026). The mean scores increased to 79.55 ± 9.45 from the baseline 75.06 ± 9.69 (P ≤ 0.001). No adverse events were recorded 1 month after the laser treatments.
Conclusion: Vitreolysis by Nd:YAG laser improved the CFS and VRQoL in symptomatic PVD patients.
Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: a no-treatment control group (n = 6), balanced salt solution (BSS) treatment group (n = 6), and hUC-MSCs treatment group (n = 6). Visual functions were assessed by flash visual evoked potential (fVEP) at baseline, Week 3, and Week 6 after optic nerve crush injury. Right eyes were enucleated after 6 weeks for histology.
Results: The fVEP showed shortened latency delay and increased amplitude in the hUC-MSCs treated group compared with control and BSS groups. Higher cellular density was detected in the hUC-MSC treated group compared with the BSS and control groups. Co-localized expression of STEM 121 and anti-S100B antibody was observed in areas of higher nuclear density, both in the central and peripheral regions.
Conclusion: Peribulbar transplantation of hUC-MSCs demonstrated cellular integration that can potentially preserve the optic nerve function with a significant shorter latency delay in fVEP and higher nuclear density on histology, and immunohistochemical studies observed cell migration particularly to the peripheral regions of the optic nerve.