Acute poisoning is a common medical emergency in Malaysia. Life can be saved if the patient is diagnosed properly and receives the appropriate treatment such as gastrointestinal decontamination techniques and resources to increase poison elimination according to clinical guidelines at a reasonable time. The aims of this study were to determine the availability of decontamination, elimination enhancement, and stabilization resources for the management of acute toxic exposures and poisonings in accident and emergency departments in Malaysia, and to compare the availability of such facilities among various types of hospitals. A comparative, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Seventy-four (58.3%) out of the targeted 127 hospitals replied and completed the questionnaire. The availabilities of most items related to stabilization resources were far better in general hospitals compared to district hospitals with specialists and district hospitals without specialists. These items were mechanical ventilators (p = 0.011), non-invasive positive pressure ventilators (0.024), pacemakers (p = 0.019), and transcutaneous cardiac pacing (p < 0.001). The availability of decontamination resources varied substantially with hospital type. Nevertheless, these differences did not reach statistical significance in any of the cases, whereas sodium sulphate, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol were almost never available. The availabilities of most items related to elimination enhancement resources were far better in general hospitals and district hospitals with specialists compared to district hospitals without specialists. These items were haemodialysis (p = 0.046), haemoperfusion (p = 0.002), haemofiltration (p = 0.002), acid diuresis (p = 0.04), peritoneal dialysis (p < 0.001), and exchange transfusion (p < 0.001). Most Malaysian hospitals have certain important immediate interventions such as gastrointestinal decontamination techniques and resources to increase poison elimination. The availabilities of most facilities were far better in the general hospitals. Coordination between the National Poison Centre in Malaysia and hospitals should be established regarding the emergency facilities for effective management of poisoning cases in each hospital in order to direct the poisoned patients to the hospital where the appropriate management resources is available.
Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) within a door-to-balloon timing of 90 min have greatly decreased mortality and morbidity of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Post-PCI, they are routinely transferred into the coronary care unit (CCU) regardless of the severity of their condition, resulting in frequent CCU overcrowding. This study assesses the feasibility of step-down units (SDUs) as an alternative to CCUs in the management of STEMI patients after successful PCI, to alleviate CCU overcrowding. Criteria of assessment include in-hospital complications, length of stay, cost-effectiveness, and patient outcomes up to a year after discharge from hospital. A retrospective case-control study was done using data of 294 adult STEMI patients admitted to the emergency departments of two training and research hospitals and successfully underwent primary PCI from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2015. Patients were followed up for a year post-discharge. Student t test and χ2 test were done as univariate analysis to check for statistical significance of p