Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Ismail TA, Sulaiman Z, Jalil R, Muda WM, Man NN
    Int Breastfeed J, 2012;7(1):11.
    PMID: 22929649
    Many women are unable to practice exclusive breastfeeding because they are separated from their infants while working. Expressing their breast milk helps them to continue breastfeeding. This study explores the perception and experiences related to the feasibility, acceptability and safety of breast milk expression among formally employed women in Kelantan, Malaysia.
  2. Amin RM, Said ZM, Sutan R, Shah SA, Darus A, Shamsuddin K
    Int Breastfeed J, 2011;6(1):4.
    PMID: 21342506 DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-6-4
    This cross-sectional study assesses factors that contribute to discontinuing breastfeeding among employed mothers in Malaysia.
  3. Tan KL
    Int Breastfeed J, 2011 Feb 02;6(1):2.
    PMID: 21284889 DOI: 10.1186/1746-4358-6-2
    BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is accepted as the natural form of infant feeding. For mothers to be able to breastfeed exclusively to the recommended six months, it is important to understand the factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding in Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 682 mother-infant pairs with infants up to six months attending maternal and child health section of the government health clinics in Klang, Malaysia. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews using a pre-tested structured questionnaire over 4 months in 2006. Data on breastfeeding were based on practice in the previous one month period. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent association between the independent variables and exclusive breastfeeding adjusting for infant age.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers with infants aged between one and six months was 43.1% (95% CI: 39.4, 46.8). In the multivariate model exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with rural residence, Malay mothers, non-working and non-smoking mothers, multiparous mothers, term infants, mothers with husbands who support breastfeeding and mothers who practice bed-sharing.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that seek to increase exclusive breastfeeding should focus on women who are at risk of early discontinuation of breastfeeding.

  4. Shukri NHM, Wells J, Mukhtar F, Lee MHS, Fewtrell M
    Int Breastfeed J, 2017;12:33.
    PMID: 28725257 DOI: 10.1186/s13006-017-0124-y
    BACKGROUND: The physiological and psychological signalling between mother and infant during lactation is one of the prominent mother-infant factors that may influence breastfeeding outcomes. The infant can 'signal' his needs through vocalisation, and the mother can respond by allowing or restricting nipple access, which might alter the breast milk composition or volume. This may lead to parent-offspring conflict during the lactation period. Challenging infant behaviour has also been associated with maternal psychological distress, which might affect breastfeeding performance. Most attempts to improve breastfeeding rates focus on providing additional support, yet many aspects of the breastfeeding process are poorly understood. Thus, our objective is to investigate mother-infant signalling during breastfeeding by manipulating maternal psychological state using a relaxation therapy intervention. The study will test the hypothesis that mothers who listen to the therapy will be more relaxed/less stressed and this will favourably alter breast milk composition and/or affect milk volume and hence influence infant outcomes.

    METHODS: A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in first-time breastfeeding mothers and their new-born infants. Pregnant mothers will be recruited at antenatal clinics in Selangor, Malaysia, and four home visits will be carried out at 2, 6, 12 and 14 weeks postnatally. Participants will be randomised into a control and an intervention group in the early post-partum period. Mothers from the intervention group will be asked to listen daily to an audio recording with relaxation therapy during breastfeeding. Maternal psychological state, breastfeeding practices and infant behaviour will be assessed using validated questionnaires. Milk volume will be measured using stable isotopes. Breast milk samples will be collected to measure macronutrient content and hormone levels. Anthropometric measurements (weight, length and head circumference) will be performed during all home visits, including body composition at week 14.

    DISCUSSION: The main outcomes will be the effect of the intervention on maternal psychological state, milk production, cortisol levels, and infant behaviour and growth. Secondary outcomes will be associations between breast milk composition and infant appetite and growth. This study aims to provide a greater understanding of maternal-infant factors which influence breastfeeding outcomes and which may be useful targets for future interventions.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01971216.

  5. Jamani NA, Ardini YD, Harun NA
    Int Breastfeed J, 2018;13:35.
    PMID: 30065775 DOI: 10.1186/s13006-018-0176-7
    Background: Neonatal teeth erupt during the neonatal period and natal teeth are the presence of teeth since birth. While rare, natal teeth and neonatal teeth can have a significant impact on breastfeeding. Neonatal teeth are less common, and although its exact etiology is still unknown, it can cause difficulties in breastfeeding to the mother and may eventually lead to discontinuation of breastfeeding. Other associated possible complications include tooth aspiration and sublingual ulceration. This paper was aimed to discuss the clinical features, complications, and management of neonatal tooth, in addition to its impact on breastfeeding and role in sublingual ulcer formation.

    Case presentation: We present a baby girl who had a neonatal tooth with sublingual ulceration (Riga-Fede disease), which resulted in a difficulty to breastfeed for the baby and nipple pain to the mother. Following the extraction of the baby's tooth, she immediately continued breastfeeding, and her tongue ulcer healed well.

    Conclusion: Extraction of the neonatal tooth promoted rapid healing of oral ulcers and the reestablishment of breastfeeding.

  6. Arabi Z, Md Monoto EM, Bojeng A
    Int Breastfeed J, 2019;14:17.
    PMID: 31019544 DOI: 10.1186/s13006-019-0210-4
    Background: Pre-pubescent girls with chest burns are at risk of complication associated with scarring and impairment in breast development. This case illustrates how burn injuries in childhood in a first-time mother have affected her in terms of breastfeeding.

    Case presentation: In May 2015, a 20 year old first-time mother at 36 weeks gestation was seen in a district health clinic in Kuching, Sarawak in regards to her ability to breastfeed. She had a history of a flame burn at the age of 5 years old to her chest, abdomen, upper limb and part of her trunk. A skin graft was done on her whole chest and abdomen. Despite the injuries, she had pubertal and antenatal breast development. Her abdomen was able to stretch to accommodate her pregnancy. Physical examination showed a pregnancy which corresponded to date. The skin over her chest and abdomen appeared tight with areas of hyperpigmentation and hypopigmentation due to scarring from the skin graft. Breast tissues were palpable over her chest. The areola and nipple tissue were completely absent with complete scarring of the nipple-areolar complex. There was no duct opening to the areola for milk expression or leakage. Counselling regarding her breastfeeding issues was done. She delivered her baby at full term via spontaneous vaginal delivery with no complication. Oral cabergoline 1 mg was given on the first day postpartum. The baby was given infant formula via bottle feeding as the feeding method of choice.

    Conclusion: Counselling plays an important part in the management of a mother with breastfeeding difficulty. Allaying the possible guilty feelings of not being able to breastfeed will fulfil the emotional gap which may arise in a mother with these challenges.

  7. Tan ML, Foong SC, Ho JJ, Foong WC, Mohd R, Harun Z
    Int Breastfeed J, 2020 10 14;15(1):85.
    PMID: 33054789 DOI: 10.1186/s13006-020-00328-2
    BACKGROUND: Antenatal breastfeeding education (ANBE) is provided to all pregnant women attending Ministry of Health (MOH) clinics and some private health facilities in Malaysia, in line with the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). However, the 6 month exclusive breastfeeding prevalence remains relatively low in Malaysia, suggesting that there may be a gap between what is currently taught and what is received by the women.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine how women perceived their ANBE experience in the first 8 weeks postpartum including what was useful and what they would like to have been included, sources of ANBE and infant feeding practices at the time of survey.

    METHODS: Women during their first 8 weeks postpartum who attended MOH clinics in Penang State, Malaysia were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire in April and May 2015. Categorical responses were presented as numbers and proportions while free text responses were compiled verbatim and categorised into themes. The perceptions of primiparous and multiparous women were compared. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted to known confounders was used to determine if ANBE was associated with exclusive breastfeeding at the time of survey.

    RESULTS: A total of 421 women completed the 15-item questionnaire (84% response rate) of which 282 were complete and available for analysis. Of these, 95% had received ANBE, majority (88%) from MOH clinics. Almost all women found it useful. However, there were areas both in the delivery (e.g. too short) and the content (e.g. nothing new) that were described as not useful; and areas they would like more coverage (e.g. milk expression, storage and overcoming low milk supply). The exclusive breastfeeding prevalence at the time of survey was 61%. ANBE was significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding even after adjusting for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 8.1, 95% confidence interval 1.7, 38.3).

    CONCLUSIONS: ANBE is widely implemented and perceived as useful and may be associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Our findings give insight into content that women would like more of and how delivery of ANBE could be improved, including individualized sessions and communicating at a suitable level and language. Future studies could focus on the quality of ANBE delivery.

  8. Foong SC, Tan ML, Foong WC, Ho JJ, Rahim FF
    Int Breastfeed J, 2021 01 06;16(1):4.
    PMID: 33407645 DOI: 10.1186/s13006-020-00353-1
    BACKGROUND: Ethnic Chinese mothers in Malaysia adhere to 30 days of traditional postpartum practices (the "confinement period") aimed at recuperation after delivery. Recently there has been an emergence of confinement centres (CCs) where mothers stay and receive traditional confinement care. Ethnic Chinese mothers have low breastfeeding rates. There are concerns that practices in CCs could contribute to this but no data exists. We described mothers' breastfeeding experiences at CCs and identified areas for potential improvement in breastfeeding support.

    METHODS: Ethnic Chinese mothers intending to breastfeed their healthy infants were recruited post-delivery between August and October 2017 then, at 1 and 6 months, they were telephone interviewed about their experience. For every participant going to a CC after the birth, another mother going home ("home") for her confinement was recruited. Chi-square test was used to compare groups and multiple logistic regression was used to assess the effect of confinement place on exclusive breastfeeding.

    RESULTS: Of 187 mothers, 88 (47%) went to CCs. Significantly more were primipara and fewer had previous breastfeeding experience. Response rates for the 1- and 6- month interviews were 88% (CC) versus 97% (home); and 77% (CC) versus 87% (home) respectively. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were similar between the groups: 62% (CC) versus 56% (home) at 1 month (p = 0.4); and 37% (CC) versus 42% (home) at 6 months (p = 0.5). Multiple logistic regression did not show that CCs were a factor affecting exclusive breastfeeding rates at 1 month, (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9, 3.3), or 6 months (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.4, 1.7). However, significantly more CC participants only fed expressed breast milk. Despite 66% of CC participants reporting that their centre supported breastfeeding, only 6 (8%) CC participants compared to 66 (69%) of home participants roomed-in with their baby (p 

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