Displaying all 7 publications

  1. Hani AF, Baba R, Shamsuddin N, Nugroho H
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2014 Oct;36(5):451-8.
    PMID: 24925684 DOI: 10.1111/ics.12147
    Melanin is a major skin colour pigment that is made up of eumelanin (the dark brown-black colour) and pheomelanin (the light red-yellow colour) pigments. Skin-whitening products typically contain depigmentation agents that reduce the level of pigmentation by changing the pheomelanin-eumelanin production. Similarly, in skin pigment treatment of skin disorders, the melanin production is managed accordingly. To assess and improve treatment efficacy, it is important to have a measurement tool that is capable of determining the melanin types objectively. So far, the efficacy assessment is subjective. In this study, an inverse skin reflectance pigmentation analysis system that determines eumelanin and pheomelanin content is developed and evaluated in an observational study involving 36 participants with skin photo type IV.
  2. Tay BY
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2013 Feb;35(1):57-63.
    PMID: 22994145 DOI: 10.1111/ics.12004
    A simple and rapid gas chromatography (GC) method with flame ionization detector was developed for detection of isopropyl para-toluenesulphonate (IPTS) in palm-based isopropyl palmitate (IPP) and isopropyl myristate (IPM). The method involved spiking the IPP/IPM samples with IPTS and directly injecting the spiked samples into GC without undergoing clean-up steps. The calibration curves for IPTS showed good linearity with coefficient correlation of 0.9999 for six-point calibration from 0.5 to 50 μg mL(-1) and 0.9996 for six-point calibration from 0.5 to 200 μg mL(-1) . IPTS recoveries from IPP were 98.6-103.5% with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 0.40-2.80%, whereas recoveries from IPM were 97.0-107.2% with RSD of 0.42-4.21%. The identity of IPTS recovered from the isopropyl esters was confirmed by a GC-mass spectrometer detector. The method was successfully applied to the analyses of IPTS in commercial samples. It was found that there were IPTS in the range of 34.8-1303.0 μg g(-1) in the palm-based esters for some of the samples analysed.
  3. Yap KC, Aminah A
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2011 Jun;33(3):245-50.
    PMID: 21272038 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2010.00621.x
    Sensory analysis of lipstick product by trained panellists started with recruiting female panels who are lipstick users, in good health condition and willing to be a part of sensory members. This group of people was further scrutinized with duo-trio method using commercial lipstick samples that are commonly used among them. About 40% of the 15 panels recruited were unable to differentiate the lipstick samples they usually use better than chance. The balance of nine panels that were corrected at least with 65% across all trials in panels screening process was formed a working group to develop sensory languages as a means of describing product similarities and differences and a scoring system. Five sessions with each session took about 90 min were carried out using 10 types of lipsticks with different waxes mixture ratio in the formulation together with six commercial lipsticks that are the most common to the panels. First session was focus on listing out the panels' perception towards the characteristic of the lipstick samples after normal application on their lips. Second session was focus on the refining and categorizing the responses gathered from the first session and translated into sensory attributes with its definition. Third session was focus on the scoring system. Fourth and fifth sessions were repetition of the third session to ensure consistency. In a collective effort of the panels, sensory attributes developed for lipstick were Spreadability, Off flavour, Hardness, Smoothness, Moist, Not messy, Glossy and Greasy. Analysis of variance was able to provide ample evidence on gauging the panel performance. A proper panels selecting and training was able to produce a reliable and sensitive trained panel for evaluating the product based on the procedures being trained.
  4. Palanisamy UD, Ling LT, Manaharan T, Sivapalan V, Subramaniam T, Helme MH, et al.
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2011 Jun;33(3):269-75.
    PMID: 21284663 DOI: 10.1111/j.1468-2494.2010.00637.x
    Syzygium aqueum, a species in the Myrtaceae family, commonly called the water jambu is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is well documented as a medicinal plant, and various parts of the tree have been used in traditional medicine, for instance as an antibiotic. In this study, we show S. aqueum leaf extracts to have a significant composition of phenolic compounds, protective activity against free radicals as well as low pro-oxidant capability. Its ethanolic extract, in particular, is characterized by its excellent radical scavenging activity of EC(50) of 133 μg mL(-1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 65 μg mL(-1) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 71 μg mL(-1) (Galvinoxyl), low pro-oxidant capabilities and a phenolic content of 585-670 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The extract also displayed other activities, deeming it an ideal cosmetic ingredient. A substantial tyrosinase inhibition activity with an IC(50) of about 60 μg mL(-1) was observed. In addition, the extract was also found to have anti-cellulite activity tested for its ability to cause 98% activation of lipolysis of adipocytes (fat cells) at a concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). In addition, the extract was not cytotoxic to Vero cell lines up to a concentration of 600 μg mL(-1). Although various parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine, this is the first time it has been shown to have cosmeceutical properties. Therefore, the use of this extract, alone or in combination with other active principles, is of interest to the cosmetic industry.
  5. Tay BY, Yung SC, Teoh TY
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2016 Dec;38(6):627-633.
    PMID: 27169828 DOI: 10.1111/ics.12342
    OBJECTIVE: Isopropyl p-toluenesulfonate (IPTS) is a potentially genotoxic by-product formed during the esterification of palm oil-based palmitic and palm kernel oil-based myristic acid with isopropanol to produce isopropyl palmitate or isopropyl myristate. There are no methods described for the analysis of IPTS in cosmetic products. In this work, we have established a simple, precise and accurate method to determine the presence and level of IPTS in various finished cosmetic products which contain palm-based esters in their formulations.

    METHODS: An Agilent 1200 series high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) unit using a diode-array detector (DAD) has been employed and optimized to detect IPTS in cosmetic products. For the separation, a reverse-phase Hypersil Gold C8 column (5 μm, 4.6 mm i.d. 250 mm) 5 mM tetrabutylammonium phosphate buffer 50 : 50, (v/v) solution in acetonitrile as mobile phase, in isocratic mode and a flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) were used. A second method using a gas chromatography/mass selective detector GC-MSD was also developed to confirm the IPTS identity in the cosmetic products.

    RESULTS: Recoveries of IPTS from cosmetic matrices such as a lotion, cleansing milk and a cream ranged from 94.0% to 101.1% with <5% relative standard deviation (%RSD) showing good accuracy and repeatability of the method. The six-point calibration curves (determined over the range 0.5-50 μg mL(-1) ) have a correlation coefficient of 0.9999 (based on HPLC peak area) and 0.9998 (based on HPLC peak height). The intra- and interday precisions (measured by the %RSD) of the method were <2% and <5%, respectively, indicating that the developed method is reliable, precise and reproducible. The detection and quantification limit of the method were found to be 0.5 μg mL(-1) and 1.6 μg mL(-1) , respectively. Analyses of 83 commercial cosmetics showed no presence of IPTS.

    CONCLUSIONS: The validation data indicated that this method was suitable for the quantitative analysis of IPTS in commercial cosmetics. This method is applicable for analyses of trace levels of IPTS in cosmetics and has the advantage of using only simple sample preparation steps.

  6. Aziz AA, Abdullah Sani MS, Zakaria Z, Abu Bakar NK
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2023 Aug;45(4):444-457.
    PMID: 36987749 DOI: 10.1111/ics.12854
    BACKGROUND: The employment of Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for determination and quantification of lard in a binary blend with palm oil in a cosmetic soap formulations.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine and quantify lard as an adulterant in a binary blend with palm oil in a cosmetic soap formulations by FT-IR and multivariate analysis.

    METHODS: Fatty acids in lard, palm oil and binary blends were extracted via liquid-liquid extraction and were subjected to FTIR spectrometry, combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) for the classification of lard in cosmetic soap formulations via two DA models: Model A (percentage of lard in cosmetic soap) and Model B (porcine and non-porcine cosmetic soap). Linear regression (MLR), partial least square regression (PLS-R) and principal components regression (PCR) were used to assess the degree of adulteration of lard in the cosmetic soap.

    FINDINGS: The FTIR spectrum of palm oil slightly differed from that of lard at the wavenumber range of 1453 cm -1 and 1415 cm -1 in palm oil and lard, respectively, indicating the bending vibrations of CH2 and CH3 aliphatic groups and OH carboxyl group respectively. Both of the DA models could accurately classify 100% of cosmetic soap formulations. Nevertheless, less than 100% of verification value was obtained when it was further used to predict the unknown cosmetic soap sample suspected of containing lard or a different percentage of lard. The PCA for Model A and Model B explained a similar cumulative variability (CV) of 92.86% for the whole dataset. MLR and PCR showed the highest determination coefficient (R2) of 0.996, and the lowest relative standard error (RSE) and mean square error (MSE), indicating that both regression models were effective in quantifying the lard adulterant in cosmetic soap.

    CONCLUSION: FTIR spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics with DA, PCA and MLR or PCR can be used to analyse the presence of lard and quantify its percentage in cosmetic soap formulations.

  7. Lim DZJ, Lim FC, Tey HL
    Int J Cosmet Sci, 2023 Aug 04.
    PMID: 37539788 DOI: 10.1111/ics.12885
    Dandruff is a common scalp condition affecting almost half of the world's population. Despite its high prevalence, the exact pathophysiology is not well established and is understood to be multifactorial, with factors such as fungal colonization, sebaceous gland activity and individual factors being implicated. There is a need for an effective and safe shampoo that can target the above factors. Hence, we have developed a shampoo formulation with properties of oil control, moisturizing, non-irritative, anti-fungal, anti-microbial and itch-relieving. In this interventional, open-label study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of this shampoo in reducing the clinical signs of dandruff and pruritus in patients with pre-existing mild-to-moderate dandruff over a course of 21-day treatment duration through self-assessment and objective clinical evaluations. After continued use of the shampoo, there was a significant decrease in the adherent and loose scalp flaking scores. Mean pruritus scores also decreased significantly across the 21-day time points. There were also no adverse events or skin intolerances reported. This study showed that our shampoo formulation has led to a significant reduction in both adherent and loose scalp flaking and pruritus when used in individuals suffering from mild to moderate dandruff. As such, it is an ideal shampoo, which can be used to effectively control dandruff.
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