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  1. Jusof WH, Khan NA, Rajikin MH, Satar NA, Mustafa MF, Jusoh N, et al.
    Int J Fertil Steril, 2015 07 27;9(2):221-9.
    PMID: 26246881
    BACKGROUND: Timing of the first zygotic cleavage is an accurate predictor of embryo quality. Embryos that cleaved early (EC) have been shown to exhibit higher develop- mental viability compared to those that cleaved at a later period (LC). However, the vi- ability of EC embryos in comparison to LC embryos after vitrification is unknown. The present study aims to investigate the post-vitrification developmental viability of murine EC versus LC embryos.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, female ICR mice (6-8 weeks old) were superovulated and cohabited with fertile males for 24 hours. Afterwards, their ovi- ducts were excised and embryos harvested. Embryos at the 2-cell stage were catego- rized as EC embryos, while zygotes with two pronuclei were categorized as LC embryos. Embryos were cultured in M16 medium supplemented with 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in a humidified 5% CO2atmosphere. Control embryos were cultured until the blastocyst stage without vitrification. Experimental embryos at the 2-cell stage were vitri- fied for one hour using 40% v/v ethylene glycol, 18% w/v Ficoll-70 and 0.5 M sucrose as the cryoprotectant. We recorded the numbers of surviving embryos from the control and experimental groups and their development until the blastocyst stage. Results were analyzed using the chi-square test.

    RESULTS: A significantly higher proportion of EC embryos (96.7%) from the control group developed to the blastocyst stage compared with LC embryos (57.5%, P<0.0001). Similarly, in the experimental group, a significantly higher percentage of vitrified EC embryos (69.4%) reached the blastocyst stage compared to vitrified LC embryos (27.1%, P<0.0001).

    CONCLUSION: Vitrified EC embryos are more vitrification tolerant than LC embryos. Prese- lection of EC embryos may be used as a tool for selection of embryos that exhibit higher developmental competence after vitrification.

  2. Elnagar AMB, Ibrahim A, Soliman AM
    Int J Fertil Steril, 2018 Jun;12(3):249-256.
    PMID: 29935072 DOI: 10.22074/ijfs.2018.5389
    BACKGROUND: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a white pigment which is used in paints, plastics, etc. It is reported that TiO2 induces oxidative stress and DNA damage. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been used to fight oxidative stress-induced damage in different tissues. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of orally administered TiO2 nanoparticles and the possible protective effect of NAC on the testes of adult male albino rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, 50 adult male albino rats were classified into five groups. Group I was the negative control, group II was treated with gum acacia solution , group III was treated with NAC, group IV was treated with TiO2 nanoparticles, and group V was treated with 100 mg/kg of NAC and 1200 mg/kg TiO2 nanoparticles. Total testosterone, glutathione (GSH), and serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated. The testes were subjected to histopathological, electron microscopic examinations, and immunohistochemical detection for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Cells from the left testis were examined to detect the degree of DNA impairment by using the comet assay.

    RESULTS: TiO2 nanoparticles induced histopathological and ultrastructure changes in the testes as well as positive TNF-α immunoreaction in the testicular tissue. Moreover, there was an increase in serum MDA while a decrease in testosterone and GSH levels in TiO2 nanoparticles-treated group. TiO2 resulted in DNA damage. Administration of NAC to TiO2- treated rats led to improvement of the previous parameters with modest protective effects against DNA damage.

    CONCLUSION: TiO2-induced damage to the testes was mediated by oxidative stress. Notably, administration of NAC protected against TiO2's damaging effects.

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