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  1. Ahmad N, Adam SI, Nawi AM, Hassan MR, Ghazi HF
    Int J Prev Med, 2016;7:82.
    PMID: 27330688 DOI: 10.4103/2008-7802.183654
    BACKGROUND: Waist circumference (WC) is an accurate and simple measure of abdominal obesity as compared to waist-hip ratio (WHR). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between body mass index (BMI) with WC and WHR and suggest cutoff points for WC among Rural Malaysian adults.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 669 respondents from three villages in Tanjung Karang, located in the district of Kuala Selangor. Data collection was carried out by guided questionnaires and anthropometric measures.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of abdominal obesity for BMI was almost similar for both gender across Caucasian and Asian BMI cutoff points. Based on Caucasian cutoff points, the prevalence of abdominal obesity for WC was 23.8% (male) and 66.4% (female) while for WHR was 6.2% (male) and 54.2% (female). Asian cutoff points gave higher prevalence of abdominal obesity compared to that of WC among male respondents and WHR for both genders. WC showed strong and positive correlation with BMI compared to WHR (in male WC r = 0.78, WHR r = 0.24 and in female WC r = 0.72, WHR r = 0.19; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested WC cutoff points of 92.5 cm in men and 85.5 cm in women is the optimal number for detection of abdominal obesity.
    CONCLUSIONS: WC is the best indicator as compared with WHR for abdominal obesity for Malaysian adults.
    KEYWORDS: Abdominal obesity; adults; body mass index; waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio
  2. Chen CK, Mohamad WM, Ooi FK, Ismail SB, Abdullah MR, George A
    Int J Prev Med, 2014 Jun;5(6):728-33.
    PMID: 25013692
    Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ElJ) has been shown to elevate serum testosterone and increased muscle strength in humans. This study investigated the effects of Physta(®) a standardized water extract of ElJ (400 mg/day for 6 weeks) on testosterone: epitestosterone (T:E) ratio, liver and renal functions in male recreational athletes.
  3. Moudi M, Go R, Yien CY, Nazre M
    Int J Prev Med, 2013 Nov;4(11):1231-5.
    PMID: 24404355
    Vinca alkaloids are a subset of drugs obtained from the Madagascar periwinkle plant. They are naturally extracted from the pink periwinkle plant, Catharanthus roseus G. Don and have a hypoglycemic as well as cytotoxic effects. They have been used to treat diabetes, high blood pressure and have been used as disinfectants. The vinca alkaloids are also important for being cancer fighters. There are four major vinca alkaloids in clinical use: Vinblastine (VBL), vinorelbine (VRL), vincristine (VCR) and vindesine (VDS). VCR, VBL and VRL have been approved for use in the United States. Vinflunine is also a new synthetic vinca alkaloid, which has been approved in Europe for the treatment of second-line transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium is being developed for other malignancies. Vinca alkaloids are the second-most-used class of cancer drugs and will stay among the original cancer therapies. Different researches and studies for new vinca alkaloid applications will be carried out in this regard.
  4. Ihab AN, Rohana AJ, Manan WM, Suriati WN, Zalilah MS, Rusli AM
    Int J Prev Med, 2013 Jun;4(6):690-9.
    PMID: 23930187
    The coexistence of under and over nutrition might be influenced by a marked shift in dietary and lifestyle practices of people in developing countries. This study aims to identify factors associated with the occurrence of dual form of malnutrition in the same households in a rural district in Peninsular Malaysia.
  5. Aziz NA, Muhamad S, Manaf MR, Hamid MZ
    Int J Prev Med, 2013 Jun;4(6):664-70.
    PMID: 23930184
    BACKGROUND: Primary health care workers (PHCW) are the front-liners in any infectious disease outbreaks. The recent outbreak of H1N1 influenza demonstrated that uptake of H1N1 vaccination remained low amongst PCHW despite its proven effectiveness. This trend is worrying as PHCW are the first point of contact in any emerging outbreak of future influenza epidemic. To investigate factors influencing willingness of H1N1 vaccination amongst PHCW.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaire assessing perception and practice towards H1N1 Influenza A vaccination. A score of 34/50 was used as a cut-off score that divide good and poor perception. Logistic regression analysis used to explore the association between acceptance to be vaccinated and chosen variables.
    RESULTS: The mean age was 33.91 (SD: 8.20) with mean year of service of 9.23 (SD: 8.0). Acceptance of H1N1 vaccination was 86.3%. A total of 85.9% perceived the vaccination can prevent serious disease. Willingness to be vaccinated influenced by perception at risk of having illness (OR: 10.182, CI: 1.64-63.23, P 0.013) and need for vaccination (OR: 11.35, CI: 4.67-27.56, P < 0.0001).
    CONCLUSIONS: PCHW were generally willing to be vaccinated should H1N1 Influenza epidemic emerges in the future. However, acceptance of vaccination was influenced by factors of benefit to prevent illness and reduction of spread of the illness. Fear of side-effects remained a barrier toward acceptance which should be taken into account in planning of preparation for future wave of outbreak.
  6. Zainuddin LR, Isa N, Muda WM, Mohamed HJ
    Int J Prev Med, 2011 Oct;2(4):229-37.
    PMID: 22174962
    OBJECTIVES: Metabolic syndrome can be diagnosed according to several different criteria such as the latest International Diabetes Federation (IDF), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Program III (NCEP ATPIII), and World Health Organization (WHO). The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the concordance between the above mentioned definition, and hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria.
    METHODS: This cross sectional study was done in Bachok, Malaysia and involved 298 respondents aged between 18 to 70 years. Multistage random sampling method was used to identify study locations while convenient random sampling method was applied to select individuals. Hypertriglyceridemic waist was defined from an internationally acceptable cut-off criterion. Kappa statistic (κ test) was used to determine the concordance between various definitions and hypertriglyceridemic-waist.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on different definitions was 32.2% (IDF), 28.5% (NCEP ATP III) and 12.4% (modified WHO). The prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic-waist was 19.7% and based on the IDF criteria a total of 97.5% participants with hypertriglyceridemic-waist had metabolic syndrome. The IDF criteria showed the highest concordance with NCEP ATPIII criteria (κ = 0.63), followed by hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria (κ = 0.62) and WHO criteria (κ = 0.26).
    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest using the IDF criteria compared to NCEP ATPIII, modified WHO and hypertriglyceridemic-waist. There was a good concordance of IDF criteria with NCEP ATP III and hypertriglyceridemic-waist criteria.
    KEYWORDS: Hypertriglyceridemic-waist; Malaysia; Metabolic syndrome
  7. Samadi M, Zeinali F, Habibi N, Ghotbodin-Mohammadi S
    Int J Prev Med, 2016;7:90.
    PMID: 27512556 DOI: 10.4103/2008-7802.186224
    Malnutrition is prevalent among patients hospitalized in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) and causes various complications. Dietary supplementation to provide appropriate nutritional support may reduce the malnutrition and complications through improvement in nutritional status. This study was carried out to assess the association between dietary supplementation and malnutrition among patients in ICUs.
  8. Saleh RM, Zefarina Z, Che Mat NF, Chambers GK, Edinur HA
    Int J Prev Med, 2018;9:45.
    PMID: 29899883 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_232_16
    Transfusion procedures are always complicated by potential genetic mismatching between donor and recipient. Compatibility is determined by several major antigens, such as the ABO and Rhesus blood groups. Matching for other blood groups (Kell, Kidd, Duffy, and MNS), human platelet antigens, and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) also contributes toward the successful transfusion outcomes, especially in multitransfused or highly immunized patients. All these antigens of tissue identity are highly polymorphic and thus present great challenges for finding suitable donors for transfusion patients. The ABO blood group and HLA markers are also the determinants of transplant compatibility, and mismatched antigens will cause graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Thus, a single and comprehensive registry covering all of the significant transfusion and transplantation antigens is expected to become an important tool in providing an efficient service capable of delivering safe blood and quickly locating matching organs/stem cells. This review article is intended as an accessible guide for physicians who care for transfusion-dependent patients. In particular, it serves to introduce the new molecular screening methods together with the biology of these systems, which underlies the tests.
  9. Shaharudin S, Rahim MFA, Muhamad AS
    Int J Prev Med, 2018;9:90.
    PMID: 30450173 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_42_17
    Background: The study investigated the effects of isokinetic versus isotonic training among adolescent state-level weightlifters in terms of total leukocytes, total lymphocytes, and its subsets following 24 sessions of training program and a month following training program cessation.

    Methods: Nineteen adolescent state-level weightlifters were assigned into isokinetic or isotonic groups. All participants were recruited from a pool of weightlifters with standardized training program provided by their coach. Series of immunological tests were carried out before the commencement, immediately upon the completion, and a month after the cessation of the additional training program to evaluate total leukocytes and lymphocytes count.

    Results: The results revealed a significant time and group interaction and main effects of time on mean total leukocytes (P < 0.05). Mean total leukocytes count at posttest decreased in both groups. In isotonic group, it was further decreased following 1 month of training cessation (P < 0.05) but not in the isokinetic group. However, the decrement was not high and the values were in the normal range. No significant time and group interaction was observed in total lymphocytes and its subsets count.

    Conclusions: Eight weeks of isokinetic and isotonic additional training with emphasis on shoulder joint only affect mean total leukocytes count in state-level adolescent weightlifters.

  10. Etminani R, Manaf ZA, Shahar S, Azadbakht L, Adibi P
    Int J Prev Med, 2020;11:113.
    PMID: 33088441 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_274_19
    Background: The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing worldwide. Therefore, we sought to determine the most important predictors of NAFLD among middle-aged men and women in Isfahan, Iran.

    Methods: A total of 413 individuals (163 men and 250 women) aged 30-60 years were selected by stratified random sampling. The participants had safe alcohol consumption habits (<2 drinks/day) and no symptoms of hepatitis B and C. NAFLD was diagnosed through ultrasound. Blood pressure, anthropometric, and body composition measurements were made and liver function tests were conducted. Biochemical assessments, including the measurement of fasting blood sugar (FBS) and ferritin levels, as well as lipid profile tests were also performed. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.

    Results: The overall prevalence of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD was 39.3%. The results indicated a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD in men than in women (42.3% vs 30.4%; P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant variables as NAFLD predictors. Overall, male gender, high body mass index (BMI), high alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high FBS, and high ferritin were identified as the predictors of NAFLD. The only significant predictors of NAFLD among men were high BMI and high FBS. These predictors were high BMI, high FBS, and high ferritin in women (P < 0.05 for all variables).

    Conclusions: The metabolic profile can be used for predicting NAFLD among men and women. BMI, FBS, ALT, and ferritin are the efficient predictors of NAFLD and can be used for NAFLD screening before liver biopsy.

  11. Mohammadi M, Ghaleiha A, Rahnama R
    Int J Prev Med, 2019;10:111.
    PMID: 31360358 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_493_17
    Background: Theory-based tobacco use prevention programs in schools were implemented to evaluate the effectiveness of this peer-led intervention on tobacco use-related knowledge, attitude, normative beliefs, and intention to tobacco use of school children aged 14-17 years old.

    Methods: A school-based cluster randomized controlled intervention study was conducted among 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade high school children in Sanandaj City, Iran. 4-h integrated tobacco use prevention program comprising of four structured modules was developed and delivered to the intervention group by trained peer educator. Outcome measures comprised changes in students' smoking-related knowledge, attitude, normative beliefs, and intention to tobacco use from baseline to 6-month follow-up through validated anonymous questionnaire.

    Results: The present study showed an intervention effect on tobacco use-related knowledge, normative beliefs, and intention to tobacco use but not attitude. The results indicated that there was significant decrease in intention to tobacco use (P ≤ 0.013) observed after 6-month postintervention. The intervention module was also effective in improving smoking knowledge (P ≤ 0.001), normative beliefs with regard to perceived prevalence of cigarette smoking and water-pipe use among adults and adolescents (P ≤ 0.001) in intervention group 6-month postintervention.

    Conclusions: Participation in the peer-led education program to tobacco use prevention may have improvement in knowledge, normative beliefs, and intention to tobacco use. An implementation of the peer-led behavioral intervention components in the school setting may have a beneficial effect on public health by decreasing intention to tobacco use among nonsmoker adolescents.

  12. Chen CK, Ooi FK, Abu Kasim NA, Asari MA
    Int J Prev Med, 2019;10:118.
    PMID: 31367282 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_404_17
    Introduction: This study investigated the effects of resistance training and Eurycoma longifolia Jack supplementation on isokinetic muscular strength and power, Wingate anaerobic power, and testosterone: epitestosterone (T/E) ratio in young males.

    Methods: Forty young males were weight-matched and assigned into four groups: control (C), Eurycoma longifolia jack (ElJ), resistance training (RT), and Eurycoma longifolia Jack plus resistance training group (ElJ & RT). Participants in ElJ and ElJ & RT groups consumed 200 mg Eurycoma longifolia Jack daily, whereas participants in the C and RT groups consumed placebo capsules daily for 8 weeks. Resistance training program which consisted of 10 different exercises was conducted three times per week for 8 weeks. Participants' isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic power, and urinary TE ratio were measured before and after the intervention period. This is a randomized placebo-controlled intervention study. Paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis.

    Results: The mean average power of knee flexion at 300°/s in the RT and ElJ & RT groups was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the posttest compared with pretest. Wingate relative peak power in the RT group increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with respective pretest value, whereas peak power in the combined ElJ & RT group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in posttest compared with pretest. There was no significant difference in T/E ratio between pre- and posttests in all the groups.

    Conclusions: The prescribed resistance training program, either with or without ElJ supplementation, improved isokinetic power of the lower limb. Resistance training alone improved relative anaerobic power, whereas combined Eurycoma longifolia Jack and resistance training improved peak power output. ElJ consumption of 200 mg daily for 8 weeks did not affect the urinary T/E ratio.

  13. Sengupta P, Dutta S
    Int J Prev Med, 2020;11:194.
    PMID: 33815718 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_530_18
    Rabbit strains find immense application in biomedical research with every strain having their discrete advantage in specific research endeavor. Acceptability of rabbit strains as laboratory animals owes to their breeding ease, availability, cost-effectiveness, ethical conveniences, larger size, compared to rats and mice, and responsiveness. With respect to different life phases, the article displays that one human year is equivalent to: (1) in developmental phase, 56.77 days for New Zealand White (NZW) and New Zealand Red (NZR) rabbits, 71.01 days for Dutch belted and Polish rabbits, and 85.28 days for Californian rabbits; (2) in the prepubertal phase, 13.04 days for NZW and Dutch belted, 15.65 days for NZR and Californian, and 10.43 days for Polish rabbits; (3) in the adult phase, 18.25 days for NZW and Californian rabbits, 22.75 days for NZR, and 12 days for Dutch Belted and Polish rabbits; (4) during reproductive senescence, 42.94 days for NZW, NZR and Californian rabbits, 28.62 days for Dutch belted, and 25.05 days for Polish rabbits; (5) in the post-senescence phase, 50.34 days for NZW, 25.17 days for NZR, Dutch Belted and Californian and 31.46 days for Polish rabbits. The laboratory rabbit strains differ in various physiological, developmental and genetic make-ups, which also reflect upon the correlation of their age at different life stages with that of a human. The present article aids selection of laboratory rabbit strain of accurate age as per experimental need, by precisely relating the same with age of human considering different life stages.
  14. Azmi J, Nurumal MS, Mohamed MHN, Rahman NSA
    Int J Prev Med, 2020;11:6.
    PMID: 32089806 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_83_19
    Background: The study evaluates the changes of pre and post stages of behavioral change, motivation level, and smoking status among cardiovascular disease patients, participating in the new smoking cessation program in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan, Kuantan.

    Methods: A total of 65 adult cardiac patients were randomly distributed into two groups, i.e., intervention and control group, who were baseline smokers and assessed in three phases. Initially, the first, second, and third phase collected the information about their demographic details, their smoking status, and smoking status using cotinine amylase strip, respectively.

    Results: It showed that behavioral change was significant for the control group (P value = 0.031), while motivation level improved for both groups (i.e., control, P value = 0.000 and intervention group, P value = 0.001). The smoke quitting status percentage was higher for intervention group 41.9% and lower for control group 20.6%; however, the P value was insignificant for both control group (1.000) and intervention group (0.250).

    Conclusions: This study suggests a need for more personal testimonial videos to focus on other smoking-related diseases.

  15. Chattu VK, Knight A, Reddy KS, Aginam O
    Int J Prev Med, 2019;10:204.
    PMID: 31879553 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_11_19
    Human security is a concept that challenges the traditional notion of national security by placing the 'human' as the central referent of security instead of the 'state.' It is a concept that encompasses health and well-being of people and prioritizes their fundamental freedoms and basic livelihoods by shielding them from acute socioeconomic threats, vulnerabilities and stress. The epicenter of "health security" is located at the intersection of several academic fields or disciplines which do not necessarily share a common theoretical approach. Diverse players in the "health security" domain include practitioners in such fields as security studies, foreign policy, international relations, development theory, environmental politics and the practices of the United Nations system and other multilateral bodies like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Improvements in health are not only dependent on continued commitments to enhance the availability of healthcare and to strengthen disease prevention systems; they are very much enhanced by that intersection between global security and global health. What is emerging is global health diplomacy paradigm that calls for strengthening of core capacities in the public health and foreign policy arenas aimed at advancing human security through the strengthening of global health diplomacy practices. Human security in its broadest sense embraces far more than the absence of violence and conflict. It encompasses human rights, good governance, access to education and health care, and ensuring that each individual has opportunities and devices to fulfill his or her potential. Every step in this direction is a step towards reducing poverty, achieving growth and preventing conflict. Freedom from want, freedom from fear and the freedom of future generations to inherit a natural environment - these are the interrelated building blocks of human- and therefore national security.
  16. Chattu VK, Knight A, Reddy KS, Aginam O
    Int J Prev Med, 2020;11:32.
    PMID: 32363019 DOI: 10.4103/2008-7802.279163
    Human security is a concept that challenges the traditional notion of national security by placing the 'human' as the central referent of security instead of the 'state.' It is a concept that encompasses health and well-being of people and prioritizes their fundamental freedoms and basic livelihoods by shielding them from acute socioeconomic threats, vulnerabilities and stress. The epicenter of "health security" is located at the intersection of several academic fields or disciplines which do not necessarily share a common theoretical approach. Diverse players in the "health security" domain include practitioners in such fields as security studies, foreign policy, international relations, development theory, environmental politics and the practices of the United Nations system and other multilateral bodies like the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Improvements in health are not only dependent on continued commitments to enhance the availability of healthcare and to strengthen disease prevention systems; they are very much enhanced by that intersection between global security and global health. What is emerging is global health diplomacy paradigm that calls for strengthening of core capacities in the public health and foreign policy arenas aimed at advancing human security through the strengthening of global health diplomacy practices. Human security in its broadest sense embraces far more than the absence of violence and conflict. It encompasses human rights, good governance, access to education and health care, and ensuring that each individual has opportunities and devices to fulfill his or her potential. Every step in this direction is a step towards reducing poverty, achieving growth and preventing conflict. Freedom from want, freedom from fear and the freedom of future generations to inherit a natural environment - these are the interrelated building blocks of human- and therefore national security.
  17. Zarei M, Qorbani M, Djalalinia S, Sulaiman N, Subashini T, Appanah G, et al.
    Int J Prev Med, 2021;12:8.
    PMID: 34084305 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_61_19
    Background: This review seeks to determine the relationship between food insecurity among elderly people over the past decades and nutrient deficiency, which is rather unclear. We aim to systematically review the relationship between food insecurity and dietary intake among elderly population.

    Methods: In this systematic review, we systematically searched the international databases including PubMed, Web of Sciences, and Scopus for scientifically related papers which have been published up until January 2018. For a more refined search, we used the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and Emtree. In terms of search protocol, no restrictions were placed on time and language. Two independent reviewers conducted the data refining processes. Validated form (PRISMA) was used to conduct quality assessment and data extraction.

    Results: Eight cross sectional studies have been included in this review. Two of the studies were conducted in Asia and the remaining six studies were largely based in the United States and Canada. Food insecurity was associated with low levels of vitamin and mineral intakes such as vitamins E, A, B, and D and also zinc, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Most studies also reported insufficient energy, and micro and macronutrients intake among elderly people.

    Conclusions: The findings of this review evidence a considerable amount of food insecurity and nutrient deficiency, including vitamins E, C, D, B 2, and B 12 and zinc, phosphorus, and calcium among elderly population. These findings could be used as reliable evidence by policy makers and future complementary analyses.

  18. Zafar M, H Zaidi ST, Husain SS, Bukhari NM
    Int J Prev Med, 2021;12:91.
    PMID: 34584657 DOI: 10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_331_19
    Background: In Saudi Arabia, fuel dispensing facilities commonly present around the residential places, educational institutions, and various health care facilities. Fuel pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX) and its alkyl derivatives are harmful to human health because of their toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic properties. The aim of this study was to determine the BTX concentration levels of common pollutants in and around fuel stations and their harmful health effects in the urban cites of KSA.

    Methods: Forty fuel dispensing facilities were randomly selected on the basis of three different areas: residential, traffic intersection, and petrol pump locations (refueling stations). Portable ambient analyzer was used for measuring BTX concentration. t-test was applied to determine the difference between these different areas.

    Results: All mean concentration values of pollutants such as BTX around residential, traffic intersection, and fuel stations are exceeding the limits of air quality standards values (P < 0.01). The mean levels of benzene are 10.3 and 11.07 ppm in Dammam and Khobar, respectively, and they exceed the reference level of 0.5 ppm. Hazard quotient was more than >1, which shows that carcinogenic probability has increased those who were living and working near fuel stations.

    Conclusions: The results found that the high concentration of pollutants (BTX) is in the environment around fuel stations. The environmental contamination associated with BTX in petrol fuel stations impulses the necessity of preventive programs to reduce the further air quality deterioration and reduce the harmful health effects.

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