Methods: Nineteen adolescent state-level weightlifters were assigned into isokinetic or isotonic groups. All participants were recruited from a pool of weightlifters with standardized training program provided by their coach. Series of immunological tests were carried out before the commencement, immediately upon the completion, and a month after the cessation of the additional training program to evaluate total leukocytes and lymphocytes count.
Results: The results revealed a significant time and group interaction and main effects of time on mean total leukocytes (P < 0.05). Mean total leukocytes count at posttest decreased in both groups. In isotonic group, it was further decreased following 1 month of training cessation (P < 0.05) but not in the isokinetic group. However, the decrement was not high and the values were in the normal range. No significant time and group interaction was observed in total lymphocytes and its subsets count.
Conclusions: Eight weeks of isokinetic and isotonic additional training with emphasis on shoulder joint only affect mean total leukocytes count in state-level adolescent weightlifters.
Methods: A total of 413 individuals (163 men and 250 women) aged 30-60 years were selected by stratified random sampling. The participants had safe alcohol consumption habits (<2 drinks/day) and no symptoms of hepatitis B and C. NAFLD was diagnosed through ultrasound. Blood pressure, anthropometric, and body composition measurements were made and liver function tests were conducted. Biochemical assessments, including the measurement of fasting blood sugar (FBS) and ferritin levels, as well as lipid profile tests were also performed. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria.
Results: The overall prevalence of ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD was 39.3%. The results indicated a significantly higher prevalence of NAFLD in men than in women (42.3% vs 30.4%; P < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant variables as NAFLD predictors. Overall, male gender, high body mass index (BMI), high alanine aminotransferase (ALT), high FBS, and high ferritin were identified as the predictors of NAFLD. The only significant predictors of NAFLD among men were high BMI and high FBS. These predictors were high BMI, high FBS, and high ferritin in women (P < 0.05 for all variables).
Conclusions: The metabolic profile can be used for predicting NAFLD among men and women. BMI, FBS, ALT, and ferritin are the efficient predictors of NAFLD and can be used for NAFLD screening before liver biopsy.
Methods: A school-based cluster randomized controlled intervention study was conducted among 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grade high school children in Sanandaj City, Iran. 4-h integrated tobacco use prevention program comprising of four structured modules was developed and delivered to the intervention group by trained peer educator. Outcome measures comprised changes in students' smoking-related knowledge, attitude, normative beliefs, and intention to tobacco use from baseline to 6-month follow-up through validated anonymous questionnaire.
Results: The present study showed an intervention effect on tobacco use-related knowledge, normative beliefs, and intention to tobacco use but not attitude. The results indicated that there was significant decrease in intention to tobacco use (P ≤ 0.013) observed after 6-month postintervention. The intervention module was also effective in improving smoking knowledge (P ≤ 0.001), normative beliefs with regard to perceived prevalence of cigarette smoking and water-pipe use among adults and adolescents (P ≤ 0.001) in intervention group 6-month postintervention.
Conclusions: Participation in the peer-led education program to tobacco use prevention may have improvement in knowledge, normative beliefs, and intention to tobacco use. An implementation of the peer-led behavioral intervention components in the school setting may have a beneficial effect on public health by decreasing intention to tobacco use among nonsmoker adolescents.
Methods: Forty young males were weight-matched and assigned into four groups: control (C), Eurycoma longifolia jack (ElJ), resistance training (RT), and Eurycoma longifolia Jack plus resistance training group (ElJ & RT). Participants in ElJ and ElJ & RT groups consumed 200 mg Eurycoma longifolia Jack daily, whereas participants in the C and RT groups consumed placebo capsules daily for 8 weeks. Resistance training program which consisted of 10 different exercises was conducted three times per week for 8 weeks. Participants' isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic power, and urinary TE ratio were measured before and after the intervention period. This is a randomized placebo-controlled intervention study. Paired t-test and one-way analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis.
Results: The mean average power of knee flexion at 300°/s in the RT and ElJ & RT groups was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the posttest compared with pretest. Wingate relative peak power in the RT group increased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with respective pretest value, whereas peak power in the combined ElJ & RT group was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in posttest compared with pretest. There was no significant difference in T/E ratio between pre- and posttests in all the groups.
Conclusions: The prescribed resistance training program, either with or without ElJ supplementation, improved isokinetic power of the lower limb. Resistance training alone improved relative anaerobic power, whereas combined Eurycoma longifolia Jack and resistance training improved peak power output. ElJ consumption of 200 mg daily for 8 weeks did not affect the urinary T/E ratio.
Methods: A total of 65 adult cardiac patients were randomly distributed into two groups, i.e., intervention and control group, who were baseline smokers and assessed in three phases. Initially, the first, second, and third phase collected the information about their demographic details, their smoking status, and smoking status using cotinine amylase strip, respectively.
Results: It showed that behavioral change was significant for the control group (P value = 0.031), while motivation level improved for both groups (i.e., control, P value = 0.000 and intervention group, P value = 0.001). The smoke quitting status percentage was higher for intervention group 41.9% and lower for control group 20.6%; however, the P value was insignificant for both control group (1.000) and intervention group (0.250).
Conclusions: This study suggests a need for more personal testimonial videos to focus on other smoking-related diseases.
Methods: In this systematic review, we systematically searched the international databases including PubMed, Web of Sciences, and Scopus for scientifically related papers which have been published up until January 2018. For a more refined search, we used the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms and Emtree. In terms of search protocol, no restrictions were placed on time and language. Two independent reviewers conducted the data refining processes. Validated form (PRISMA) was used to conduct quality assessment and data extraction.
Results: Eight cross sectional studies have been included in this review. Two of the studies were conducted in Asia and the remaining six studies were largely based in the United States and Canada. Food insecurity was associated with low levels of vitamin and mineral intakes such as vitamins E, A, B, and D and also zinc, calcium, magnesium, and iron. Most studies also reported insufficient energy, and micro and macronutrients intake among elderly people.
Conclusions: The findings of this review evidence a considerable amount of food insecurity and nutrient deficiency, including vitamins E, C, D, B 2, and B 12 and zinc, phosphorus, and calcium among elderly population. These findings could be used as reliable evidence by policy makers and future complementary analyses.
Methods: Forty fuel dispensing facilities were randomly selected on the basis of three different areas: residential, traffic intersection, and petrol pump locations (refueling stations). Portable ambient analyzer was used for measuring BTX concentration. t-test was applied to determine the difference between these different areas.
Results: All mean concentration values of pollutants such as BTX around residential, traffic intersection, and fuel stations are exceeding the limits of air quality standards values (P < 0.01). The mean levels of benzene are 10.3 and 11.07 ppm in Dammam and Khobar, respectively, and they exceed the reference level of 0.5 ppm. Hazard quotient was more than >1, which shows that carcinogenic probability has increased those who were living and working near fuel stations.
Conclusions: The results found that the high concentration of pollutants (BTX) is in the environment around fuel stations. The environmental contamination associated with BTX in petrol fuel stations impulses the necessity of preventive programs to reduce the further air quality deterioration and reduce the harmful health effects.