Displaying all 12 publications

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  1. Zhiqin W, Palaniappan S, Raja Ali RA
    Intest Res, 2014 Jul;12(3):194-204.
    PMID: 25349593 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2014.12.3.194
    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC), and key contributing factors include chronic colonic inflammation and the extent and duration of disease. This increase in risk is more likely to result from chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa than from any clearly defined genetic predisposition. However, globally, the true magnitude of this risk is debatable, since results from different studies are heterogeneous in terms of geographical and methodological variables. The prevalence of IBD-related CRC in the Asia-Pacific region ranges from 0.3% to 1.8% and a recent study found that the cumulative incidence of IBD-related CRC is comparable to that in Western countries. However, the CRC mortality rate in the Asia-Pacific region is on the rise compared with that in Western countries, and a few Asian countries show particularly rapid upward trends in CRC incidence. Although our understanding of the molecular and clinical basis for IBD-related CRC has improved substantially, our means of prevention, endoscopic surveillance, chemoprevention, and prophylactic surgery remain modest at best. Furthermore, published data on IBD-related CRC in the Asia-Pacific region is lacking, and this review addresses many aspects including epidemiology, natural history, etiopathogenesis, morphology, and biological behaviors of IBD-related CRC and sporadic CRC in the Asia-Pacific region. In this review, we will also discuss the risk factors for CRC in IBD patients, endoscopic technology screening, and surveillance programs and management strategies for IBD-related CRC.
  2. Abdul Rani R, Raja Ali RA, Lee YY
    Intest Res, 2016 Oct;14(4):297-304.
    PMID: 27799880
    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common gastrointestinal disorder involving the gut-brain axis, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder, are both increasing in incidence and prevalence in Asia. Both have significant overlap in terms of symptoms, pathophysiology, and treatment, suggesting the possibility of IBS and IBD being a single disease entity albeit at opposite ends of the spectrum. We examined the similarities and differences in IBS and IBD, and offer new thoughts and approaches to the disease paradigm.
  3. Song HK, Lee KM, Jung SA, Hong SN, Han DS, Yang SK, et al.
    Intest Res, 2016 Jul;14(3):240-7.
    PMID: 27433146 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2016.14.3.240
    The quality of care in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been systematically estimated. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of quality of IBD care in Asian countries.
  4. Wei SC
    Intest Res, 2016 Jul;14(3):218-23.
    PMID: 27433143 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2016.14.3.218
    The cost of caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high. Without government support, the cost burden will unavoidably rest on the patients and their family. However, the government providing full support will place a large financial burden on the health-care systems of a country. The aim of this study is to understand the current status of public medical insurance systems in caring for IBD patients among Asian countries.
  5. Chew D, Zhiqin W, Ibrahim N, Ali RAR
    Intest Res, 2018 10;16(4):509-521.
    PMID: 30369231 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2018.00074
    The patient-physician relationship has a pivotal impact on the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) outcomes. However, there are many challenges in the patient-physician relationship; lag time in diagnosis which results in frustration and an anchoring bias against the treating gastroenterologist, the widespread availability of medical information on the internet has resulted in patients having their own ideas of treatment, which may be incongruent from the treating physicians' goals resulting in patient physician discordance. Because IBD is an incurable disease, the goal of treatment is to sustain remission. To achieve this, patients may have to go through several lines of treatment. The period of receiving stepping up, top down or even accelerated stepping up medications may result in a lot of frustration and anxiety for the patient and may compromise the patient-physician relationship. IBD patients are also prone to psychological distress that further compromises the patient-physician relationship. Despite numerous published data regarding the medical and surgical treatment options available for IBD, there is a lack of data regarding methods to improve the therapeutic patient-physician relationship. In this review article, we aim to encapsulate the challenges faced in the patient-physician relationship and ways to overcome in for an improved outcome in IBD.
  6. Lee WS, Azmi N, Ng RT, Ong SY, Ponnampalavanar SS, Mahadeva S, et al.
    Intest Res, 2017 Oct;15(4):524-528.
    PMID: 29142521 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2017.15.4.524
    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) is highly effective in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, it is associated with an increased risk of infections, particularly in older adults. We reviewed 349 patients with IBD, who were observed over a 12-month period, 74 of whom had received anti-TNF therapy (71 patients were aged <60 years and 3 were aged ≥60 years). All the 3 older patients developed serious infectious complications after receiving anti-TNFs, although all of them were also on concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. One patient developed disseminated tuberculosis, another patient developed cholera diarrhea followed by nosocomial pneumonia, while the third patient developed multiple opportunistic infections (Pneumocystis pneumonia, cryptococcal septicemia and meningitis, Klebsiella septicemia). All 3 patients died within 1 year from the onset of the infection(s). We recommend that anti-TNF, especially when combined with other immunosuppressive therapy, should be used with extreme caution in older adult patients with IBD.
  7. Park DI, Hisamatsu T, Chen M, Ng SC, Ooi CJ, Wei SC, et al.
    Intest Res, 2018 Jan;16(1):17-25.
    PMID: 29422794 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2018.16.1.17
    Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 2 of the statements comprised 3 parts: management of latent TB in preparation for anti-TNF therapy, monitoring during anti-TNF therapy, and management of an active TB infection after anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.
  8. Park DI, Hisamatsu T, Chen M, Ng SC, Ooi CJ, Wei SC, et al.
    Intest Res, 2018 Jan;16(1):4-16.
    PMID: 29422793 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2018.16.1.4
    Because anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy has become increasingly popular in many Asian countries, the risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) among anti-TNF users may raise serious health problems in this region. Thus, the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis and the Asia Pacific Association of Gastroenterology have developed a set of consensus statements about risk assessment, detection and prevention of latent TB infection, and management of active TB infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receiving anti-TNF treatment. Twenty-three consensus statements were initially drafted and then discussed by the committee members. The quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations were assessed by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology. Web-based consensus voting was performed by 211 IBD specialists from 9 Asian countries concerning each statement. A consensus statement was accepted if at least 75% of the participants agreed. Part 1 of the statements comprised 2 parts: risk of TB infection Recommendaduring anti-TNF therapy, and screening for TB infection prior to commencing anti-TNF therapy. These consensus statements will help clinicians optimize patient outcomes by reducing the morbidity and mortality related to TB infections in patients with IBD receiving anti-TNF treatment.
  9. Sanagapalli S, Ko Y, Kariyawasam V, Ng SC, Tang W, de Silva HJ, et al.
    Intest Res, 2018 Jul;16(3):409-415.
    PMID: 30090040 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2018.16.3.409
    Background/Aims: To examine the association between use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and the risk of developing inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), in a modern cohort.

    Methods: A prospective nested case-control study across sites in the Asia-Pacific region was conducted; involving female IBD cases and asymptomatic controls. Subjects completed a questionnaire addressing questions related to OCP use. Primary outcome was the risk of development of IBD of those exposed to OCP versus non-exposure. Secondary outcomes were development of Crohn's disease (CD) versus ulcerative colitis (UC), and whether age of first use of OCP use may be associated with risk of IBD.

    Results: Three hundred and forty-eight female IBD cases (41% CD, median age: 43 years) and 590 female age-matched controls were recruited. No significant association was found between OCP use and the risk of IBD (odds ratio [OR], 1.65; 95% confidence interval, 0.77-3.13; P=0.22), CD (OR, 1.55) or UC (OR, 1.01). The lack of association persisted when results were adjusted for age and smoking. IBD cases commenced OCP use at a younger age than controls (18 years vs. 20 years, P=0.049).

    Conclusions: In this large cohort of subjects from the Asia-Pacific region, we found a modest but not significantly increased risk of developing IBD amongst OCP users.

  10. Chan SN, Low END, Raja Ali RA, Mokhtar NM
    Intest Res, 2018 Jul;16(3):374-383.
    PMID: 30090036 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2018.16.3.374
    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which comprises of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is an idiopathic relapsing and remitting disease in which the interplay of different environment, microbial, immunological and genetic factors that attribute to the progression of the disease. Numerous studies have been conducted in multiple aspects including clinical, endoscopy and histopathology for the diagnostics and treatment of IBD. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the aetiology and pathogenesis of IBD is still poorly understood. This review tries to critically assess the scientific evidence at the transcriptomic level as it would help in the discovery of RNA molecules in tissues or serum between the healthy and diseased or different IBD subtypes. These molecular signatures could potentially serve as a reliable diagnostic or prognostic biomarker. Researchers have also embarked on the study of transcriptome to be utilized in targeted therapy. We focus on the evaluation and discussion related to the publications reporting the different approaches and techniques used in investigating the transcriptomic changes in IBD with the intention to offer new perspectives to the landscape of the disease.
  11. Ooi CJ, Hilmi I, Banerjee R, Chuah SW, Ng SC, Wei SC, et al.
    Intest Res, 2019 Jul;17(3):285-310.
    PMID: 31146509 DOI: 10.5217/ir.2019.00026
    The Asia-Pacific Working Group on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was established in Cebu, Philippines, under the auspices of the Asian Pacific Association of Gastroenterology with the goal of improving IBD care in Asia. This consensus is carried out in collaboration with Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis. With biologic agents and biosimilars becoming more established, it is necessary to conduct a review on existing literature and establish a consensus on when and how to introduce biologic agents and biosimilars in the conjunction with conventional treatments for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) in Asia. These statements also address how pharmacogenetics influence the treatments of UC and CD and provide guidance on response monitoring and strategies to restore loss of response. Finally, the review includes statements on how to manage treatment alongside possible hepatitis B and tuberculosis infections, both common in Asia. These statements have been prepared and voted upon by members of IBD workgroup employing the modified Delphi process. These statements do not intend to be all-encompassing and future revisions are likely as new data continue to emerge.
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