Natural biopolymers have attracted considerable interest for the development of delivery systems for protein drugs owing to their biocompatibility, non-toxicity, renewability and mild processing conditions. This paper offers an overview of the current status and future perspectives of particle designs using biopolymers for the stabilization and controlled-delivery of a model protein drug--insulin. We first describe the design criteria for polymeric encapsulation and subsequently classify the basic principles of particle fabrication as well as the existing particle designs for oral insulin encapsulation. The performances of these existing particle designs in terms of insulin stability and in vitro release behavior in acidic and alkaline media, as well as their in vivo performance are compared and reviewed. This review forms the basis for future works on the optimization of particle design and material formulation for the development of an improved oral delivery system for protein drugs.
With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research.
Transdermal drug delivery is hindered by the barrier property of the stratum corneum. It limits the route to transport of drugs with a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 1 to 3, molecular weight of less than 500Da and melting point of less than 200°C. Active methods such as iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, magnetophoresis and laser techniques have been investigated for the past decades on their ability, mechanisms and limitations in modifying the skin microenvironment to promote drug diffusion and partition. Microwave, an electromagnetic wave characterized by frequencies range between 300MHz and 300GHz, has recently been reported as the potential skin permeation enhancer. Microwave has received a widespread application in food, engineering and medical sectors. Its potential use to facilitate transdermal drug transport is still in its infancy stage of evaluation. This review provides an overview and update on active methods utilizing electrical, magnetic, photomechanical and cavitational waves to overcome the skin barrier for transdermal drug administration with insights into mechanisms and future perspectives of the latest microwave technique described.
DNA formulations provide the basis for safe and cost effective vaccine. Low efficiency is often observed in the delivery of DNA vaccines. In order to assess a new strategy for oral DNA vaccine formulation and delivery, plasmid encoding hemagglutinin (HA) gene of avian influenza virus, A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04 (H5N1) (pcDNA3.1/H5) was formulated using green synthesis of sliver nanoparticles (AgNP) with polyethylene glycol (PEG). AgNP were successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed with size in the range of 4 to 18 nm with an average size of 11 nm. Cytotoxicity of the prepared AgNP was investigated in vitro and in vivo using MCF-7 cells and cytokine expression, respectively. At the concentration of -5 log₁₀AgNP, no cytotoxic effects were detected in MCF-7 cells with 9.5% cell death compared to the control. One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks immunized once by oral gavage with 10 μl of pcDNA3.1/H5 (200 ng/ml) nanoencapsulated with 40 μl AgNP (3.7×10⁻² μg of Ag) showed no clinical manifestations. PCR successfully detect the AgNP/H5 plasmid from the duodenum of the inoculated chicken as early as 1h post-immunization. Immunization of chickens with AgNP/H5 enhanced both pro inflammatory and Th1-like expressions, although no significant differences were recorded in the chickens inoculated with AgNP, AgNP/pcDNA3.1 and the control. In addition, serum samples collected from immunized chickens with AgNP/H5 showed rapidly increasing antibody against H5 on day 14 after immunization. The highest average antibody titres were detected on day 35 post-immunization at 51.2±7.5. AgNP/H5 also elicited both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the immunized chickens as early as day 14 after immunization, at 7.5±2.0 and 20±1.9 percentage, respectively. Hence, single oral administrations of AgNP/H5 led to induce both the antibody and cell-mediated immune responses as well as enhanced cytokine production.
The influence of microwave irradiation on the drug release properties of freshly prepared and aged alginate, alginate-chitosan and chitosan beads was investigated. The beads were prepared by extrusion method with sulphathiazole as a model drug. The dried beads were subjected to microwave irradiation at 80 W for 10 min, 20 min or three consecutive cycles of 10 and 20 min, respectively. The profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, drug stability, drug polymorphism, drug-polymer interaction, polymer crosslinkage and complexation were determined by dissolution testing, drug content assay, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The chemical stability of drug embedded in beads was unaffected by microwave conditions and length of storage time. The release property of drug was mainly governed by the extent of polymer interaction in beads. The aged alginate beads required intermittent cycles of microwave irradiation to induce drug release retarding effect in contrast to their freshly prepared samples. Unlike the alginate beads, the level of polymer interaction was higher in aged alginate-chitosan beads than the corresponding fresh beads. The drug release retarding property of aged alginate-chitosan beads could be significantly enhanced through subjecting the beads to microwave irradiation for 10 min. No further change in drug release from these beads was observed beyond 30 min of microwave irradiation. Unlike beads containing alginate, the rate and extent of drug released from the aged chitosan beads were higher upon treatment by microwave in spite of the higher degree of polymer interaction shown by the latter on prolonged storage. The observation suggested that the response of polymer matrix to microwave irradiation in induction of drug release retarding property was largely affected by the molecular arrangement of the polymer chains.
Developing countries are consuming major part of the global urea production with an anticipated nitrogen use efficiency of 20 to 35%. The release of excess nitrogen in the soil is not only detrimental to the environment but also lessens the efficiency of the conventional urea. The urea performance can be enhanced by encapsulating it with slow release coating materials and synchronizing the nutrients' release with the plant up-taking. However, the present cost of most of the coated fertilizers is considerably higher than the conventional fertilizers. The high cost factor prevents their widespread use in mainstream agriculture. This paper documents a review of literature related to the global urea market, issues pertaining to the conventional urea use, natural and synthetic materials for slow release urea and fluidized bed spray coating process. The aim of the current review is to develop technical understanding of the conventional and non-conventional coating materials and associated spray coating mechanism for slow release urea production. The study also investigated the potential of starch as the coating material in relation to the coatings tested previously for controlled release fertilizers.
Graphene oxide (GO)-based nanocarriers have been frequently studied due to their high drug loading capacity. However, the unsatisfactory biocompatibility of these GO-based nanocarriers hampers their use in clinical settings. This review discusses how each of the physicochemical characteristics (e.g., size, surface area, surface properties, number of layers and particulate states) and surface coatings on GO affect its in vitro and in vivo nanotoxicity. We provide an overview on the effect of GO properties on interactions with cells such as red blood cells, macrophages and cell lines, and experimental organisms including rodents, rabbits and Zebrafish, offering some guidelines for development of safe GO-based nanocarriers. We conclude the paper by outlining the challenges involving GO-based formulations and future perspectives of this research in the biomedical field.
Formation of the so-called organic-inorganic nanohybrid material was exploited for the preparation of a controlled release formulation. The inorganic Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as a matrix, hosting an active agent or a guest, alpha-naphthaleneacetate (NAA), a plant growth regulator by self-assembly technique. The reverse process, i.e., the deintercalation or release of the guest, NAA was found to be rapid initially, followed by a more sustained release thereafter and this behavior was dependent on the pH of the release medium, the aqueous solution. The mechanism of release has been interpreted on the basis of the ion-exchange process between the NAA anion intercalated in the lamella host and nitrate or hydroxyl anions in the aqueous solution.
Non-lamellar liquid crystalline aqueous nanodispersions, known also as ISAsomes (internally self-assembled 'somes' or nanoparticles), are gaining increasing interest in drug solubilisation and bio-imaging, but they often exhibit poor hemocompatibility and induce cytotoxicity. This limits their applications in intravenous drug delivery and targeting. Using a binary mixture of citrem and soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) at different weight ratios, we describe a library of colloidally stable aqueous and hemocompatible nanodispersions of diverse nanoarchitectures (internal self-assembled nanostructures). This engineered library is structurally stable in human plasma as well as being hemocompatible (non-hemolytic, and poor activator of the complement system). By varying citrem to lipid weight ratio, the nanodispersion susceptibility to macrophage uptake could also be modulated. Finally, the formation of nanodispersions comprising internally V2 (inverse bicontinuous cubic) and H2 (inverse hexagonal) nanoarchitectures was achieved without the use of an organic solvent, a secondary emulsifier, or high-energy input. The tunable binary citrem/SPC nanoplatform holds promise for future development of hemocompatible and immune-safe nanopharmaceuticals.
We developed a step-by-step experimental protocol using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic vapour sorption (DVS), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and a small-scale dissolution apparatus (μDISS Profiler) to investigate the mechanism (solid-to-solid or solution-mediated) by which crystallization of amorphous drugs occurs upon dissolution. This protocol then guided how to stabilize the amorphous formulation. Indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide and glipizide were selected as model drugs and HPMC (Pharmacoat 606) and PVP (K30) as stabilizing polymers. Spray-dried amorphous indapamide, metolazone and glibenclamide crystallized via solution-mediated nucleation while glipizide suffered from solid-to-solid crystallization. The addition of 0.001%-0.01% (w/v) HPMC into the dissolution medium successfully prevented the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of indapamide and metolazone whereas it only reduced the crystallization rate for glibenclamide. Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of glipizide and PVP K30, at a ratio of 50:50% (w/w) reduced but did not completely eliminate the solid-to-solid crystallization of glipizide even though the overall dissolution rate was enhanced both in the absence and presence of HPMC. Raman spectroscopy indicated the formation of a glipizide polymorph in the dissolution medium with higher solubility than the stable polymorph. As a complementary technique, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of indapamide and glibenclamide with HPMC was performed. It was revealed that hydrogen bonding patterns of the two drugs with HPMC differed significantly, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may play a role in the greater stabilizing effect on supersaturation of indapamide, compared to glibenclamide.
Lung cancer (LC) is the second most prevalent type of cancer and primary cause of mortality among both men and women, worldwide. The most commonly employed diagnostic modalities for LC include chest X-ray (CXR), magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT-scan), and fused-positron-emitting-tomography-CT (PET-CT). Owing to several limitations associated with the use of conventional diagnostic tools such as radiation burden to the patient, misleading diagnosis ("missed lung cancer"), false staging and low sensitivity and resolution, contemporary diagnostic regimen needed to be employed for screening of LC. In recent decades, nanotechnology-guided interventions have been transpired as emerging nanoimaging probes for detection of LC at advanced stages, while producing signal amplification, better resolution for surface and deep tissue imaging, and enhanced translocation and biodistribution of imaging probes within the cancerous tissues. Besides enormous potential of nanoimaging probes, nanotechnology-based advancements have also been evidenced for superior efficacy for treatment of LC and abolishing pulmonary metastasis (PM). The success of nanotherapeutics is due to their ability to maximise translocation and biodistribution of anti-neoplastic agents into the tumor tissues, improve pharmacokinetic profiles of anti-metastatic agents, optimise target-specific drug delivery, and control release kinetics of encapsulated moieties in target tissues. This review aims to overview and critically discuss the superiority of nanoimaging probes and nanotherapeutics over conventional regimen for early detection of LC and abolishing PM. Current challenges to clinical transition of nanoimaging probes and therapeutic viability of nanotherapeutics for treatment for LC and PM have also been pondered.
Cell impurities are an emerging nucleating molecular barriers having the capability in disordering the metabolic chain reactions of proteolysis, glycolysis and lipolysis. Their massive effects induced by copolymer crystal growth in compaction with metal and mineral transients are extended as well as in damaging DNA and mRNA structure motif and other molecular assembly e.g. histones structure unites. Their polycrystalline packing modes, polydispersity and their tendency to surface and interface adhesion prompted us in structuring scaffold biomaterials enriched with biopeptides, layered by phospho-glycerides ester-forms. The interface tension of the formed map is flexible and dependent to the surface exposure and its collapse modes to the surrounding molecular ligands. Thus, the attempts in increasing surface exposure e.g. the viscoelastic of structured lipopeptides and types of formed network structures interplays an extra- conjugating biomolecules having a least cytotoxicity effects to cells constituents. Disulfides molecules are selected to be the key regulatory element in rejoining both lipidic and proteic moieties by disordering atoms status via chemical ionization using organic catalyst. The insertion of methionine based peptidic chain at the lateral surfaces of scaffold biomaterials enhances the electron-meta-static motions by raising a molecular disordering status at distinct regions of the map e.g. epimerization into a nonpolar side that helps the chemical conjunction of disulfide groups with the esterified phosphoglycerides mono-layers. These effects in turn are accomplished by the formation of meso-sphere nonpolar- vesicles. The oxidation of disulfide group would alter the ordering of initial molecules by raising a newly molecular disorders to the map with high polarity to surface regions. In the same time indicates a continuation in the crystallization growth factor via a low chemical lesions between the impurities and a supersaturation in the intra-atomic distances with maximum cross linking to the deformed ligand with scaffold biomaterials.
Cancer is a prime healthcare problem that is significantly responsible for universal mortality. Despite distinguished advancements in medical field, chemotherapy is still the mainstay for the treatment of cancers. During chemotherapy, approximately 90% of the administered dose goes to normal tissues, with mere 2-5% precisely reaching the cancerous tissues. Subsequently, the resultant side effects and associated complications lead to dose reduction or even discontinuance of the therapy. Tumor directed therapy therefore, represents a fascinating approach to augment the therapeutic potential of anticancer bioactives as well as overcomes its side effects. The selective overexpression of LHRH receptors on human tumors compared to normal tissues makes them a suitable marker for diagnostics, molecular probes and targeted therapeutics. These understanding enabled the rational to conjugate LHRH with various cytotoxic drugs (doxorubicin, DOX; camptothecin etc.), cytotoxic genes [small interfering RNA (siRNA), micro RNA (miRNA)], as well as therapeutic nanocarriers (nanoparticles, liposomes or dendrimers) to facilitate their tumor specific delivery. LHRH conjugation enhances their delivery via LHRH receptor mediated endocytosis. Numerous cytotoxic analogs of LHRH were developed over the past two decades to target various types of cancers. The potency of LHRH compound were reported to be as high as 5,00-10,00 folds compared to parent molecules. The objective of this review article is to discuss reports on various LHRH analogs with special emphasis on their prospective application in the medical field. The article also focuses on the attributes that must be taken into account while designing a LHRH therapeutics with special account to the biochemistry and applications of these conjugates. The record on various cytotoxic analogs of LHRH are also discussed. It is anticipated that the knowledge of therapeutic and toxicological aspects of LHRH compounds will facilitate the development of a more systematic approach to the targeted delivery of cytotoxic agents using peptides.
Nutrients released into soils from uncoated fertilizer granules are lost continuously due to volatilization, leaching, denitrification, and surface run-off. These issues have caused economic loss due to low nutrient absorption efficiency and environmental pollution due to hazardous emissions and water eutrophication. Controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) can change the release kinetics of the fertilizer nutrients through an abatement strategy to offset these issues by providing the fertilizer content in synchrony with the metabolic needs of the plants. Parametric analysis of release characteristics of CRFs is of paramount importance for the design and development of new CRFs. However, the experimental approaches are not only time consuming, but they are also cumbersome and expensive. Scientists have introduced mathematical modeling techniques to predict the release of nutrients from the CRFs to elucidate fundamental understanding of the dynamics of the release processes and to design new CRFs in a shorter time and with relatively lower cost. This paper reviews and critically analyzes the latest developments in the mathematical modeling and simulation techniques that have been reported for the characteristics and mechanisms of nutrient release from CRFs. The scope of this review includes the modeling and simulations techniques used for coated, controlled-release fertilizers.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease with high prevalence in the rapidly growing elderly population in the developing world. The currently FDA approved drugs for the management of symptomatology of AD are marketed mainly as conventional oral medications. Due to their gastrointestinal side effects and lack of brain targeting, these drugs and dosage regiments hinder patient compliance and lead to treatment discontinuation. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems (NTDDS) administered by different routes can be considered as promising tools to improve patient compliance and achieve better therapeutic outcomes. Despite extensive research, literature screening revealed that clinical activities involving NTDDS application in research for AD are lagging compared to NTDDS for other diseases such as cancers. The industrial perspectives, processability, and cost/benefit ratio of using NTDDS for AD treatment are usually overlooked. Moreover, active and passive immunization against AD are by far the mostly studied alternative AD therapies because conventional oral drug therapy is not yielding satisfactorily results. NTDDS of approved drugs appear promising to transform this research from 'paper to clinic' and raise hope for AD sufferers and their caretakers. This review summarizes the recent studies conducted on NTDDS for AD treatment, with a primary focus on the industrial perspectives and processability. Additionally, it highlights the ongoing clinical trials for AD management.
Human serum albumin (HSA) is a superior carrier for delivering extracellular drugs. However, the development of a cell-penetrating HSA remains a great challenge due to its low membrane permeability. We report herein on the design of a series of palmitoyl-poly-arginine peptides (CPPs) and an evaluation of their cell-penetrating effects after forming a complex with HSA for use in intracellular drug delivery. The palmitoyl CPPs forms a stable complex with HSA by anchoring itself to the high affinity palmitate binding sites of HSA. Among the CPPs evaluated, a cyclic polypeptide composed of D-dodecaarginines, palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12 was the most effective for facilitating the cellular uptake of HSA by HeLa cells. Such a superior cell-penetrating capability is primarily mediated by macropinocytosis. The effect of the CPP on pharmacological activity was examined using three drugs loaded in HSA via three different methods: a) an HSA-paclitaxel complex, b) an HSA-doxorubicin covalent conjugate and c) an HSA-thioredoxin fusion protein. The results showed that cell-penetrating efficiency was increased with a corresponding and significant enhancement in pharmacological activity. In conclusion, palmitoyl-cyclic-(D-Arg)12/HSA is a versatile cell-penetrating drug delivery system with great potential for use as a nano-carrier for a wide diversity of pharmaceutical applications.
The current conventional injectable vaccines face several drawbacks such as inconvenience and ineffectiveness in mucosal immunization. Therefore, the current development of effective oral vaccines is vital to enable the generation of dual systemic and mucosal immunity. In the present study, we examine the potential of pH-responsive bacterial nanocellulose/polyacrylic acid (BNC/PAA) hydrogel microparticles (MPs) as an oral vaccine carrier. In-vitro entrapment efficiency and release study of Ovalbumin (Ova) demonstrated that as high as 72% of Ova were entrapped in the hydrogel, and the release of loaded Ova was pH-dependent. The released Ova remained structurally conserved as evident by Western blot and circular dichroism. Hydrogel MPs reduced the TEER measurement of HT29MTX/Caco2/Raji B triple co-culture monolayer by reversibly opening the tight junctions (TJs) as shown in the TEM images. The ligated ileal loop assay revealed that hydrogel MPs could facilitate the penetration of FITC-Ova into the Peyer's patches in small intestine. Ova and cholera toxin B (CTB) were utilized in in-vivo oral immunization as model antigen and mucosal adjuvant. The in-vivo immunization revealed mice orally administered with Ova and CTB-loaded hydrogel MPs generated significantly higher level of serum anti-Ova IgG and mucosal anti-Ova IgA in the intestinal washes, compared to intramuscular administrated Ova. These results conclude that BNC/PAA hydrogel MPs is a potential oral vaccine carrier for effective oral immunization.
Owing to their tremendous potential, the inference of nano-scaled materials has revolutionized many fields including the medicine and health, particularly for development of various types of targeted drug delivery devices for early prognosis and successful treatment of various diseases, including the brain disorders. Owing to their unique characteristic features, a variety of nanomaterials (particularly, ultra-fine particles (UFPs) have shown tremendous success in achieving the prognostic and therapeutic goals for early prognosis and treatment of various brain maladies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, brain lymphomas, and other ailments. However, serious attention is needful due to innumerable after-effects of the nanomaterials. Despite their immense contribution in optimizing the prognostic and therapeutic modalities, biological interaction of nanomaterials with various body tissues may produce severe nanotoxicity of different organs including the heart, liver, kidney, lungs, immune system, gastro-intestinal system, skin as well as nervous system. However, in this review, we have primarily focused on nanomaterials-induced neurotoxicity of the brain. Following their translocation into different regions of the brain, nanomaterials may induce neurotoxicity through multiple mechanisms including the oxidative stress, DNA damage, lysosomal dysfunction, inflammatory cascade, apoptosis, genotoxicity, and ultimately necrosis of neuronal cells. Our findings indicated that rigorous toxicological evaluations must be carried out prior to clinical translation of nanomaterials-based formulations to avoid serious neurotoxic complications, which may further lead to develop various neuro-degenerative disorders.