Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Lim HP, Tey BT, Chan ES
    J Control Release, 2014 Jul 28;186:11-21.
    PMID: 24816070 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.04.042
    Natural biopolymers have attracted considerable interest for the development of delivery systems for protein drugs owing to their biocompatibility, non-toxicity, renewability and mild processing conditions. This paper offers an overview of the current status and future perspectives of particle designs using biopolymers for the stabilization and controlled-delivery of a model protein drug--insulin. We first describe the design criteria for polymeric encapsulation and subsequently classify the basic principles of particle fabrication as well as the existing particle designs for oral insulin encapsulation. The performances of these existing particle designs in terms of insulin stability and in vitro release behavior in acidic and alkaline media, as well as their in vivo performance are compared and reviewed. This review forms the basis for future works on the optimization of particle design and material formulation for the development of an improved oral delivery system for protein drugs.
  2. Azeem B, KuShaari K, Man ZB, Basit A, Thanh TH
    J Control Release, 2014 May 10;181:11-21.
    PMID: 24593892 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.02.020
    With the exponential growth of the global population, the agricultural sector is bound to use ever larger quantities of fertilizers to augment the food supply, which consequently increases food production costs. Urea, when applied to crops is vulnerable to losses from volatilization and leaching. Current methods also reduce nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) by plants which limits crop yields and, moreover, contributes towards environmental pollution in terms of hazardous gaseous emissions and water eutrophication. An approach that offsets this pollution while also enhancing NUE is the use of controlled release urea (CRU) for which several methods and materials have been reported. The physical intromission of urea granules in an appropriate coating material is one such technique that produces controlled release coated urea (CRCU). The development of CRCU is a green technology that not only reduces nitrogen loss caused by volatilization and leaching, but also alters the kinetics of nitrogen release, which, in turn, provides nutrients to plants at a pace that is more compatible with their metabolic needs. This review covers the research quantum regarding the physical coating of original urea granules. Special emphasis is placed on the latest coating methods as well as release experiments and mechanisms with an integrated critical analyses followed by suggestions for future research.
  3. Wong TW
    J Control Release, 2014 Nov 10;193:257-69.
    PMID: 24801250 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2014.04.045
    Transdermal drug delivery is hindered by the barrier property of the stratum corneum. It limits the route to transport of drugs with a log octanol-water partition coefficient of 1 to 3, molecular weight of less than 500Da and melting point of less than 200°C. Active methods such as iontophoresis, electroporation, sonophoresis, magnetophoresis and laser techniques have been investigated for the past decades on their ability, mechanisms and limitations in modifying the skin microenvironment to promote drug diffusion and partition. Microwave, an electromagnetic wave characterized by frequencies range between 300MHz and 300GHz, has recently been reported as the potential skin permeation enhancer. Microwave has received a widespread application in food, engineering and medical sectors. Its potential use to facilitate transdermal drug transport is still in its infancy stage of evaluation. This review provides an overview and update on active methods utilizing electrical, magnetic, photomechanical and cavitational waves to overcome the skin barrier for transdermal drug administration with insights into mechanisms and future perspectives of the latest microwave technique described.
  4. Jazayeri SD, Ideris A, Zakaria Z, Shameli K, Moeini H, Omar AR
    J Control Release, 2012 Jul 10;161(1):116-23.
    PMID: 22549012 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2012.04.015
    DNA formulations provide the basis for safe and cost effective vaccine. Low efficiency is often observed in the delivery of DNA vaccines. In order to assess a new strategy for oral DNA vaccine formulation and delivery, plasmid encoding hemagglutinin (HA) gene of avian influenza virus, A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04 (H5N1) (pcDNA3.1/H5) was formulated using green synthesis of sliver nanoparticles (AgNP) with polyethylene glycol (PEG). AgNP were successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed with size in the range of 4 to 18 nm with an average size of 11 nm. Cytotoxicity of the prepared AgNP was investigated in vitro and in vivo using MCF-7 cells and cytokine expression, respectively. At the concentration of -5 log₁₀AgNP, no cytotoxic effects were detected in MCF-7 cells with 9.5% cell death compared to the control. One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks immunized once by oral gavage with 10 μl of pcDNA3.1/H5 (200 ng/ml) nanoencapsulated with 40 μl AgNP (3.7×10⁻² μg of Ag) showed no clinical manifestations. PCR successfully detect the AgNP/H5 plasmid from the duodenum of the inoculated chicken as early as 1h post-immunization. Immunization of chickens with AgNP/H5 enhanced both pro inflammatory and Th1-like expressions, although no significant differences were recorded in the chickens inoculated with AgNP, AgNP/pcDNA3.1 and the control. In addition, serum samples collected from immunized chickens with AgNP/H5 showed rapidly increasing antibody against H5 on day 14 after immunization. The highest average antibody titres were detected on day 35 post-immunization at 51.2±7.5. AgNP/H5 also elicited both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the immunized chickens as early as day 14 after immunization, at 7.5±2.0 and 20±1.9 percentage, respectively. Hence, single oral administrations of AgNP/H5 led to induce both the antibody and cell-mediated immune responses as well as enhanced cytokine production.
  5. Wong TW, Chan LW, Kho SB, Heng PW
    J Control Release, 2005 Jun 2;104(3):461-75.
    PMID: 15911046
    The influence of microwave irradiation on the drug release properties of freshly prepared and aged alginate, alginate-chitosan and chitosan beads was investigated. The beads were prepared by extrusion method with sulphathiazole as a model drug. The dried beads were subjected to microwave irradiation at 80 W for 10 min, 20 min or three consecutive cycles of 10 and 20 min, respectively. The profiles of drug dissolution, drug content, drug stability, drug polymorphism, drug-polymer interaction, polymer crosslinkage and complexation were determined by dissolution testing, drug content assay, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. The chemical stability of drug embedded in beads was unaffected by microwave conditions and length of storage time. The release property of drug was mainly governed by the extent of polymer interaction in beads. The aged alginate beads required intermittent cycles of microwave irradiation to induce drug release retarding effect in contrast to their freshly prepared samples. Unlike the alginate beads, the level of polymer interaction was higher in aged alginate-chitosan beads than the corresponding fresh beads. The drug release retarding property of aged alginate-chitosan beads could be significantly enhanced through subjecting the beads to microwave irradiation for 10 min. No further change in drug release from these beads was observed beyond 30 min of microwave irradiation. Unlike beads containing alginate, the rate and extent of drug released from the aged chitosan beads were higher upon treatment by microwave in spite of the higher degree of polymer interaction shown by the latter on prolonged storage. The observation suggested that the response of polymer matrix to microwave irradiation in induction of drug release retarding property was largely affected by the molecular arrangement of the polymer chains.
  6. Naz MY, Sulaiman SA
    J Control Release, 2016 Mar 10;225:109-20.
    PMID: 26809006 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.01.037
    Developing countries are consuming major part of the global urea production with an anticipated nitrogen use efficiency of 20 to 35%. The release of excess nitrogen in the soil is not only detrimental to the environment but also lessens the efficiency of the conventional urea. The urea performance can be enhanced by encapsulating it with slow release coating materials and synchronizing the nutrients' release with the plant up-taking. However, the present cost of most of the coated fertilizers is considerably higher than the conventional fertilizers. The high cost factor prevents their widespread use in mainstream agriculture. This paper documents a review of literature related to the global urea market, issues pertaining to the conventional urea use, natural and synthetic materials for slow release urea and fluidized bed spray coating process. The aim of the current review is to develop technical understanding of the conventional and non-conventional coating materials and associated spray coating mechanism for slow release urea production. The study also investigated the potential of starch as the coating material in relation to the coatings tested previously for controlled release fertilizers.
  7. Kiew SF, Kiew LV, Lee HB, Imae T, Chung LY
    J Control Release, 2016 Mar 28;226:217-28.
    PMID: 26873333 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.02.015
    Graphene oxide (GO)-based nanocarriers have been frequently studied due to their high drug loading capacity. However, the unsatisfactory biocompatibility of these GO-based nanocarriers hampers their use in clinical settings. This review discusses how each of the physicochemical characteristics (e.g., size, surface area, surface properties, number of layers and particulate states) and surface coatings on GO affect its in vitro and in vivo nanotoxicity. We provide an overview on the effect of GO properties on interactions with cells such as red blood cells, macrophages and cell lines, and experimental organisms including rodents, rabbits and Zebrafish, offering some guidelines for development of safe GO-based nanocarriers. We conclude the paper by outlining the challenges involving GO-based formulations and future perspectives of this research in the biomedical field.
  8. bin Hussein MZ, Zainal Z, Yahaya AH, Foo DW
    J Control Release, 2002 Aug 21;82(2-3):417-27.
    PMID: 12175754
    Formation of the so-called organic-inorganic nanohybrid material was exploited for the preparation of a controlled release formulation. The inorganic Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as a matrix, hosting an active agent or a guest, alpha-naphthaleneacetate (NAA), a plant growth regulator by self-assembly technique. The reverse process, i.e., the deintercalation or release of the guest, NAA was found to be rapid initially, followed by a more sustained release thereafter and this behavior was dependent on the pH of the release medium, the aqueous solution. The mechanism of release has been interpreted on the basis of the ion-exchange process between the NAA anion intercalated in the lamella host and nitrate or hydroxyl anions in the aqueous solution.
  9. Chen XY, Butt AM, Mohd Amin MCI
    J Control Release, 2019 10;311-312:50-64.
    PMID: 31465827 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.08.031
    The current conventional injectable vaccines face several drawbacks such as inconvenience and ineffectiveness in mucosal immunization. Therefore, the current development of effective oral vaccines is vital to enable the generation of dual systemic and mucosal immunity. In the present study, we examine the potential of pH-responsive bacterial nanocellulose/polyacrylic acid (BNC/PAA) hydrogel microparticles (MPs) as an oral vaccine carrier. In-vitro entrapment efficiency and release study of Ovalbumin (Ova) demonstrated that as high as 72% of Ova were entrapped in the hydrogel, and the release of loaded Ova was pH-dependent. The released Ova remained structurally conserved as evident by Western blot and circular dichroism. Hydrogel MPs reduced the TEER measurement of HT29MTX/Caco2/Raji B triple co-culture monolayer by reversibly opening the tight junctions (TJs) as shown in the TEM images. The ligated ileal loop assay revealed that hydrogel MPs could facilitate the penetration of FITC-Ova into the Peyer's patches in small intestine. Ova and cholera toxin B (CTB) were utilized in in-vivo oral immunization as model antigen and mucosal adjuvant. The in-vivo immunization revealed mice orally administered with Ova and CTB-loaded hydrogel MPs generated significantly higher level of serum anti-Ova IgG and mucosal anti-Ova IgA in the intestinal washes, compared to intramuscular administrated Ova. These results conclude that BNC/PAA hydrogel MPs is a potential oral vaccine carrier for effective oral immunization.
  10. Hussain Z, Thu HE, Elsayed I, Abourehab MAS, Khan S, Sohail M, et al.
    J Control Release, 2020 12 10;328:873-894.
    PMID: 33137366 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.053
    Owing to their tremendous potential, the inference of nano-scaled materials has revolutionized many fields including the medicine and health, particularly for development of various types of targeted drug delivery devices for early prognosis and successful treatment of various diseases, including the brain disorders. Owing to their unique characteristic features, a variety of nanomaterials (particularly, ultra-fine particles (UFPs) have shown tremendous success in achieving the prognostic and therapeutic goals for early prognosis and treatment of various brain maladies such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, brain lymphomas, and other ailments. However, serious attention is needful due to innumerable after-effects of the nanomaterials. Despite their immense contribution in optimizing the prognostic and therapeutic modalities, biological interaction of nanomaterials with various body tissues may produce severe nanotoxicity of different organs including the heart, liver, kidney, lungs, immune system, gastro-intestinal system, skin as well as nervous system. However, in this review, we have primarily focused on nanomaterials-induced neurotoxicity of the brain. Following their translocation into different regions of the brain, nanomaterials may induce neurotoxicity through multiple mechanisms including the oxidative stress, DNA damage, lysosomal dysfunction, inflammatory cascade, apoptosis, genotoxicity, and ultimately necrosis of neuronal cells. Our findings indicated that rigorous toxicological evaluations must be carried out prior to clinical translation of nanomaterials-based formulations to avoid serious neurotoxic complications, which may further lead to develop various neuro-degenerative disorders.
  11. See GL, Arce F, Dahlizar S, Okada A, Fadli MFBM, Hijikuro I, et al.
    J Control Release, 2020 Sep 10;325:1-9.
    PMID: 32598958 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.06.028
    Intranasal administration is poised as a competent method in delivering drugs to the brain, because the nasal route has a direct link with the central nervous system bypassing the formidable blood-brain barrier. C17-monoglycerol ester (MGE) and glyceryl monooleate (GMO) as liquid crystal (LC)-forming lipids possess desirable formulation characteristics as drug carriers for intranasally administered drugs. This study investigated the effect of LC formulations on the pharmacokinetics of tranilast (TL), a lipophilic model drug, and its distribution in the therapeutic target regions of the brain in rats. The anatomical biodistribution of LC formulations was monitored using micro-computed tomography tandem in vivo imaging systems. MGE and GMO effectively formed LC with suitable particle size, zeta potential, and viscosity supporting the delivery of TL to the brain. MGE and GMO LC formulations enhanced brain uptake by 10- to 12-fold and 2- to 2.4- fold, respectively, compared with TL solution. The olfactory bulb had the highest TL concentration and fluorescent signals among all the brain regions, indicating a direct nose-to-brain delivery pathway of LC formulations. LC-forming lipids, MGE and GMO, are potential biomaterials in formulations intended for intranasal administration.
  12. Fang G, Zhang Q, Pang Y, Thu HE, Hussain Z
    J Control Release, 2019 06 10;303:181-208.
    PMID: 31015032 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.04.027
    Owing to its intricate autoimmune pathophysiology and significant risks of progression to other rheumatic co-morbidities (i.e., osteoporosis and osteoarthritis), a plausible therapeutic regimen is mandatory for early-stage management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nevertheless, the conventional therapeutic agents particularly the corticosteroids and disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) have shown grander success in the treatment of RA; however, long-term use of these agents is also associated with serious adverse events. To combat these issues and optimize therapeutic efficacy, nanotechnology-based interventions have been emerged as viable option. While, nanomedicines signposted superiority over the conventional pharmacological moieties; there are still many pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic challenges to nanomedicines following their intravenous or intra-articular administration. To circumvent these challenges, significant adaptations such as PEGylation, surface conjugation of targeting ligand(s), and site- responsive behavior (i.e., pH-, biochemical-, or thermal-responsiveness) have been implemented. Besides, multi-functionalization of nanomedicines has been emerging as an exceptional strategy to overcome pharmacokinetic challenges, improve targetability to inflamed synovium, maximise internalisation into the activated macrophages, and improved therapeutic outcomes for treatment of RA. Therefore, this review aims to conceptualize and recapitulate the substantial evidences regarding the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic superiority of multi-functionalized nanomedicines over the naked nanomedicines for site-selective targeting to inflamed synovium and rational treatment of RA and other rheumatic co-morbidities. Pharmaceutical sustainability of the multi-functionalized nanomedicines for improved biocompatibility, profound interaction with the targeting tissue/cells/sub-cellular domain, and diminished systemic toxicity has also been pondered.
  13. Hussain Z, Rahim MA, Jan N, Shah H, Rawas-Qalaji M, Khan S, et al.
    J Control Release, 2021 07 10;335:130-157.
    PMID: 34015400 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.05.018
    Despite enormous advancements in the field of oncology, the innocuous and effectual treatment of various types of malignancies remained a colossal challenge. The conventional modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery have been remained the most viable options for cancer treatment, but lacking of target-specificity, optimum safety and efficacy, and pharmacokinetic disparities are their impliable shortcomings. Though, in recent decades, numerous encroachments in the field of onco-targeted drug delivery have been adapted but several limitations (i.e., short plasma half-life, early clearance by reticuloendothelial system, immunogenicity, inadequate internalization and localization into the onco-tissues, chemoresistance, and deficient therapeutic efficacy) associated with these onco-targeted delivery systems limits their clinical viability. To abolish the aforementioned inadequacies, a promising approach has been emerged in which stealthing of synthetic nanocarriers has been attained by cloaking them into the natural cell membranes. These biomimetic nanomedicines not only retain characteristics features of the synthetic nanocarriers but also inherit the cell-membrane intrinsic functionalities. In this review, we have summarized preparation methods, mechanism of cloaking, and pharmaceutical and therapeutic superiority of cell-membrane camouflaged nanomedicines in improving the bio-imaging and immunotherapy against various types of malignancies. These pliable adaptations have revolutionized the current drug delivery strategies by optimizing the plasma circulation time, improving the permeation into the cancerous microenvironment, escaping the immune evasion and rapid clearance from the systemic circulation, minimizing the immunogenicity, and enabling the cell-cell communication via cell membrane markers of biomimetic nanomedicines. Moreover, the preeminence of cell-membrane cloaked nanomedicines in improving the bio-imaging and theranostic applications, alone or in combination with phototherapy or radiotherapy, have also been pondered.
  14. Sultana A, Tiash S
    J Control Release, 2021 04 10;332:233-244.
    PMID: 33561481 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.02.004
    E. coli mediated gene delivery faces a major drawback of low efficiency despite of being a safer alternative to viral vectors. This study showed a novel, simple and effective strategy to enhance invasive E. coli DH10B vector's efficiency in human epithelial cells. The bactofection efficiency of invasive E .coli vector was analyzed in nine cell lines. It demonstrated highest (16%) reporter gene (GFP) expression in cervical cells. Methods were employed to further enhance its efficiency by adding transfection reagents (trans-bactofection method) to promote entry into host cells, lysosomotropic reagents for escape from lysosomal degradation or antibiotics to lyse internalized bacteria. Increased bacterial entry, as elucidated from nil to 3% expression in liver cells, was obtained upon complexing bacteria with PULSin. Chloroquine mediated endosomal escape resulted in 7.2 folds increase whereas tetracycline addition to lyse internalized bacteria caused ≈90% of GFP in HeLa. Eventually, the combined effect of these three methods exhibited close to 100% GFP in cervical and remarkable increase of 138 folds in breast cells. This is the first study showing comparative study of vector's gene delivery ability in various epithelial cells of the human body with improving its delivery efficiency. These data demonstrated the potential of developed bactofection method to boost up the efficiency of other bacterial vectors also, which could further be used for effectual therapeutic gene delivery in human cells.
  15. Kaur J, Mishra V, Singh SK, Gulati M, Kapoor B, Chellappan DK, et al.
    J Control Release, 2021 06 10;334:64-95.
    PMID: 33887283 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.04.014
    Amphiphilic block copolymers are widely utilized in the design of formulations owing to their unique physicochemical properties, flexible structures and functional chemistry. Amphiphilic polymeric micelles (APMs) formed from such copolymers have gained attention of the drug delivery scientists in past few decades for enhancing the bioavailability of lipophilic drugs, molecular targeting, sustained release, stimuli-responsive properties, enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reducing drug associated toxicity. Their properties including ease of surface modification, high surface area, small size, and enhanced permeation as well as retention (EPR) effect are mainly responsible for their utilization in the diagnosis and therapy of various diseases. However, some of the challenges associated with their use are premature drug release, low drug loading capacity, scale-up issues and their poor stability that need to be addressed for their wider clinical utility and commercialization. This review describes comprehensively their physicochemical properties, various methods of preparation, limitations followed by approaches employed for the development of optimized APMs, the impact of each preparation technique on the physicochemical properties of the resulting APMs as well as various biomedical applications of APMs. Based on the current scenario of their use in treatment and diagnosis of diseases, the directions in which future studies need to be carried out to explore their full potential are also discussed.
  16. Azmi ID, Wibroe PP, Wu LP, Kazem AI, Amenitsch H, Moghimi SM, et al.
    J Control Release, 2016 Oct 10;239:1-9.
    PMID: 27524284 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2016.08.011
    Non-lamellar liquid crystalline aqueous nanodispersions, known also as ISAsomes (internally self-assembled 'somes' or nanoparticles), are gaining increasing interest in drug solubilisation and bio-imaging, but they often exhibit poor hemocompatibility and induce cytotoxicity. This limits their applications in intravenous drug delivery and targeting. Using a binary mixture of citrem and soy phosphatidylcholine (SPC) at different weight ratios, we describe a library of colloidally stable aqueous and hemocompatible nanodispersions of diverse nanoarchitectures (internal self-assembled nanostructures). This engineered library is structurally stable in human plasma as well as being hemocompatible (non-hemolytic, and poor activator of the complement system). By varying citrem to lipid weight ratio, the nanodispersion susceptibility to macrophage uptake could also be modulated. Finally, the formation of nanodispersions comprising internally V2 (inverse bicontinuous cubic) and H2 (inverse hexagonal) nanoarchitectures was achieved without the use of an organic solvent, a secondary emulsifier, or high-energy input. The tunable binary citrem/SPC nanoplatform holds promise for future development of hemocompatible and immune-safe nanopharmaceuticals.
  17. Edueng K, Mahlin D, Larsson P, Bergström CAS
    J Control Release, 2017 06 28;256:193-202.
    PMID: 28412224 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2017.04.015
    We developed a step-by-step experimental protocol using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic vapour sorption (DVS), polarized light microscopy (PLM) and a small-scale dissolution apparatus (μDISS Profiler) to investigate the mechanism (solid-to-solid or solution-mediated) by which crystallization of amorphous drugs occurs upon dissolution. This protocol then guided how to stabilize the amorphous formulation. Indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide and glipizide were selected as model drugs and HPMC (Pharmacoat 606) and PVP (K30) as stabilizing polymers. Spray-dried amorphous indapamide, metolazone and glibenclamide crystallized via solution-mediated nucleation while glipizide suffered from solid-to-solid crystallization. The addition of 0.001%-0.01% (w/v) HPMC into the dissolution medium successfully prevented the crystallization of supersaturated solutions of indapamide and metolazone whereas it only reduced the crystallization rate for glibenclamide. Amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) formulation of glipizide and PVP K30, at a ratio of 50:50% (w/w) reduced but did not completely eliminate the solid-to-solid crystallization of glipizide even though the overall dissolution rate was enhanced both in the absence and presence of HPMC. Raman spectroscopy indicated the formation of a glipizide polymorph in the dissolution medium with higher solubility than the stable polymorph. As a complementary technique, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of indapamide and glibenclamide with HPMC was performed. It was revealed that hydrogen bonding patterns of the two drugs with HPMC differed significantly, suggesting that hydrogen bonding may play a role in the greater stabilizing effect on supersaturation of indapamide, compared to glibenclamide.
  18. Gao X, Guo L, Li J, Thu HE, Hussain Z
    J Control Release, 2018 12 28;292:29-57.
    PMID: 30359665 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.10.024
    Lung cancer (LC) is the second most prevalent type of cancer and primary cause of mortality among both men and women, worldwide. The most commonly employed diagnostic modalities for LC include chest X-ray (CXR), magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT-scan), and fused-positron-emitting-tomography-CT (PET-CT). Owing to several limitations associated with the use of conventional diagnostic tools such as radiation burden to the patient, misleading diagnosis ("missed lung cancer"), false staging and low sensitivity and resolution, contemporary diagnostic regimen needed to be employed for screening of LC. In recent decades, nanotechnology-guided interventions have been transpired as emerging nanoimaging probes for detection of LC at advanced stages, while producing signal amplification, better resolution for surface and deep tissue imaging, and enhanced translocation and biodistribution of imaging probes within the cancerous tissues. Besides enormous potential of nanoimaging probes, nanotechnology-based advancements have also been evidenced for superior efficacy for treatment of LC and abolishing pulmonary metastasis (PM). The success of nanotherapeutics is due to their ability to maximise translocation and biodistribution of anti-neoplastic agents into the tumor tissues, improve pharmacokinetic profiles of anti-metastatic agents, optimise target-specific drug delivery, and control release kinetics of encapsulated moieties in target tissues. This review aims to overview and critically discuss the superiority of nanoimaging probes and nanotherapeutics over conventional regimen for early detection of LC and abolishing PM. Current challenges to clinical transition of nanoimaging probes and therapeutic viability of nanotherapeutics for treatment for LC and PM have also been pondered.
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