Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an important cancer in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the epidemiological characteristics and clinical presentations of patients in a multiracial population consisting of three major Asian races: Malays, Chinese and Indians.
To develop and validate a Mandarin version of the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (M-LDQ) in Asian patients with dyspepsia.
The M-LDQ was developed according to standardized methods. The validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the instrument were evaluated in both primary and secondary care patients.
A total of 184 patients (mean age 54.0 ± 15.8 years, of whom 59% were women and 72.3% of whom had at least secondary level education) were recruited between August 2012 and March 2013, from both primary (n = 100) and secondary care clinics (n = 84). Both the internal consistency of all components of the M-LDQ (Cronbach's α 0.79) and test-retest reliability (Spearman's correlation coefficient 0.78) were good. The M-LDQ was valid in diagnosing dyspepsia in primary care (area under the receiver operating characteristics curve 0.84) and was able to discriminate between secondary and primary care patients (median cumulative LDQ score 13.0 vs 3.0, P < 0.0001). Among eight patients with organic dyspepsia, the median M-LDQ score reduced significantly from 21.0 (pretreatment) to 9.5 (4 weeks post-treatment) (P < 0.0001).
The M-LDQ is a valid and responsive instrument for assessing ethnic Chinese adults with dyspepsia.
To examine the differences in the prevalence and severity of anxiety and depression in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD), nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy controls.
The working party statements aim to provide evidence and guidelines to practising doctors on the use of antiplatelet therapy and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with cardiovascular risk as well as those at risk of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Balancing the GI and cardiovascular risk and benefits of antiplatelet therapy and PPIs may sometimes pose a significant challenge to doctors. Concomitant use of anti-secretory medications has been shown to reduce the risk of GI bleeding but concerns have been raised on the potential interaction of PPIs and clopidogrel. Many new data have emerged on this topic but some can be confusing and at times controversial. These statements examined the supporting evidence in four main areas: rationale for antiplatelet therapy, risk factors of GI bleeding, PPI-clopidogrel interactions and timing for recommencing antiplatelet therapy after GI bleeding, and made appropriate recommendations.
This study was aimed to investigate the possible association of Crohn's disease (CD) with inflammatory bowel disease gene 5 (IBD5) IGR2198a_1 (rs11739135), IGR2096a_1 (rs12521868) and interleukin-23 receptor (IL23R) genetic variant (rs1004819) in the Malaysian population.
Pancreatic cancer is notoriously difficult to diagnose until a late stage when curative options are no longer available. Owing to its relatively low incidence and the lack of sensitivity of current diagnostic tool, screening of pancreatic cancer in the general population is not recommended. However, in high-risk individuals, especially those with well-described genetic syndromes and a strong family history of pancreatic cancer, screening can be carried out. Detection of a lesion of the diameter
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is reported to be associated with many extragastrointestinal manifestations, such as hematological diseases [idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and unexplained iron deficiency anemia (IDA)], cardiovascular diseases (ischemic heart diseases), neurological disorders (stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), obesity and skin disorders. Among these, the best evidence so far is in ITP and unexplained IDA, with high-quality studies showing the improvement of IDA and ITP after H. pylori eradication. The evidence of its association with coronary artery disease is weak and many of the results may be erroneous. The role of H. pylori infection in affecting serum leptin and ghrelin levels has attracted a lot of attention recently and available data to date have been conflicting. There have also been many uncontrolled, small sample studies suggesting an association between H. pylori infection and neurological disorders or chronic urticaria. However, more studies are required to clarify such proposed causal links.
A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is often co-prescribed with clopidogrel to reduce the gastrointestinal risk of bleeding ulcers in patients following acute coronary syndrome or a stent implant. However, the safety issue of such practice has been scrutinized after some studies reporting an increased incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, although there have also been contrary research reports. This has lead to a warning statement from the US Food and Drug Administration cautioning the concomitant use of PPI and clopidogrel. This review examines the evidence of PPI as gastroprotective agent, histamine H(2) antagonists as an alternative therapy, the influence of PPI on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel, and the controversies of various studies.
To determine the prevalence of primary clarithromycin resistance amongst Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains in Malaysian patients with gastroduodenal diseases, by using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in domain V of 23S rRNA.
To re-examine the efficacy and tolerability of 1-week proton pump inhibitor triple therapy as a first-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy.
Consecutive participants with a positive rapid urease test during an outpatient upper endoscopy were included. All participants were given pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., amoxycillin 1 g b.i.d. and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d. for 1 week. They were asked to return after 1 week to report any side effects related to the medications and to check for compliance. Successful eradication was defined by negative (13)C-urea breath test at least 4 weeks after the completion of therapy.
A total of 191 patients were recruited into the study, of whom 81 were male (42.4%) and 110 female (57.6%), with a mean age of 55.6 (range 21-88) years. Overall 26 patients (13.6%) defaulted follow up and five patients were not compliant (taking less than 85%) with the medications. Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates were 84.4% (95% CI: 78.6-89.9%) and 71.2% (95% CI: 64.5-77.6%), respectively. Overall 68 participants (42.5%) reported no side effects, followed by 58 (36.3%) with a taste disturbance, 16 (10.0%) with epigastric pain, 15 (9.4%) with diarrhea, 13 (8.1%) with nausea or vomiting, 12 (7.5%) with loss of appetite, nine (5.6%) with dizziness and two (1.3%) with an allergic skin rash, none of which was severe.
The current regime using pantoprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin is highly tolerable and effective and should continue to be recommended as a first-line therapy for H. pylori eradication in our setting.
Esophageal cancer (ECA) is an important cancer in Malaysia. The aim of the study is to review the demographic data and clinical presentation of patients with ECA seen at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur.
The NOD2/CARD15 gene has been identified as an important susceptibility gene for Crohn's disease (CD) but the three common disease predisposing mutations (DPM) found in developed countries have not been identified in Asian populations. The aim of our study was to look for the DPM in our multiracial population and to discover whether there were any differences in the three major ethnic groups; Malay, Chinese and Indian.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has long been considered a disease that affects predominantly a Western population. The incidence and prevalence rates from Asian populations are much lower in comparison. More recent data, however, have shown significantly higher rates in Asians and time trend studies have shown an increase in the incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) and a similar but lower rise in Crohn's disease (CD). The epidemiological changes that are taking place mirror that of the Western experience seen 50 years previously and seem to occur in parallel with the rapid socioeconomic development taking place in Asia. It appears that certain racial groups are more prone than others to develop IBD. For instance, Indians in South-East Asia have higher rates compared to Chinese and Malays. While there is host genetic predisposition, environmental factor(s) may be responsible for this difference. Migrant studies of South Asians in the UK, where second-generation immigrants have assumed incidence rates as high as the indigenous whites and Asian Jews who develop high incidence rates comparable to Jews from Europe or North America in Israel point to the role of environmental factors. It is unclear which specific factors are responsible. Studies have suggested a change in diet to a more Westernized one may underlie this epidemiological change in the Asian population. It is likely that there are racial groups amongst Asians who are more susceptible to IBD and who will demonstrate a higher frequency of IBD when exposed to putative environmental factors.
As in developed societies, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has declined rapidly in Asia. This has been shown in both seroprevalence-based and endoscopy-based studies. While the decline in the incidence of gastric cancer has now been observed, a decrease in peptic ulcer disease has not been so clearly evident. This apparent paradox can be explained by an increase in non-H. pylori associated ulcers - such as those related to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or idiopathic ulcers. The increase of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Asia has been widely observed and commented on and its relationship to the decline in H. pylori speculated upon. However there have been few conclusive studies from Asia on this subject. While the improved diagnosis and elimination of H. pylori has contributed to its decline, a more basic change involving large segments of the Asian population must be responsible. An improvement in hygiene and living conditions that results from more affluent Asian societies is thought to be a possible cause.