The cell-free extract of locally isolated Rhodococcus UKMP-5M strain was used as an alternative to develop greener and cost effective cyanide removal technology. The present study aims to assess the viability of the cell-free extract to detoxify high concentrations of cyanide which is measured through the monitoring of protein concentration and specific cyanide-degrading activity. When cyanide-grown cells were subjected to grinding in liquid nitrogen which is relatively an inexpressive and fast cell disruption method, highest cyanide-degrading activity of 0.63 mM min(-1) mg(-1) protein was obtained in comparison to enzymatic lysis and agitation with fine glass beads. The cell-free extracts managed to degrade 80% of 20 mM KCN within 80 min and the rate of cyanide consumption increased linearly as the concentration of protein was raised. In both cases, the addition of co-factor was not required which proved to be advantageous economically. The successful formation of ammonia and formate as endproducts indicated that the degradation of cyanide by Rhodococcus UKMP-5M proceeded via the activity of cyanidase and the resulting non-toxic products are safe for disposal into the environment. Further verification with SDS-PAGE revealed that the molecular weight of the active enzyme was estimated to be 38 kDa, which is consistent with previously reported cyanidases. Thus, the utilization of cell-free extracts as an alternative to live microbial in cyanide degradation offers numerous advantageous such as the potential to tolerate and degrade higher concentration of cyanide and total reduction in the overall cost of operation since the requirement for nutrient support is irrelevant.
An investigative study was carried out in Langat River to determine the heavy metal pollution in the sediment with 22 sampling stations selected for the collection of sediment samples. The sediment samples were digested and analyzed for extractable metal ((48)Cd, (29)Cu, (30)Zn, (33)As, (82)Pb) using the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Parameters, such as pH, Eh, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity, cation exchange capacity (CEC) and loss on ignition (LOI) were also determined. The assessment of heavy metal pollution was derived using the enrichment factors (EF) and geoaccumulation index (I(geo)). This study revealed that the sediment is predominantly by As > Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu. As recorded the highest EF value at 187.45 followed by Cd (100.59), Pb (20.32), Zn (12.42) and Cu (3.46). This is similar to the I(geo), which indicates that the highest level goes to As (2.2), exhibits moderately polluted. Meanwhile, Cd recorded 1.8 and Pb (0.23), which illustrates that both of these elements vary from unpolluted to moderately polluted. The Cu and Zn levels are below 0, which demonstrates background concentrations. The findings are expected to update the current status of the heavy metal pollution as well as creating awareness concerning the security of the river water as a drinking water source.
Multivariate statistical techniques such as hierarchical Agglomerated cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA), and factor analysis (FA) were applied to identify the spatial variation and pollution sources of Jakara River, Kano, Nigeria. Thirty surface water samples were collected: 23 along Getsi River and 7 along the main channel of River Jakara. Twenty-three water quality parameters, namely pH, temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), Faecal coliform, total solids (TS), nitrates (NO(3)(-)), phosphates (PO(4)(3-)), cobalt (Co), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), sodium (Na), potassium (K), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), and calcium(Ca) were analysed. HACA grouped the sampling points into three clusters based on the similarities of river water quality characteristics: industrial, domestic, and agricultural water pollution sources. Forward and backward DA effectively discriminated 5 and 15 water quality variables, respectively, each assigned with 100% correctness from the original 23 variables. PCA and FA were used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter due to various land use activities, 7 principal components were obtained with 77.5% total variance, and in addition PCA identified 3 latent pollution sources to support HACA. From this study, one can conclude that the application of multivariate techniques derives meaningful information from water quality data.
The pollution status of the downstream section of the Jakara River was investigated. Dissolved oxygen (DO), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), pH, conductivity, salinity, temperature, nitrogen in the form of ammonia (NH(3)), turbidity, dissolved solids (DS), total solids (TS), nitrates (NO(3)), chloride (Cl) and phosphates (PO(3-)(4)) were evaluated, using both dry and wet season samples, as a measure of variation in surface water quality in the area. The results obtained from the analyses were correlated using Pearson's correlation matrix, principal component analysis (PCA) and paired sample t-tests. Positive correlations were observed for BOD(5), NH(3), COD, and SS, turbidity, conductivity, salinity, DS, TS for dry and wet seasons, respectively. PCA was used to investigate the origin of each water quality parameter, and yielded 5 varimax factors for each of dry and wet seasons, with 70.7 % and 83.1 % total variance, respectively. A paired sample t-test confirmed that the surface water quality varies significantly between dry and wet season samples (P < 0.01). The source of pollution in the area was concluded to be of anthropogenic origin in the dry season and natural origins in the wet season.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of Fenton's technique for the treatment of semi-aerobic landfill leachate collected from Pulau Burung Landfill Site (PBLS), Penang, Malaysia. The Fe2+ or Fe3+ as catalyst and H2O2 as oxidizing agent are commonly used for the classical Fenton's reaction. In present study, the effect of operating conditions such as pH, reaction time, molar ratio, agitation rate, feeding mode and Fenton reagent concentrations which are important parameters that affect the removal efficiencies of Fenton method were investigated. Under the most favorable conditions, the highest removals of 58.1 and 78.3% were observed for COD and color, respectively. In general, the best operating conditions were pH = 3, Fe = 560 mg L(-1), H2O2 = 1020 mg L(-1), H2O2/Fe2+ molar ratio = 3, agitation rate = 400 rpm and reaction time = 120 minutes. The results highlighted that stepwise addition of Fenton's reagent was more effective than adding the entire volume in a single step. Excessive hydrogen peroxide and iron have shown scavenging effects on hydroxyl radicals and reduced degradation of refractory organics in the landfill leachate.
Biological treatment of sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge by potential pure bacterial culture (Bacillus sp.) with optimum process conditions for effective biodegradation and bioseparation was carried out in the laboratory. The effective and efficient bioconversion was evaluated with the treatment of pure bacterial culture and existing microbes (uninnoculated) in sludge. The optimum process conditions i.e., temperature, 40 degrees C; pH, 6; inoculum, 5% (v/v); aeration, 1 vvm; agitation speed, 50 rpm obtained from the previous studies with chemical oxygen demand COD at 30 mgL(-1) were applied for the biological treatment of sludge. The results indicated that pure bacterial culture (Bacillus sp.) showed higher degradation and separation of treated sludge compared to treatment with the existing mixed microbes in a stirred tank bioreactor. The treated STP sludge by potential pure bacterial culture and existing microbes gave 30% and 11%; 91.2% and 59.1; 88.5% and 52.3%; 98.4% and 51.3%; 96.1% and 75.2%; 99.4% and 72.8% reduction of total suspended solids (TSS, biosolids), COD, soluble protein, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), respectively within 7 days of treatment. The pH was observed at 6.5 and 4 during the treatment of sludge by pure culture and existing microbes, respectively.
Forty-six bacterial strains were isolated from nine different sources in four treatment plants namely Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) sewage treatment plant (STP), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) wastewater treatment plant-1,-2 and -3 to evaluate the bioconversion process in terms of efficient biodegradation and bioseparation. The bacterial strains isolated were found to be 52.2% (24 isolates) and 47.8% (22 isolates) in the IWK and IIUM treatment plants, respectively. The results showed that higher microbial population (9-10 x 10(4) cfu/mL) was observed in the secondary clarifier of IWK treatment plant. Among the isolates, 23 isolates were gram-positive bacillus (GPB) and gram-positive cocci (GPC), 19 isolates were gram-negative bacillus (GNB) and gram-negative cocci (GNC), and the rest were undetermined. Gram-negative cocci (GNC) were not found in the isolates from IWK. A total of 15 bacterial strains were selected for effective and efficient sludge bioconversion. All the strains were tested against sludge (1% total suspended solids, TSS) to evaluate the biosolids production (TSS% content), chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and filtration rate (filterability test). The strain S-1 (IWK1001) showed lower TSS content (0.8% TSS), maximum COD removal (84%) and increased filterability (1.1 min/10 mL of filtrate) of treated sludge followed by the strains S-11, S-14, S-2, S-15, S-13, S-7, S-8, S-4, S-3, S-6, S-12, S-16, S-17 and S-9. The pH values in the fermentation broth were affected by the bacterial cultures and recorded as well. Effective bioconversion was observed during the first three days of sludge treatment.
Feedstock recycling of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) over fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts (1:6 ratio) was carried out using a laboratory fluidized bed reactor operating at 450 degrees C. Fresh and steam deactivated commercial FCC catalysts with different levels of rare earth oxide (REO) were compared as well as used FCC catalysts (E-Cats) with different levels of metal poisoning. Fresh FCC catalysts gave the highest results of HDPE degradation in terms of yield of volatile hydrocarbon product. Meanwhile, steamed FCC catalysts and used FCC catalysts showed similar but lower yields. Overall, the product yields from HDPE cracking showed that the level of metal contamination (nickel and vanadium) did not affect the product stream generated from polymer cracking. This study gives promising results as an alternative technique for the cracking and recycling of polymer waste.
The mechanistic modeling of the sulfation reaction between fly ash-based sorbent and SO2 is a challenging task due to a variety reasons including the complexity of the reaction itself and the inability to measure some of the key parameters of the reaction. In this work, the possibility of modeling the sulfation reaction kinetics using a purely data-driven neural network was investigated. Experiments on SO2 removal by a sorbent prepared from coal fly ash/CaO/CaSO4 were conducted using a fixed bed reactor to generate a database to train and validate the neural network model. Extensive SO2 removal data points were obtained by varying three process variables, namely, SO2 inlet concentration (500-2000 mg/L), reaction temperature (60-80 degreesC), and relative humidity (50-70%), as a function of reaction time (0-60 min). Modeling results show that the neural network can provide excellent fits to the SO2 removal data after considerable training and can be successfully used to predict the extent of SO2 removal as a function of time even when the process variables are outside the training domain. From a modeling standpoint, the suitably trained and validated neural network with excellent interpolation and extrapolation properties could have immediate practical benefits in the absence of a theoretical model.
An evaluation of two commonly used coagulants, alum and ferric chloride was conducted to treat retention pond water using microfiltration. To determine the effectiveness of these coagulants in removing turbidity, color, and total suspended solids two different sets of the experiments were performed. Preliminary test was carried out to evaluate the optimum dosages of coagulants. Optimum turbidity removal was achieved with a 4 and 20 mg/L dosage for ferric chloride and alum, respectively. Generally, coupling microfiltration with coagulation using both alum and ferric chloride exhibited excellent effectiveness for turbidity, color, and total suspended solids removal. The efficiency for alum and ferric chloride for turbidity removal were 96 and 98%, respectively, which was greater than 89% removal using microfiltration alone. Furthermore, microfiltration only demonstrated 81 and 83% removal efficiency for color and total suspended solids removal, respectively. However, microfiltration-coagulation using alum and ferric chloride resulted about 83 and 93% color removal, and 92 and 94% total suspended solids removal, respectively.
A laboratory-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the liquid state bioconversion (LSB) in terms of biodegradation of microbially treated domestic wastewater sludge (biosolids) as well as its kinetics. The potential fungal strains and process factors developed from previous studies were used throughout the study. The results presented in this study showed that an effective biodegradation occurred with the biosolids (sludge cake) accumulated. The maximum biosolids (sludge cake) accumulated (93.8 g/kg of liquid sludge) enriched with the biomass protein (30.2 g/kg of dry biosolids), was achieved which improved the effluent quality by enhancing the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), reducing sugar (RS), soluble protein (SP), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS). The higher reduction of specific resistance to filtration (SRF) was observed during bioconversion process. The kinetics results showed that the experimental data were better fitted for the biodegradation efficiency, and biosolids accumulation and biodegradation rate.
The objective of this study was to investigate the performance of employing Fenton's reagent in the advanced oxidation of ozone to treat stabilized landfill leachate in an ozone reactor. A central composite design (CCD) with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the relationships between operating variables, such as ozone and Fenton dosage, pH, and reaction time, to identify the optimum operating conditions. Quadratic models for the following four responses proved to be significant with very low probabilities (<0.0001): chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, NH-N, and ozone consumption (OC). The obtained optimum conditions included a reaction time of 90 min, 30 g/m³ ozone, 0.01 mol/L₂H₂O,0.02 mol/L Fe²⁺, and pH 5. COD, color, and NH₃-N removal rates of 79%, 100%, and 20%, respectively, and 0.18 kg O₃/kg COD OC were obtained. The predictions correspond well with experimental results (COD, color, and NH-N removal rates of 78%, 98.5%, and 19%, respectively, and 0.29 kg O₃/kg COD OC). This method reduces the treatment time and improves the treatment efficiency relative to a previously published method that used Fenton's reagent prior to ozonation.
Ten filamentous fungi adapted to domestic wastewater sludge (DWS) were further studied to evaluate their potential in terms of adaptation to higher sludge supplemented growing media and phytopathogenicity (induction of diseases to plants) to three germinating crop (Corn: Zea mays, Mung bean: Phaseolus aureus and Mustard: Brassica napus) seeds. The performances of the fungi in seed germination were evaluated based on percent germination index (GI) and infected/spotted seeds on direct fungal biomass (FBM) and fungal metabolite (FM). Significantly the highest biomass production was achieved with RW-P1 512 and Penicillium corylophilum (WW-P1003) at the highest (25%) sludge supplemented growing media that implied its excellent potentiality of adaptation and multiplication to domestic wastewater sludge. Significantly encouraging results of percent GI and spotted/infected seedlings were observed in FM than FBM by all fungi except the strain Aspergillus niger. A. niger gave the poorest percent of GI (24.30, 26.98 and 00.00%) and the highest percent of infected/spotted seeds (70, 100, and 100%) using FBM for corn, mung bean and mustard, respectively. On the other hand, comparatively the highest percent of GI (107.99, 106.25 and 117.67%) and the lowest percent of spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 3.3 and 3.3%) were achieved with the isolate RW-P1 512 using FM. In FBM, the superior results of percent GI (86.61, 95.92 and 83.87%) and spotted/infected seedlings (3.3, 63.3 and 43.3%) were obtained by A. versicolor. Several crop seeds were responded differently for different fungal treatments. Hundred percent infected/spotted seeds in FM were recorded only for mustard with Trichoderma family that implied its strong sensitiveness to its metabolites.
Bioconversion of higher strength of domestic wastewater biosolids (sludge) (4% w/w of TSS) by mixed fungal culture of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum was studied in a laboratory. The effect of potential mixed fungi on domestic wastewater sludge accelerated the liquid state bioconversion (LSB) process. The highest production of dry sludge cake (biosolids) was enriched with fungal biomass to about 85.66 g/kg containing 25.23 g/kg of protein after 8 days of treatment. The results presented in this study revealed that the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solid (TSS), and specific resistance to filtration (SRF) of treated sludge were highly influenced by the fungal culture as compared to control (uninnoculated). The maximum removal rates in treated sludge (biosolids) supernatant recorded were 92% of COD and 98.8% of TSS. Lower SRF (1.08 x 10(12) m/kg) was perceived in microbially treated sludge after 6 days of fermentation. The observed parameters were highly influenced after 8 days of treatment. The influence of pH was also studied and presented in the paper.
A cerium-loaded poly(hydroxamic acid) chelating ion exchanger was used for fluoride ion removal from aqueous solution. The resin was effective in decreasing the fluoride concentration from 5 mM down to 0.001 mM in acidic pH between 3 and 6. The sorption followed a Langmuir model with a maximum capacity of 0.5 mmol/g. The removal is accomplished by an anion exchange mechanism. The rate constant for the sorption was found to be 9.6 x 10(-2) min-1. A column test shows that the fluoride ion was retained on the column until breakthrough point and the fluoride sorbed in the column can be eluted with 0.1 M NaOH. The column can be reused after being condition with hydrochloric acid at pH 4. The resin was tested and found to be effective for removal of fluoride from actual industrial wastewater.
A study was carried out to isolate and identify filamentous fungi for the treatment of domestic wastewater sludge by enhancing biodegradability, settleability and dewaterability of treated sludge using liquid state bioconversion process. A total of 70 strains of filamentous fungi were isolated from three different sources (wastewater, sewage sludge and leachate) of IWK's (Indah Water Konsortium) sewage treatment plant, Malaysia. The isolated strains were purified by conventional techniques and identified by microscopic examination. The strains isolated belonged to the genera of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Spicaria and Hyaloflorae The distribution of observed isolated fungi were 41% in sewage sludge followed by 39% in wastewater and 20% in leachate. The predominant fungus was Penicillium (39 strains). The second and third most common isolates were Aspergillus (14 strains) and Trichoderma (12 strains). The other isolates were Spicaria (3 strains) and Hyaloflorae (2 strains). Three strains (WWZP1003, LZP3001, LZP3005) of Penicillium (P. corylophilum, P. waksmanii, and P. citrinum respectively), 2 strains (WWZA1006 and SS2017) of Aspergillus (A. terrues and A. flavus respectively) and one strain (SSZT2008) of Trichoderma (T. harzianum) were tentatively identified up to species level and finally verified by CABI Bioscience Identification Services, UK.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of an eminent decay fungus, Phanerocheate chrysosporium of organic residues on wastewater sludge for its improvement through decomposition and separation of waste particles by Liquid State Bioconversion (LSB). The effect of fungal treatment was compared to uninoculated (Control) at three different harvests 7, 14 and 21 days after inoculation (DAI). The observed results showed that the weight loss and solid content of wastewater sludge were significantly influenced by Phanerocheate chrysosporium. Both parameters were highly influenced at 7 DAI. The COD and pH of wastewater sludge were also highly influenced by fungal treatment.
Layered double hydroxide of Mg-Al-carbonate system (MACH) was prepared and its heat-treated product (MACHT) was obtained by calcination at 500 degrees C. The resulting materials were used as an adsorbent for removal of color from synthetic textile wastewater (STW) and textile wastewater (TWW). Batch kinetic study showed that these materials are an efficient adsorbent for textile dye. The maximum adsorption capacities between 16 to 32 mg of dyes per g of adsorbent was obtained by fitting the adsorption data to the Langmuir adsorption Isotherm. It was found that the adsorption capacity of MACHT is higher than MACH.
Sewage sludge from aerobic treatment plant was found to contain high amounts of heavy metals. Research was carried out to investigate the speciation and leaching behavior of heavy metals when using high temperature melting technology for treatment. This was achieved by conducting a sequential chemical extraction procedure and EP-TOX leaching test. The thermal treatment led to increased shift of metals from organic fraction to residual fraction, indicating that the thermal treatment caused metals in sewage sludge to become stable. Furthermore, results from leaching test revealed that metals were not leached from the final product after thermal treatment and this was verified using US EPA standard limits. Results from this study indicated that melting technology could convert the sludge to product that can be either reused or landfilled without an adverse environmental impact.
Effects of agitation and aeration rate on microbial treatment of domestic wastewater sludge were investigated in a batch fermenter using mixed culture of Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger. It was found that liquid state bioconversion (LSB) of wastewater sludge was highly influenced by the effects of agitation and aeration. The maximum production of sludge cake and reduction of organic substances in treated sludge were recorded at 150-200 rpm of agitation speed and 0.5 vvm of aeration rate after 72 h of treatment. No effective results were observed at higher rate of agitation (300 rpm) and aeration (1.5 vvm) as compared to optimum values. The results showed that the minimum level of air saturation (pO2) was adequate to maintain the bioconversion process.