The scopoletin (coumarin) and epicatechin (flavonoid) rich Morinda citrifolia L. (MC) Noni leaves are non-toxic (unlike the fruits) and consumed as vegetables. The anti-osteoarthritis effects of the MC leaf extract against joint cartilage degradation and inflammation were investigated through cartilage explant cultures and pre-clinical animal study. Osteoarthritis were induced by intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate injection into the right knee. The extract, scopoletin and epicatechin, suppressed glycosaminoglycan and nitric oxide release from the cartilage explant in the presence of Interleukin-1β. After 28 days, the extract treatment reduced the in vivo serum levels and joint tissues mRNA expressions for joint cartilage degradation, aggrecanase, and collagenase biomarkers. The extract increased the bone formation marker PINP levels, besides improving the articular cartilage structure and chondrocytes cellularity. The extract improved bone formation/repair, subchondral bone structure, strength and integrity, as well as cartilage synthesis by suppressing inflammation, nitric oxide production, joint catabolism by proteases, and oxidative stress. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The scopoletin (coumarin) and epicatechin (flavonoid) rich Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves may be used as vegetables, functional food ingredient, or dietary supplements to suppress osteoarthritis progression against joint cartilage degradation and inflammation. The extract, scopoletin, or epicatechin, suppressed glycosaminoglycan, and nitric oxide release from the cartilage. The Morinda citrifolia leaf extract suppressed inflammation, nitric oxide production, tissues catabolism by proteases and oxidative stress to help reduce joint cartilage degradation, besides improving the articular cartilage structure, chondrocytes health, subchondral bone structure, bone formation/repair, and cartilage synthesis.
Unhealthy eating habits and lack of physical activities are among the contributing factors for obesity and diabetes. It has been reported that consumption of naturally occurring phenolics could exert beneficial effects toward these diseases. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the ability of phenolic-rich soy husk powder extract (SHPE) in modifying the physical and biochemical parameters for obesity and diabetes. Forty-nine Sprague Dawley rats were divided into seven groups, including three supplementary/treatment groups. Rats in supplementary/treatment groups were provided with either 4 mg/kg BW Rosiglitazone Maleate, 250 mg SHPE/kg BW, or 500 mg SHPE/kg BW. The effectiveness of SHPE in alleviating obesity-diabetes was evaluated by measuring body weight (physical parameter), blood glucose metabolisms (biochemical parameters), and PPARγ expression. Findings in the present study revealed that short-term SHPE and Rosiglitazone Maleate administration improved the physical and biochemical parameters of obese-diabetic rats. In addition, SHPE was also demonstrated to upregulate PPARγ expression in adipocytes. These findings suggest that soy husk could emerge as a potential hypoglycemic and anti-adipogenic nutraceutical in future. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This was the first study to evaluate the potential effects of soy husk against the parameters of obese-diabetes in rats. In addition, promising effects derived from this study might explore the possibility of soy husk to be utilized as an antidiabetes nutraceutical.
This study was focused on the effects of fermentation temperature and pH on the quality of Punica granatum juice probioticated with Lactobacillus species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus salivarius. The whole fruit juice of P. granatum which is rich with phytonutrients appeared to be a good probiotic carrier. The probiotication was carried out for 24 hr at 30, 35, and 37°C and pH 2.5, 4.0, and 5.5 under microaerophilic conditions. The results found that P. granatum juice cultivated with L. casei had a better growth profile with a higher biomass density at 37°C around pH 3.5-4.0. Probiotication could maintain the scavenging activity of P. granatum juice cultivated with L. casei. The scavenging activity achieved up to 90% inhibition at the concentration of 5 mg/ml. The whole fruit-squeezed P. granatum juice was suitable for the growth of Lactobacillus species even without supplementation during cultivation. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The findings of this study presented the potential of P. granatum juice (whole fruit) to be used as a good probiotic carrier, particularly for Lactobacillus species without supplementation. High nutritious P. granatum juice catered the need of probiotic bacteria during fermentation. Probiotication could maintain the antioxidant capacity of the juice in term of its radical scavenging activity. The antioxidant capacity was mainly attributed to the metabolites such as phenolic acids (romarinic acid and caftaric acid) and flavonoids (quercetin, quercetin 3-glucoside, rutin and kaempferol rutinoside). With the optimized temperature (37°C) and pH (4.00), probiotic bacteria could growth well up to a cell viability of 2.46 × 1010 cfu/ml. This offers P. granatum to be developed into functional food to cater to the needs of the consumers who are lactose intolerant to dairy products.
The application of proteomic and peptidomic technologies for food-derived bioactive peptides is an emerging field in food sciences. These technologies include the use of separation tools coupled to a high-resolution spectrometric and bioinformatic tools for prediction, identification, sequencing, and characterization of peptides. To a large extent, one-dimensional separation technologies have been extensively used as a continuous tool under different optimized conditions for the identification and analysis of food peptides. However, most one-dimensional separation technologies are fraught with significant bottlenecks such as insufficient sensitivity and specificity limits for complex samples. To address this limitation, separation systems based on orthogonal, multidimensional principles, which allow for the coupling of more than one analytical separation tool with different operational principles, provide a higher separation power than one-dimensional separation tools. This review describes the structure-informed separation and purification of protein hydrolyzates to obtain peptides with desirable bioactivities. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Application of bioactive peptides in the formulation of functional foods, nutraceuticals, and therapeutic agents have increasingly gained scholarly and industrial attention. The bioactive peptides exist originally in protein sources and are only active after hydrolysis of the parent protein. Currently, several tools can be configured in one-dimensional or multidimensional systems for the separation and purification of protein hydrolyzates. The separations are informed by the structural properties such as the molecular weight, charge, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and the solubility of peptides. This review provides a concise discussion on the commonly used analytical tools, their configurations, advantages and challenges in peptide separation. Emphasis is placed on how the structural properties of peptides assist in the separation and purification processes and the concomitant effect of the separation on peptide bioactivity.
The anti-leukemia mechanisms of Morinda citrifolia L. leaf extract were investigated on human Jurkat leukemia cells and in leukemia-induced BALB/c mice. The leukemia-induced mice were fed daily with the extract (100 or 200 mg/kg BW) and compared to ATRA (All-trans-retinoic-acid; 5 mg/kg BW). After 4 weeks' treatment, the extract (standardized to epicatechin and scopoletin), arrested Jurkat cell-cycle at the G0/G1 phase and activated the caspase-3 and caspase-8 (death-receptor extrinsic pathways). The extract dose-dependently reduced the blood and bone marrow myeloblasts levels of leukemia-induced mice; upregulated cancer suppressor genes CSF3, SOCS1, PTEN and TRP53; increased anti-inflammatory IL10 and IL4; downregulated anti-apoptotic or proliferation genes; decreased the pro-inflammatory NF-κβ; suppressed pro-angiogenesis VEGFA mRNA expressions, and restored the homeostatic immune or leukocytes levels. The extract directly ameliorated leukemia via cancer cells apoptosis, suppressed inflammation and angiogenesis; and mitigated bone marrow myeloblasts imbalance, without any observable toxicity on the animals. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The scopoletin (coumarin) and epicatechin (flavonoid)-rich Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves may be used as functional food ingredient, vegetables, or dietary supplements to treat and suppress leukemia progression by directly killing the cancer cells and preventing new cancer cells development and bone marrow myeloblast imbalance in the bone marrow, without being toxic to normal cells. The M. citrifolia leaf extract suppressed inflammation, and potential metastasis by inhibiting new cancer-related blood vessel formation.
Different drying methods and blanching were investigated as to their effects on antioxidant and oxidase activities of Thunbergia laurifolia leaves. Results showed that oven-drying had the highest degradation of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity at >85%, while freeze-drying had the lowest at <20%. However, inactivation of oxidase enzymes by blanching at 100°C resulted in a lesser decrease in TPC for oven-drying at 50 and 100°C (51% and 65%, respectively), indicating the importance of inactivating the oxidase enzymes for lower degradation of phenolics on drying. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that its major antioxidant, rosmarinic acid, degraded tremendously in the presence of oxidase enzymes, but only degraded slightly upon inactivation of oxidase enzymes. Hence, this work showed that by controlling the enzymatic activity, the preservation of phenolics with specific bioactivity in herbal tea leaves can be achieved. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Thunbergia laurifolia leaves have been frequently consumed in the form of a tea or pill due to its medicinal properties. Processing of fresh herbal plant leaves by drying is required to preserve antioxidant phenolic compounds and quality of the plant leaves. Although the drying effects on the antioxidant properties have been studied, the factors that cause the change in properties have not been investigated in-depth. Controlling the factors that affect the phenolic content can help to preserve the beneficial antioxidants when processing the leaves by drying. The result of this study will be of relevance and beneficial to the herbal tea industry.
The present study aimed to outline the physiological and metabolic disparity between chow- and purified ingredient-based high-fat diets and their efficacy in the induction of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Male, 3-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to chow-based control diet, chow-based high-fat diet, purified control diet, and purified high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Physical and biochemical changes were documented. Chow-based diets, irrespective of the lipid content, resulted in significantly lower weight gain and organ weight compared to purified ingredient-based diets. Circulating insulin, total proteins, albumin, and certain lipid components like the triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol were also lower in the chow-based diet groups. Both chow- and purified high-fat diets induced central obesity, hypertension, and hyperglycaemia, but the latter was associated with earlier onset of the metabolic aberrations and additionally, dyslipidaemia. In conclusion, purified high-fat diet is a better diet for MetS induction in rats. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Modeling metabolic syndrome is commonly accomplished with the use of chow- or purified ingredient diets enriched with carbohydrates and/or lipids, but the differences and associated drawbacks are unclear. This study highlights that chow- or modified chow-based diets have a tendency to introduce unwanted metabolic changes which are inconsistent with the progression of metabolic syndrome. Thus, the use of these diets in metabolic disease study should be avoided. On the other hand, purified high-fat diet which can effectively induce the features of metabolic syndrome is highly recommended.
Peptides with biological properties, that is, bioactive peptides, are a class of biomolecules whose health-promoting properties are increasingly being exploited in food and health products. However, research on targeted techniques for the detection and quantification of these peptides is still in its infancy. Such information is needed in order to enhance the biological and chemometric characterization of peptides and their subsequent application in the functional food and pharmaceutical industries. In this review, the role of classic techniques such as electrophoretic, chromatographic, and peptide mass spectrometry in the structure-informed detection and quantitation of bioactive peptides are discussed. Prospects for the use of aptamers in the characterization of bioactive peptides are also discussed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Although bioactive peptides have huge potential applications in the functional foods and health area, there are limited techniques in enhancing throughput detection, quantification, and characterization of these peptides. This review discusses state-of-the-art techniques relevant in complementing bioactive detection and profiling irrespective of the small number of amino acid units. Insights into challenges, possible remedies and prevailing areas requiring thorough research in the extant literature for food chemists and biotechnologists are also presented.
Natural compounds have tremendous potential to regulate glucose metabolism, but conventional methods for studying their bioactivities are usually labor intensive. Here, hypoglycemic properties in 22 selected food-derived compounds were examined using molecular docking. The results indicated that curcumin is an inhibitor of both α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP-4), which are important for glycemic control. These effects of curcumin were also confirmed by enzymatic determination in vitro. Furthermore, curcumin significantly improved diet-induced hyperglycemia (e.g., fasting plasma glucose levels and glycogen storage in muscle or liver) in mice. This might be attributed to its inhibitory effects on the activities of α-glucosidase and DPP-4 in vivo. Curcumin also upregulated the expression of genes (e.g., glucagon-like peptide 1) related to DPP-4 activity in the small intestine. In conclusion, curcumin is a potential ingredient of functional foods used for diet-induced hyperglycemia management. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Curcumin has been widely used as a colorant in the food industry. Moreover, a growing number of studies have described its diverse biological functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-angiogenic activities. Thus, curcumin is regarded as a potential ingredient in functional foods. Our results highlighted the hyperglycemic effect of curcumin, suggesting that curcumin may be included in food products for hyperglycemic patients.
This study aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress status, antioxidants capacity, and presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in an animal model of MetS induced by high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet. Male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups, assigned for two different types of diet (standard rat pellet or HCHF diet) for 20 weeks. Liver was excised, weighed, and subjected to lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide (NO·) production, antioxidants activity, and histological assessment. The HCHF rats had higher lipid peroxidation and NO· level but lower enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant levels than the normal animals. Histological evaluation revealed higher lobular inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning, NAFLD activity score, and lipid accumulation in the liver of HCHF group. In conclusion, the HCHF diet causes an increase in oxidative stress, depletion of antioxidants capacity, NAFLD, and liver injury. The induction of oxidative stress may be partially responsible for the development of NAFLD in MetS. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The prevalence of MetS is estimated to increase rapidly with the escalating levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. A suitable animal model of MetS that best mimicked the human disease state with known underlying mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of MetS is indispensable to search for potential adjunct therapies and drug targets. Thus, our current study elucidated the involvement of oxidative stress in linking MetS and NAFLD which might resemble the pathogenesis of MetS among Southeast Asian population.
Garlic protein (GP) was enzymatically hydrolyzed using pepsin and trypsin followed by the evaluation of antioxidant and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of GP and its hydrolysates. The antihypertensive effects of GP and its hydrolysates were determined in vivo. The results showed that GP and its hydrolysates namely GPH-P (pepsin) and GPH-T (trypsin) possessed appreciable antioxidant and ACE inhibitory activities. The ACE inhibitory activity of GP, GPH-T, and GPH-P was in consistent with their antioxidant activities. GP and its hydrolysates offered significant protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damage (p
This study determined the antiaging effect of stingless bee honey on the expression of extracellular matrix genes. MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) assay was performed for determination of optimum concentration and incubation time of stingless bee honey. Gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and collagen type Ⅰ (COL1A1) were analyzed using real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technique. Incubation with stingless bee honey at concentration of 0.02% for 72 hr showed significant increase in the viability of human fibroblast cells. Stingless bee honey significantly downregulates metalloproteinase-1 gene expression in both pre-senescence and senescence fibroblast cells and upregulates collagen type Ⅰ gene expression in senescence fibroblast cells. In conclusion, stingless bee honey potentially delayed skin aging through modulation of extracellular matrix genes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Changes of the extracellular matrix regulation promote skin aging. Stingless bee honey is a good source of natural antioxidant which potentially delays skin aging. This study demonstrated that stingless bee honey beneficially increases collagen type Ⅰ expression and decreases MMP-1 expression during cellular aging of human dermal fibroblast cells.
Coffee is rich in antioxidant and has been shown to confer various health benefits. Here, we investigated the effect of single-dose coffee consumption in healthy human subjects. About 30 healthy volunteers were recruited and given a serving of sugar free black coffee. Urine and fecal samples were collected and analyzed. Significant changes in urinary metabolites relating to coffee, gut microbial and host energy metabolisms were observed post-coffee consumption. Clear sex differences were also observed in the urinary metabolic profiles pre- and post-coffee consumption. Sex differences in richness and composition of gut microbiota were observed, however, the effect of single-dose coffee consumption on host gut microbiota were unremarkable. These findings indicated that single-dose coffee consumption affects sex-specific host metabolic responses that relates to gut-microbe and energy metabolism. This study demonstrated the utility of systems biology tools to unravel complexity of host-diet biology and gut microbial responses. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This study demonstrated that integrated systems biology approach enabled efficient extractions of host biochemical and microbial information that allows food industry to ascertain the impact of diet and longitudinal assessment of potential functional food in humans.
Diabetic cataract causes severe vision loss. This study evaluated the effects of hesperidin-standardized Citrus hystrix leaf flavonoids-rich extract (CLE) on diabetic-cataract development. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were orally given 150 and 300 mg CLE/kg body-weight. These were compared with non-treated diabetic or healthy rats as controls, over 8 weeks. The CLE gradually attenuated fasting blood glucose (FBG), biomarkers for inflammation (Tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α; prostaglandin E2 PGE2); vascular permeability, (Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF); and oxidative stress, (malondialdehyde MDA). The diabetic cataract was significantly mitigated by the 150 mg CLE/kg dose. Good correlations were found between cataract incidence with FBG (r2 = 0.90), serum PGE2 (r2 = 0.91), MDA (r2 = 0.99), VEGF (r2 = 0.71), but not with TNF-α levels (r2 = 0.49) suggesting the serum FBG, PGE2, MDA, and possibly the VEGF levels may help to predict the cataract risks. The CLE mitigated cataract probably by attenuating hyperglycaemia, inflammation, lens fluid influx, vascular leakage, lens osmotic-imbalance, and fibers over-hydration. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The study shows the flavonoids-rich Citrus hystrix leaf consumption, effectively attenuated diabetes (fasting blood glucose) and mitigated diabetic cataract. It help reduce diabetes-related hyperglycaemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular leakage. The evidences were the CLE consumptions reduced the serum biomarkers tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNF-α; prostaglandin E2 PGE2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and malondialdehyde (MDA). The C. hystrix leaf contains hesperidin, apiin, diosmin, saponarin, apigetrin, rutin and xanthotoxol, and other flavonoid glucosides. The study also showed good correlations between cataract incidence with fasting blood glucose FBG (r2 = 0.90), serum PGE2 (r2 = 0.91), and MDA (r2 = 0.99), and less closely with VEGF (r2 = 0.71) suggesting these serum biomarkers may help predict cataract risks. The CLE indicated cataract mitigation properties probably by attenuating FBG, inflammation, lens fluid influx, lens osmotic-imbalance, and fibers over-hydration.
Date palm counts among the oldest fruit crops of the world and is mainly cultivated for its highly nutritious fruits consumed as a staple food in many countries, especially in the Gulf region. Dates are enriched with numerous therapeutic bioactives and functional compounds such as phenolics, flavonols, carotenoids, minerals, and vitamins that not only provide an appreciable amount of energy required for the human body but also act as an effective therapeutic agent against several diseases. This review aimed to provide a deep insight into the nutritional as well as phytochemicals profile of date fruit and its seeds in order to explore their biological (anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, cardio-protective, anti-inflammatory properties), functional food, and nutra-pharmaceutical attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This review provides updated information regarding the date fruits and seeds phytochemicals composition together with highlighting dates potential as a natural therapeutic agent against several diseases. The study also urges the importance of consuming dates as a great package to live a healthy life due to the functional food and nutraceutical properties of this valuable fruit. The study also provides information first time as recommending dates to cope with the hidden hunger or micronutrient deficiency faced by the third world inhabitants. Hence, the review may further help the industry and researchers to explore the potential of dates for future medicinal and nutra-pharmaceutical applications.
The fruit and leaf of God's crown (Phaleria macrocarpa) have been traditionally used to treat a wide variety of diseases. However, the proteins of this tropical plant are still heavily understudied. Three protein extraction methods; phenol (Phe), trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-acetone-phenol (TCA-A-Phe), and ultrasonic (Ult) were compared on the fruit and leaf of P. macrocarpa. The Phe extraction method showed the highest percentage of recovered protein after the resolubilization process for both leaf (12.24%) and fruit (30.41%) based on protein yields of the leaf (6.15 mg/g) and fruit (36.98 mg/g). Phe and TCA-A-Phe extraction methods gave well-resolved bands over a wide range of molecular weights through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Following liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, proteins identified through the Phe extraction method were 30%-35% enzymatic proteins, including oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases that possess various biological functions. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Every part of God's crown plant is traditionally consumed to treat various illnesses. While plant's benefits are well known and have led to a plethora of health products, the proteome remains mostly unknown. This study compares three protein extraction methods for the leaf and fruit of P. macrocarpa and identifies their proteins thru LC-MS/MS coupled with PEAKS. These method comparisons can be a guide for works on other plants as well. In addition, the proteomics data from this study may shed light on the functional properties of these plant parts and their products.
In this study, the walnut flowers were fermented using five different probiotics, including two Lactobacillus plantarum, one Lactobacillus bulgaricus, one Lactobacillus casei, and one Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The chemical compositions, antioxidant capacities, and α-glucosidase inhibitory abilities of walnut flowers during fermentation processes were evaluated. The results showed that all the active compounds and bioactivities of the walnut flowers were significantly decreased after 7 days of fermentation, whereas a short-term fermentation (1-3 days) enhanced their bioactivities. Compared to the unfermented sample, L. plantarum (ATCC 8014) and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53013) increased the ABTS (1.22 and 1.30 times higher) and DPPH radical scavenging activities (up to 1.23 and 1.04 times), respectively. L. plantarum (SWFU D16), L. plantarum (ATCC 8014), and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 53013) improved the ferric reducing antioxidant power which was 110.98%, 133.16%, and 104.76% of the unfermented sample. All five probiotics promoted the α-glucosidase inhibitory ability of walnut flowers (maximum 2.18-fold increase). Three phenolic acids and five flavonoids in the fermentation broth were identified by HPLC, where catechin, epicatechin, and catechin gallate were the dominant components. HPLC results demonstrated that these compounds were degraded and transformed in varying degrees under the effects of probiotics. Taken together, a short-term probiotic fermentation could change the active compounds of the walnut flowers and improve their bioactivities. L. plantarum (ATCC 8014) and L. rhamnosus (ATCC 334) are suggested as suitable strains in producing the fermented walnut flowers. The research findings could further support the development and utilization of walnut flowers as a fermented functional food. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Walnut flowers have been used as fermented food in southwestern China, but their active components and functional activities during fermentation processes are still unclear. This study found that different probiotic fermentation exerted a strong and varied influence on the chemical composition and biological activities of the walnut flowers. A short-term fermentation has significantly improved their antioxidant capacities and α-glucosidase inhibitory abilities, whereas the longer period of fermentation, caused a significant loss of both their active compounds and bioactivities. These findings are useful as a reference for the manufacturers of fermented walnut flowers in selecting suitable strains and fermentation time for their products.
In this study, we had developed Naringenin-loaded liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCNs) and investigated the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of Naringenin-LCNs against human airway epithelium-derived basal cells (BCi-NS1.1) and human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549) cell lines, respectively. The anti-inflammatory potential of Naringenin-LCNs evaluated by qPCR revealed a decreased expression of IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-induced BCi-NS1.1 cells. The activity of LCNs was comparable to the positive control drug Fluticasone propionate (10 nM). The anticancer activity was studied by evaluating the antiproliferative (MTT and trypan blue assays), antimigratory (scratch wound healing assay, modified Boyden chamber assay, and immunoblot), and anticolony formation activity in A549 cells. Naringenin LCNs showed promising antiproliferative, antimigratory, and anticolony formation activities in A549 cells, in vitro. Therefore, based on our observations and results, we conclude that Naringenin-LCNs may be employed as a potential therapy-based intervention to ameliorate airway inflammation and to inhibit the progression of lung cancer. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Naringenin was encapsulated into liquid crystalline nanoparticles, thus, attributing to their sustained-release nature. In addition, Naringenin-loaded LCNs efficiently reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory markers, namely, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8. In addition, the Naringenin-loaded LCNs also possess potent anticancer activity, when tested in the A549 cell line, as revealed by the inhibition of proliferation and migration of cells. They also attenuated colony formation and induced apoptosis in the A549 cells. The findings from our study could form the basis for future research that may be translated into an in vivo model to validate the possible therapeutic alternative for lung cancer using Naringenin-loaded LCNs. In addition, the applications of Naringenin-loaded LCNs as an intervention would be of great interest to biological, formulation and respiratory scientists and clinicians.
This study aimed to investigate the role of Gelam honey (GH) in accelerating reepithelialization of corneal abrasion. Corneal epithelial cells (CEC) isolated from New Zealand white rabbit corneas, were cultured and circular-shaped wounds were created onto them, representing the corneal abrasion model. These wounds were treated with basal (BM) and cornea media (CM) supplemented with GH. The percentage of wound closure was measured on day 0, 3, and 5. Expressions of cytokeratin 3 (CK3), cluster of differentiation 44 (CD 44), and connexin 43 (Cx43) were analyzed via qRT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. The results showed CEC cultured in GH-enriched media reepithelialized faster compared to control. Corneal abrasion treated with CM supplemented with GH closed completely on day 5. CK3, CD44, and Cx43 expressions correspond to the stages of reepithelialization. In conclusion, GH promotes the healing of the ex vivo corneal abrasion model. Further explorations of its potential as adjuvant therapy in treating corneal injuries are needed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Honey has been reported to have many medicinal properties including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and the ability to promote skin wound healing. However, the effects of honey on corneal wound healing have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of Gelam honey (GH), well-known local honey obtained from the beehive of Gelam trees (Melaleuca spp.), on the ex vivo corneal abrasion model via cell migration study and analysis of genes and proteins during corneal epithelial wound healing. GH has proven to have accelerated effects on the corneal epithelial cell migration during the closure of the ex vivo corneal abrasion wound model. The expressions of the genes and proteins of the corneal epithelial wound healing markers were in accordance with the stages of healing. Therefore, GH has the potential to be developed as adjuvant therapy in the form of GH-based eye drop in treating corneal injuries.
This study evaluates the modulation of inflammatory markers by petroleum ether fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (PE-TFG) seed extract in ovariectomized rats. The HPTLC method was used for standardization and to quantify the diosgenin in PE-TFG. For testing PE-TFG in rats, the total duration of treatment was 12-weeks, and the rats were sacrificed on week 12. The tissue samples such as blood, liver, heart, and aorta were isolated for testing inflammatory markers such as adiponectin, leptin, PPAR-γ, TNF-α, lipid profile, hepatic markers, antioxidants, and oxidative stress markers. The PE-TFG treatment decreased the elevation of total cholesterol, triglyceride, AST, and ALT. Upon PE-TFG treatment, there was a significant increase in adiponectin and PPAR-γ mRNA expression. Leptin and TNF-α were normal after treatment with PE-TFG seed extract. Further, micro-steatosis of hepatocytes marked glomerular hypertrophy in the kidney and increased thickness of tunica intima and media of common carotid artery was reversed after treatment with PE-TFG. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Trigonella foenum-graecum L. is a curative plant used to treat inflammatory conditions like diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, arthritis, cancer, and digestive disorders. In our study, PE-TFG supplementation has a protective effect on OVX-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, mRNA expression of adiponectin and PPAR-γ, hepatic steatosis, and decreased thickness of tunica intima and media of common carotid artery.