Displaying all 13 publications

  1. Wei LK, Menon S, Griffiths LR, Gan SH
    J Hum Hypertens, 2015 Feb;29(2):99-104.
    PMID: 25055800 DOI: 10.1038/jhh.2014.53
    Irregular atrial pressure, defective folate and cholesterol metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension. However, little is known about the combined roles of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), apolipoprotein-E (ApoE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) genes, which are involved in metabolism and homeostasis. The objective of this study is to investigate the association of the MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298A>C, ACE insertion-deletion (I/D) and ApoE genetic polymorphisms with hypertension and to further explore the epistasis interactions that are involved in these mechanisms. A total of 594 subjects, including 348 normotensive and 246 hypertensive ischemic stroke subjects were recruited. The MTHFR 677 C>T and 1298A>C, ACE I/D and ApoEpolymorphisms were genotyped and the epistasis interaction were analyzed. The MTHFR 677 C>T and ApoE polymorphisms demonstrated significant associations with susceptibility to hypertension in multiple logistic regression models, multifactor dimensionality reduction and a classification and regression tree. In addition, the logistic regression model demonstrated that significant interactions between the ApoE E3E3, E2E4, E2E2 and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms existed. In conclusion, the results of this epistasis study indicated significant association between the ApoE and MTHFR polymorphisms and hypertension.
  2. Sabanayagam C, Shankar A, Lee J, Wong TY, Tai ES
    J Hum Hypertens, 2013 Apr;27(4):231-6.
    PMID: 22418747 DOI: 10.1038/jhh.2011.117
    Few previous studies in Western populations have reported an association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and prehypertension. However, no previous study has examined this association in Asians. We examined individuals who were free of hypertension from two independent population-based studies in Singapore: the Singapore Prospective Study Programme (SP2, n=2843 Chinese, Malay and Indians aged 24 years) and the Singapore Malay Eye Study (SiMES, n=957 Malays, aged 40-80 years). Prehypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (BP) 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg. CRP was analyzed as categories (<1, 1-3, >3 mg l(-1)). The prevalence of prehypertension increased with increasing categories of CRP in both cohorts (P for trend <0.05 in both cohorts). After adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index (BMI), smoking and diabetes, persons with higher levels of CRP were more likely to have prehypertension in both SP2 (compared with CRP <1 mg l(-1), odds ratio (OR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.48 for CRP 1-3 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.32-2.10 for >3 mg l(-1)) and SiMES (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.01 and OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07-2.27) respectively. In conclusion, data from two population-based Asian cohorts suggest that elevated serum CRP levels are associated with prehypertension.
  3. Lee J, Ma S, Heng D, Chew S, Hughes K, Tai E
    J Hum Hypertens, 2008 Jul;22(7):468-74.
    PMID: 18337755 DOI: 10.1038/jhh.2008.16
    The current hypertension (HTN) guidelines recommend the assessment of other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with HTN for further management. Few studies in Asian populations have been published to identify the outcome of individuals with HTN and other CVD risk factors. This study aims to assess the effect of HTN alone, and in combination with other CVD risk factors on all-cause and CVD mortality. Three cross-sectional studies carried out in Singapore (baseline 1982--1995) consisting of 5830 persons were grouped by the absence or presence of HTN and CVD risk factors. They were followed-up (mean 14.1 years) by linkage with the National Death Register. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to obtain adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of mortality. HTN individuals with either <2 CVD risk factors (adjusted HR 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.8) or > or =2 CVD risk factors (adjusted HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.9-3.0) were at increased risk of all-cause mortality compared to normotensive individuals. The findings were similar for CVD mortality. HTN individuals who also smoked or had diabetes were at highest risk of all-cause mortality, whereas those with elevated total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoked or diabetes had the highest risk for CVD mortality. These findings show that in HTN individuals it is important to assess the presence of other CVD risk factors and manage accordingly.
  4. Hassan NB, Hasanah CI, Foong K, Naing L, Awang R, Ismail SB, et al.
    J Hum Hypertens, 2006 Jan;20(1):23-9.
    PMID: 16177812 DOI: 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001930
    This cross-sectional study was aimed to identify the predictors of medication noncompliance in hypertensive patients. The study was conducted at the Family Medicine Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, which is a university-based teaching hospital. All hypertensive patients aged 40 or over-registered from January to June 2004, who had been on treatment for at least 3 months, were screened. Previously validated self-administered questionnaires were used to assess the compliance and psychosocial factors. A total of 240 hypertensive patients were recruited in the study. Of these, 55.8% were noncompliant to medication. Logistic regression showed that age (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92-0.997; P: 0.035), patient satisfaction (adjusted OR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.93-0.998; P: 0.036) and medication barrier (adjusted OR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.91-0.987; P: 0.009) were significant predictors of medication noncompliance. Therefore, younger age, poor patient satisfaction and medication barrier were identified as independent psychosocial predictors of medication noncompliant in hypertensive patients.
  5. Singh RB, Suh IL, Singh VP, Chaithiraphan S, Laothavorn P, Sy RG, et al.
    J Hum Hypertens, 2000 11 30;14(10-11):749-63.
    PMID: 11095165
    Reliable statistics related to the prevalence, incidence and mortality of hypertension and stroke are not available from Asia. The data may be in national or institutional reports or journals published in the local language only. The mortality rate for stroke has been on the decline since the mid 1960s in the developed countries of Asia, such as Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, with some improvement in Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong, some areas of China and Malaysia about 15 years later. In India, China, Philippines, Thailand, Sri Lanka, Iran, Pakistan, Nepal, there has been a rapid increase in stroke mortality and prevalence of hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension according to new criteria (>140/90 mm Hg) varies between 15-35% in urban adult populations of Asia. In rural populations, the prevalence is two to three times lower than in urban subjects. Hypertension and stroke occur at a relatively younger age in Asians and the risk of hypertension increases at lower levels of body mass index of 23-25 kg/m2. Overweight, sedentary behaviour, alcohol, higher social class, salt intake, diabetes mellitus and smoking are risk factors for hypertension in most of the countries of Asia. In Australia, New Zealand and Japan, lower social class is a risk factor for hypertension and stroke. Population-based long-term follow-up studies are urgently needed to demonstrate the association of risk factors with hypertension in Asia. However prevention programmes should be started based on cross-sectional surveys and case studies without waiting for the cohort studies.
  6. Rehman A, Rahman AR, Rasool AH
    J Hum Hypertens, 2002 Apr;16(4):261-6.
    PMID: 11967720
    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of angiotensin II (Ang II) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blockade on pulse wave velocity (PWV) in healthy humans. We studied nine young male volunteers in a double-blind randomised crossover design. Carotid-femoral PWV (an index of arterial stiffness) was measured by using a Complior machine. Subjects were previously treated for 3 days with once-daily dose of either a placebo or valsartan 80 mg. On the third day, they were infused with either placebo or 5 ng/kg/min of Ang II over 30 min. Subjects thus received placebo capsule + placebo infusion (P), valsartan + placebo infusion (V), placebo + Ang II infusion (A), and valsartan + Ang II infusion (VA) combinations. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure and PWV were recorded at baseline and then every 10 min during infusion and once after the end of infusion. There were significant increases in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) with A compared with P (P = 0.002, P = 0.002, P = 0.001 respectively). These rises in blood pressure were completely blocked by valsartan. A significant rise in PWV by A was seen compared with P (8.38 +/- 0.24 vs 7.48 +/- 0.24 m/sec, P = 0.013) and was completely blocked by valsartan; VA compared with P (7.27 +/- 0.24 vs 7.48 +/- 0.24 m/sec, P = NS). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that blockade of Ang II induced increase in blood pressure by valsartan contributed to only 30% of the total reduction in Ang II induced rise in PWV (R(2) = 0.306). The conclusions were that valsartan completely blocks the effect of Ang II on PWV. The effect of Ang II on PWV is mediated through AT(1)receptors. Reduction in PWV by Ang II antagonist is not fully explained by its pressure lowering effect of Ang II and may be partially independent of its effect on blood pressure.
  7. Rasool AH, Rahman AR, Choudhury SR, Singh RB
    J Hum Hypertens, 2004 Mar;18(3):187-92.
    PMID: 14973513 DOI: 10.1038/sj.jhh.1001647
    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and spontaneous bleeding into the brain parenchyma, intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), is a stroke subtype associated with high morbidity and mortality. Overall, it comprises about 15% of all stroke in Caucasians, this figure being much higher in Asians and black people. Blood pressure (BP) appears to play an important role in this disease. We have reviewed available literature on the relationship of BP to the occurrence of primary and secondary ICH, the association of BP levels measured early after stroke with prognosis and complications, and evidence about the effects of early BP lowering treatments on post-stroke outcomes. BP appears to be an important risk factor for primary and secondary ICH. In addition, high BP early after ICH may be detrimental to outcome, possibly contributing to complications such as rebleeding and haematoma enlargement. Few data are available about the effects of early lowering of BP on outcome after ICH with no reliable trial yet conducted. Proper randomised trials are required to establish the effect of early lowering of BP on outcome after ICH.
  8. Ab Majid NL, Omar MA, Khoo YY, Mahadir Naidu B, Ling Miaw Yn J, Rodzlan Hasani WS, et al.
    J Hum Hypertens, 2018 09;32(8-9):617-624.
    PMID: 29899376 DOI: 10.1038/s41371-018-0082-x
    Hypertension is strongly associated with chronic diseases such as myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and renal failure. The objective of this study is to determine the trend of prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among Malaysian population since 2006 to 2015. The study used the data from National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) 2006, 2011, and 2015. It was a cross-sectional with two-stage stratified random sampling throughout Malaysia for eligible respondents 18 years old and above. Respondents were interviewed face to face and blood pressure was recorded as the average reading from two electronic pressure monitoring measurements. Data was analyzed using the Complex sample module in SPSS Version 20. The prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia was 34.6% (95% CI: 33.9, 35.3) in 2006, 33.6% (95% CI: 32.6, 34.6) in 2011 and 35.3% (95% CI: 34.5, 36.3) in 2015. Awareness of hypertension in 2006, 2011, and 2015 was 35.6% (95% CI: 34.6, 36.6), 40.7% (95% CI: 39.3, 42.1), and 37.5% (95% CI: 36.1, 38.9) respectively. The trend of receiving treatment from 2006 to 2015 was 78.9% (95% CI: 77.5, 80.2) to 83.2% (95% CI: 81.3, 84.8). The control of hypertension increased significantly from 27.5% (95% CI: 25.9, 29.2) in 2006 to 37.4% (95% CI: 35.3, 39.5) in 2015. Despite higher proportions receiving treatment over time, the control of hypertension remained below 40% since NHMS 2006 until 2015. The strategies to further reduce the prevalence and increase awareness of hypertension should be enhanced particularly among the targeted age group to ensure early detection, treatment, and control thus preventing from long-term complications.
    Study name: National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS-2006, NHMS-2011, NHMS-2015)
  9. Loh HH, Sukor N
    J Hum Hypertens, 2020 01;34(1):5-15.
    PMID: 31822780 DOI: 10.1038/s41371-019-0294-8
    Primary aldosteronism (PA), the most common cause of secondary hypertension, is a well-recognized condition that can lead to cardiovascular and renal complications. PA is frequently left undiagnosed and untreated, leading to aldosterone-specific morbidity and mortality. In this review we highlight the evidence linking PA with other conditions such as (i) diabetes mellitus, (ii) obstructive sleep apnea, and (iii) bone health, along with clinical implications and proposed underlying mechanisms.
  10. R Muralitharan R, Marques FZ
    J Hum Hypertens, 2021 02;35(2):162-169.
    PMID: 32733062 DOI: 10.1038/s41371-020-0388-3
    Advances in sequencing technology have increased our understanding of the composition of the gut microbiota and their contribution to health and disease states, including in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The gut microbiota is heavily influenced by diet and produce metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) from various food sources. SCFAs, such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, have been shown to have blood pressure, cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis lowering properties, while TMAO has been associated with increased risk of major cardiovascular adverse events and mortality. Some of these metabolites have known ligands (for example, SCFA receptors such as GPR41, GPR43, GPR109a, and Olf78 in mice/OR51E2 in humans) which could potentially be manipulated as therapeutic targets for hypertension. In this review, we discuss several types of diet-related gut microbial metabolites and their sensing mechanisms that are relevant for hypertension, and the future directions for the field.
  11. Park S, Buranakitjaroen P, Chen CH, Chia YC, Divinagracia R, Hoshide S, et al.
    J Hum Hypertens, 2018 04;32(4):249-258.
    PMID: 29386668 DOI: 10.1038/s41371-017-0025-y
    Hypertension is the leading cause of mortality throughout Asia. Home blood pressure monitoring has the potential to improve hypertension control and is a useful adjunct to conventional office blood pressure measurements due to its diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value in predicting cardiovascular outcomes. At present, there are no region-specific guidelines addressing the use of home blood pressure monitoring in Asia. Therefore, an expert panel was convened to address the use of home blood pressure monitoring and develop key recommendations to help guide clinical practice throughout the Asia region. The resulting recommendations support the use of home blood pressure monitoring with a validated device as an accurate adjunct for diagnosing hypertension and predicting cardiovascular outcome. Diagnosis and treatment of hypertension should still be guided by conventional office/clinic blood pressure measurements. The expert panel encourages the incorporation of home blood pressure monitoring into local clinical guidelines and offers practical recommendations to ensure continuity of care where a validated home blood pressure device is not available.
  12. Khoo YY, Farid NDN, Choo WY, Omar A
    J Hum Hypertens, 2022 Jan;36(1):106-116.
    PMID: 33536547 DOI: 10.1038/s41371-020-00478-0
    The continuous presence of elevated blood pressure (BP) when young is a strong predictor of future cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to elucidate the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of young-onset hypertension (YOH) in Malaysia during the period 2006-2015. Data on respondents aged 18-39 diagnosed with YOH according to the 7th Joint National Committee Report (USA) were extracted from three National Health and Morbidity Surveys (2006, 2011, and 2015). The prevalence of YOH remained stable: 17.7%, 95% CI [17.0, 18.3] in 2006, 17.0%, 95% CI [16.0, 17.9] in 2011 and 18.4%, 95% CI [17.4, 19.4] in 2015. Awareness, treatment and control rates were suboptimal; 15% were aware of their diagnosis, of which less than 50% were on treatment and less than 40% who were on treatment had their BP controlled. Trend analysis revealed a significant increase in YOH prevalence among urban dwellers; those with no formal and tertiary education and middle-income earners. YOH awareness and treatment rates were lower among respondents <30 years; however, when treated, this group achieved overall better control rates. Females had higher awareness and treatment rates, but lower control. Treatment rates remained stable for all ethnicities with the exception of Chinese, which decreased. This study narrows the knowledge gap on YOH epidemiology in Malaysia by providing crucial information on the pervasiveness of hypertension among young adults. Results can be used to develop non-communicable disease policies and health promotion strategies specially targeted at young adults who are in the prime of life.
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