METHODOLOGY: A 12-mer random peptide library expressed on the surface of the filamentous phage, M13, was used to select the mimotopes of two S. Typhi heat shock proteins by biopanning with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), DnaK and HSP90. The immunogenicity of the selected peptides was determined through binding affinity with polyclonal antibodies from pooled typhoid-confirmed patients' sera and purified HSPs mAb using Western blotting and ELISA.
RESULTS: Five rounds of biopanning resulted in enrichment of phage clones expressing the binding motifs TDxSTRP and FPSHYWLYPPPT, respectively. The selected peptides showed strong immunoreactivity with patients' sera. Thus, monoclonal antibodies against HSP and patient sera can select common mimotopes from the random peptide library.
CONCLUSION: These findings may provide fundamental information for further studies on diagnostic application or vaccine design against this aetiologic agent of typhoid fever.
METHODOLOGY: One hundred and twenty clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were obtained from patients of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). The strains were screened using a multiplex real-time PCR method for the presence of alterations in the genes encoding the penicillin binding proteins: pbp2b, macrolide resistance determinant ermB and the pneumolysin gene, ply. Dual-labelled Taqman probes were used in the real-time detection method comprising three different genes labeled with individual fluorophores at different wavelengths. One hundred and twenty isolates from bacterial cultures and isolates directly from blood cultures samples were analyzed using this assay.
RESULTS: A multiplex PCR comprising the antibiotic resistance genes, ermB and and pneumolysin gene (ply), a S. pneumoniae species specific gene, was developed to characterize strains of S. pneumoniae. Out of the 120 pneumococcal isolates, 58 strains were categorized as Penicillin Sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), 36 as Penicillin Intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP) and 26 as Penicillin Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). All the 58 PSSP strains harboured the pbp2b gene while the 36 PISP and 26 PRSP strains did not harbour this gene, thus suggesting reduced susceptibility to penicillin. Resistance to erythromycin was observed in 47 of the pneumococcal strains while 15 and 58 were intermediate and sensitive to this drug respectively. Susceptibility testing to other beta-lactams (CTX and CRO) also showed reduced susceptibility among the strains within the PISP and PRSP groups but most PSSP strains were sensitive to other antibiotics.
CONCLUSION: The characterization of pneumococcal isolates for penicillin and erythromycin resistance genes could be useful to predict the susceptibility of these isolates to other antibiotics, especially beta-lactams drugs. We have developed an assay with a shorter turnaround time to determine the species and resistance profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae with respect to penicillin and macrolides using the Real Time PCR format with fluorescent labeled Taqman probes, hence facilitating earlier and more definitive antimicrobial therapy which may lead to better patient management.
METHOD: A prospective cohort-targeted comprehensive surveillance study on NI associated with usage of devices was conducted in three ICUs in Malaysia using a developed NI surveillance form. Patients who developed infection outside an ICU were excluded from the study.
RESULTS: The device associated NI was 21.1%. The mean duration for development of NI was 10.0 +/- 7.44 days in ICU. The major device-associated infections were nosocomial pneumonia (18.7%) followed by bacteremia (8.5%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%) respectively. NI incidence density rate was 20.6 per 1,000 patient-days. Bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP) rates were 8.9, 4.7 and 20.5 per 1,000 patient-days, respectively. Acinetobacter species, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant pathogens isolated from the NIs subjects during the study period in the three ICUs.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of the rate of the NIs associated with usage of devices in the three ICUs showed that it is highly correlated with the use of mechanical ventilation devices, followed by intravascular devices and usage of indwelling urinary catheters.
METHODOLOGY: PubMed was queried with the keywords of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus OR Pteropine orthoreovirus OR Melaka orthoreovirus OR Kampar orthoreovirus, and returned 17 hits.
RESULTS: Based on prevalence studies, the presence of PRV has been reported in Malaysia and Vietnam, both developing countries. Other case reports also provide further evidence of the presence of PRV in the Southeast Asian region. Despite the absence of PRV in their home countries, travellers from Hong Kong and Japan to Indonesia have returned to their countries ill with this virus, indicating that local communities in Indonesia might be affected by this virus.
CONCLUSIONS: This work aims to bring to light this emerging zoonotic respiratory virus circulating among developing countries in Southeast Asia. To improve the understanding of PRV of the medical and scientific community in the Southeast Asian region, this work introduces the general features of PRV, reports of imported PRV, prevalence, and clinical features of PRV. Gaps in knowledge about PRV have also been identified in this work, and we hope that future studies can be undertaken to improve our understanding of this virus.