Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

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  1. Elmi OS, Hasan H, Abdullah S, Mat Jeab MZ, Bin Alwi Z, Naing NN
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2015 Oct;9(10):1076-85.
    PMID: 26517482 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.6162
    INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has emerged as a major clinical public health threat and challenges the national TB control program in Malaysia. Data that elaborates on the risk factors associated with the development of MDR-TB is highly limited in this country. This study was aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the development of MDR-TB patients in peninsular Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: This was a case control study; the data were collected from medical records of all the registered MDR-TB patients at five referral TB hospitals in peninsular Malaysia from January 2010 to April 2014. The 105 cases were all confirmed by a positive sputum culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for MDR-TB and extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB. As a comparison, a total of 209 non-MDR-TB cases were randomly selected as controls.
    RESULTS: A total of 105 MDR-TB and 209 non MDR-TB patients were studied. The risk factors associated with MDR-TB within the multivariate analysis were previous tuberculosis treatment, HIV infection, being an immigrant, and high load of positive for acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study revealed that patients who had received previous treatment for tuberculosis, were infected with HIV, were immigrants, and had a high burden of positive testing for AFB smear were more likely to have MDR-TB. An enhanced understanding of the risk factors associated with MDR-TB strains is imperative in the development of a national policy for public health interventions.
  2. Lim MK, Lai PSM, Ponnampalavanar SS, Syed Omar SF, Taib NA, Yusof MY, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2015 Nov 30;9(11):1264-71.
    PMID: 26623636 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.6731
    INTRODUCTION: Studies exploring the appropriateness of therapeutic antibiotic use among surgical patients are limited, particularly in developing countries. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the appropriateness of antibiotics prescribed in a surgical setting in Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: A prospective observational study was conducted in two surgical wards at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from November 2012-July 2013. Data was collected using a case report form. The appropriateness of antibiotic therapy was based on compliance with either the Malaysian National Antibiotic Guidelines 2008 or International Clinical Practice Guidelines and determined by an expert panel (consisting of two infectious disease consultants and a pharmacist).
    RESULTS: Over the study period, a total of 593 antibiotic courses were prescribed for 129 patients (4.6±3.4 antibiotics/patient). Only 34 (26.4%) patients received appropriate antibiotic therapy, whilst 95 (73.6%) patients received at least one course of inappropriate antibiotic therapy. The prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic use was 214 (66.3%) and 55 (42.0%) for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes, respectively. The most common causes of inappropriate prophylactic antibiotics were inappropriate timing 20 (36.4%) and inappropriate duration of prophylaxis 19 (34.5%). In cases of inappropriate timing, 9 (45%) were administered too late while 6 (30%) were too early. In contrast, inappropriate choice of antibiotics (42.1%) and inappropriate indication (40.7%) were the most common reasons encountered for inappropriate therapeutic antibiotics.
    CONCLUSION: Our study suggests considerable inappropriate use of both prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotics in the surgical wards; highlighting an urgent need for antibiotic stewardship initiatives in this setting.
  3. Tham HW, Balasubramaniam VR, Chew MF, Ahmad H, Hassan SS
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2015 Dec 30;9(12):1338-49.
    PMID: 26719940 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.6422
    INTRODUCTION: Dengue virus (DENV) is principally transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. To date, mosquito population control remains the key strategy for reducing the continuing spread of DENV. The focus on the development of new vector control strategies through an understanding of the mosquito-virus relationship is essential, especially targeting the midgut, which is the first mosquito organ exposed to DENV infection.
    METHODOLOGY: A cDNA library derived from female adult A. aegypti mosquito midgut cells was established using the switching mechanism at the 5' end of the RNA transcript (SMART), in combination with a highly potent recombination machinery of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gal4-based yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) assays were performed against DENV-2 proteins (E, prM, M, and NS1). Mammalian two-hybrid (M2H) and double immunofluorescence assays (IFA) were conducted to validate the authenticity of the three selected interactions.
    RESULTS: The cDNA library was of good quality based on its transformation efficiency, cell density, titer, and the percentage of insert size. A total of 36 midgut proteins interacting with DENV-2 proteins were identified, some involved in nucleic acid transcription, oxidoreductase activity, peptidase activity, and ion binding. Positive outcomes were obtained from the three selected interactions validated using M2H and double IFA assays.
    CONCLUSIONS: The identified proteins have different biological activities that may aid in the virus replication pathway. Therefore, the midgut cDNA library is a valuable tool for identifying DENV-2 interacting proteins. The positive outcomes of the three selected proteins validated supported the quality of the cDNA library and the robustness of the Y2H mechanisms.
  4. Ariffin TA, Mohamad S, Yusuf WN, Shueb RH
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2014 Aug;8(8):1063-7.
    PMID: 25116676 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.4095
    INTRODUCTION: The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and continuous reports of HIV-1 strains developing resistance to these drugs is rather alarming, as transmission of resistant viruses to newly infected persons is possible. This study aimed to determine HIV-1 subtypes and the prevalence of primary mutations associated with antiretroviral (ARV) resistance among treatment-naive prisoners on the east coast of Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: Viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 21 treatment-naive prisoners. Protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions were amplified and sequenced. Stanford HIV database algorithms were used for interpretation of resistance, and phylogenetic analysis was performed for subtype assignment.
    RESULTS: In the PR gene, no antiviral resistance-associated mutation was detected. For RT-associated mutations, K103N was the most prevalent in sequenced samples (14.3%). Genetic subtyping on the pol gene revealed that the majority of the prisoners were infected with subtype CRF33_01B (52.4%).
    CONCLUSION: Continuous surveillance of newly infected individuals is required to help strategize the best antiviral treatment for these patients.
  5. Islahudin F, Ong HY
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2014 Oct;8(10):1267-71.
    PMID: 25313602 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.4676
    INTRODUCTION: Antibiotic resistance is a rapidly emerging problem. A major concern is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), especially in developing countries where cost-effectiveness is imperative. Restriction of vancomycin usage is necessary to reduce the emergence of vancomycin-resistant organisms. The aim of this study was to look into the appropriate use of vancomycin based on the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) guidelines and to investigate serum levels of vancomycin.
    METHODOLOGY: The study was performed retrospectively. Medical records of patients treated with vancomycin for the past year were identified and selected.
    RESULTS: Overall, 118 patients were treated with vancomycin. Appropriate use of vancomycin was significantly higher than inappropriate use (p = 0.001). Approximately 85% (n = 100) of patients were given vancomycin for treatment, whereas the rest were given it for prophylaxis. Appropriate use of vancomycin was observed in 67% (n = 79) of patients. However, there was still a high rate of inappropriate vancomycin use for prophylaxis and treatment (n = 39, 33.1%). The most common reason for inappropriate use was non-neutropenic and non-line related sepsis (n = 36, 30.8%). Therapeutic drug monitoring of vancomycin was performed in 79 patients (67%). Most patients (n = 53, 67%) demonstrated sub-therapeutic levels during the first measurement. There was no significant difference between trough levels achieved with a higher (> 15 mg/kg) versus a lower dose (< 15 mg/kg).
    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there was still a high level of inappropriate vancomycin use, which could potentially contribute to vancomycin resistance.
  6. Zakaria Z, Zainordin NA, Sim BL, Zaid M, Haridan US, Aziz AT, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2014 Jul;8(7):869-75.
    PMID: 25022297 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.4283
    INTRODUCTION: The latest revised version of the World Health Organization's dengue classification was released in 2009. A handful of studies have taken initiatives to evaluate the old and revised guidelines to determine early signs and symptoms of severe dengue. This retrospective study aimed to compare the classification of dengue using both the 1997 and 2009 guidelines in a selected cohort of dengue patients from Peninsular Malaysia between 2008 and 2012.
    METHODOLOGY: Adult dengue patients were recruited from tertiary hospitals in two different states, Selangor and Kelantan, in Peninsular Malaysia. Their clinical manifestations were assessed.
    RESULTS: A total of 281 confirmed dengue patients were enrolled; the mean duration of illness at admission was five days. Of these, 88.6%, 10.7%, and 0.7% were classified according to the 1997 guidelines as having dengue fever (DF), dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS), respectively. When the WHO 2009 guidelines were applied, 17.1%, 78.3%, and 4.6% were classified as dengue without warning signs, dengue with warning signs, and severe dengue, respectively.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that the revised WHO 2009 guidelines stratify a much larger proportion of patients into a category that requires a higher level of medical and nursing care.
  7. Atiya N, Sulaiman H, Chong J, Ng KP
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2015 Mar;9(3):313-6.
    PMID: 25771471 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.5208
    We report the first case of an immunocompromised adult patient presenting with cervicofacial lymphadenitis due to Mycobacterium haemophilum, confirmed using hsp65 gene sequencing and line-probe assays. In resource-limited settings, especially in developing countries, appropriate culture methods and rapid molecular diagnostic tools such as hsp65 gene sequencing for identification of this organism may not be readily available. This may cause M. haemophilum infections to go unrecognised or lead to delays in diagnosis. Lack of heightened awareness about the potential for this mycobacterial species to cause infections may also contribute to possible underestimation of M. haemophilum cases in the developing world.
  8. Wong SY, Manikam R, Muniandy S
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2015 Sep;9(9):936-44.
    PMID: 26409734 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.5882
    INTRODUCTION: Chronic wounds represent a major health burden worldwide. It has been hypothesized that the polymicrobial nature of wounds plays an important role in their healing process. Thus, a review of pathogen frequency and susceptibility patterns in wounds is necessary to provide appropriate guidelines for antimicrobial usage.
    METHODOLOGY: In this study, microbiota and antimicrobial resistance in both acute and chronic wound patients treated at the University of Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia, were compared. Wound swabs from 84 patients with acute wounds and 84 patients with chronic wounds were collected. The specimens were cultured using standard microbiological techniques. Isolates were then tested for antibiotic sensitivity with the broth microdilution method.
    RESULTS: Of 210 pathogenic bacteria isolates, Staphylococcus aureus (49; 23.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (31; 14.8%) were the most prevalent bacteria found in wounds. Staphylococcus aureus was found significantly more often in patients with chronic wounds (41; 48.8%) than in patients with acute wounds (8; 9.5%), while Staphylococcus epidermidis was found predominantly in acute wounds (15; 17.9%). At the time of study, patients with chronic wounds (58.3%) had received more antibiotic treatments in the past previous 12 months compared with patients with acute wounds (16.7%). In the antibiotic susceptibility test, Staphylococcus spp. revealed highest resistance towards penicillin and ampicillin. Isolates showed no decrease in susceptibility against a number of newly developed antibiotics (linezolid, daptomycin, and tigecycline).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our finding showed that bacteria diversity and antimicrobial-resistant strains are more frequently found in chronic wounds than in acute wounds.
  9. Oh AL, Goh LM, Nik Azim NA, Tee CS, Shehab Phung CW
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2014 Feb;8(2):193-201.
    PMID: 24518629 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.3076
    INTRODUCTION: The widespread and inappropriate use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in surgical prophylaxis has led to reduced treatment efficacy, increased healthcare costs, and antibiotic resistance. This study aimed to explore the adherence of antibiotic usage in surgical prophylaxis to the national antibiotic guideline and the incidences of surgical site infection (SSI).
    METHODOLOGY: A three-month prospective observational study has been conducted in the surgical wards of Sarawak General Hospital (SGH) using a standardized surveillance form. Each patient was reviewed for up to 30 days post-operatively to determine the occurrence of SSI.
    RESULTS: A total of 87 patients were included within the study period. The majority of the cases were clean-contaminated wounds (60.9%). Most were hepatobiliary cases (37.9%), followed by colorectal cases (19.5%). The most preferred antibiotic used was cefoperazone (63.2%). The choices of antibiotics in 78.2% of the cases were consistent with the guideline. Around 80% of prophylactic antibiotics were given within one hour before operation and 27.6% were omitted from intraoperative re-dosing. Prophylactic antibiotics were discontinued within 24 hours post-operatively in 77% of the cases. Of those continued for > 24 hours, the majority (60%) were administered for unknown reasons. SSI was documented in 13.8% of the total cases studied. However, there was no significant association between choices of antibiotics and timing of surgical prophylaxis with SSI (p = 0.299 and p = 0.258 respectively).
    CONCLUSION: Overall guideline adherence rate was more than 70%. Areas of non-concordance to the guideline require further investigation.
  10. Jamshed SQ, Elkalmi R, Rajiah K, Al-Shami AK, Shamsudin SH, Siddiqui MJ, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2014;8(6):780-5.
    PMID: 24916878 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.3833
    This study is aimed to investigate the understanding of antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance and its correlate factors among final-year medical and pharmacy students at International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).
  11. Abdul Rahman Z, Hamzah SH, Hassan SA, Osman S, Md Noor SS
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2013 Jun;7(6):448-52.
    PMID: 23771288 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.2535
    INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a group of micro-organisms that are increasingly implicated as a cause of significant infection and the leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI). One important predictor of true BSI is the isolation of CoNS from multiple blood cultures, presuming that the isolates represent the same species. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the significance of repeated CoNS isolated from blood cultures.
    METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective laboratory study which was initiated in June 2007 and lasted until July 2008. CoNS isolates were obtained from patients who had two positive blood cultures within a 14-day interval. CoNS were identified to the species level using an API-Staph, and antibiotics susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute specifications. Strain relatedness was confirmed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
    RESULTS: During the study period, 202 CoNS-positive samples were isolated from 101 patients. The most common species isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis (59.0%), and 83.2% of the patients isolated the same species of CoNS from repeated blood cultures. Among the isolates of the same species, only 40.7% had the same antibiogram. CoNS with the same species and antibiogram had 93.3% probability of belonging to the same strain. Most (65.5%) of the patients were treated with antibiotics, primarily from the glycopeptides group.
    CONCLUSION: Speciation and antibiogram of CoNS from repeated blood cultures are adequate in determining the significance of repeated CoNS isolated from blood cultures.
  12. Shaharir SS, Tumian NR, Yu Lin AB, Abdul Wahid SF
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2013 Mar;7(3):286-8.
    PMID: 23493009 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.2691
    Tuberculosis is notoriously known to be a great mimicker of other diseases and may cause various haematologic abnormalities, especially with marrow involvement. A 61-year-old man who presented with right empyema and pancytopenia was diagnosed to have disseminated tuberculosis supported by the presence of caseating granuloma with Langhan's giant cells in the marrow and demonstration of acid-fast bacilli in the pleural fluid. Trilineage dysplasia from marrow aspirate was initially attributed to be reactive to the infection. A cytogenetic study was repeated after he showed poor response to a year of anti-tuberculosis treatment. The underlying primary myelodysplastic syndrome was unmasked when his cytogenetics showed trisomy 8. This case report has demonstrated the various haematological manifestations of tuberculosis and highlighted the importance of cytogenetic study in differentiating between primary and secondary myelodysplastic marrow changes.
  13. Soh KL, Shariff Ghazali S, Soh KG, Abdul Raman R, Sharif Abdullah SS, Ong SL
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2012 Apr;6(4):333-9.
    PMID: 22505443
    INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in intensive care units (ICUs). One factor causing VAP is aspiration of oral colonisation, which may result from poor oral care practice. Oral care using tooth brushing can prevent formulation of dental plaque that can be a reservoir for microbes causing VAP.
    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 124 nurses, using a self-administered questionnaire, to determine methods used, frequency, and attitude of nurses toward oral care provided to mechanically ventilated patients in Malaysian ICUs.
    RESULTS: Methods for oral care and their frequency of use varied between nurses even in the same unit. Cotton with forceps was used by 73.4% of the nurses. Some nurses used forceps and gauze (65%) or spatulas and gauze (36%). Toothbrushes were used by 50.8% of the nurses. Nurses in this hospital reported to have positive attitude toward providing oral care.
    CONCLUSIONS: The survey showed the need to have standardised oral care protocols in ICUs to improve quality of oral care provided to ventilated patients.
  14. Yuen HL, Shamala D, Thong KL
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2008 Aug 30;2(4):313-23.
    PMID: 19741295
    BACKGROUND: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever. The objective of this study was to apply a phage display library to identify mimotopes of two HSPs, HSP90 and DnaK in S. Typhi.

    METHODOLOGY: A 12-mer random peptide library expressed on the surface of the filamentous phage, M13, was used to select the mimotopes of two S. Typhi heat shock proteins by biopanning with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), DnaK and HSP90. The immunogenicity of the selected peptides was determined through binding affinity with polyclonal antibodies from pooled typhoid-confirmed patients' sera and purified HSPs mAb using Western blotting and ELISA.

    RESULTS: Five rounds of biopanning resulted in enrichment of phage clones expressing the binding motifs TDxSTRP and FPSHYWLYPPPT, respectively. The selected peptides showed strong immunoreactivity with patients' sera. Thus, monoclonal antibodies against HSP and patient sera can select common mimotopes from the random peptide library.

    CONCLUSION: These findings may provide fundamental information for further studies on diagnostic application or vaccine design against this aetiologic agent of typhoid fever.

  15. Kumari N, Navaratnam P, Sekaran SD
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2008 Jun 01;2(3):193-9.
    PMID: 19738350
    BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen. The emergence of penicillin resistant strains since the 1970s has been life threatening and the evolution of the bacteria have enabled itself to develop resistance to many other antibiotics such as the macrolides and the fluoroquinolones. This study aims to characterize S. pneumoniae isolates for the presence of penicillin and macrolide resistance genes.

    METHODOLOGY: One hundred and twenty clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae were obtained from patients of University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). The strains were screened using a multiplex real-time PCR method for the presence of alterations in the genes encoding the penicillin binding proteins: pbp2b, macrolide resistance determinant ermB and the pneumolysin gene, ply. Dual-labelled Taqman probes were used in the real-time detection method comprising three different genes labeled with individual fluorophores at different wavelengths. One hundred and twenty isolates from bacterial cultures and isolates directly from blood cultures samples were analyzed using this assay.

    RESULTS: A multiplex PCR comprising the antibiotic resistance genes, ermB and and pneumolysin gene (ply), a S. pneumoniae species specific gene, was developed to characterize strains of S. pneumoniae. Out of the 120 pneumococcal isolates, 58 strains were categorized as Penicillin Sensitive Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), 36 as Penicillin Intermediate Streptococcus pneumoniae (PISP) and 26 as Penicillin Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP). All the 58 PSSP strains harboured the pbp2b gene while the 36 PISP and 26 PRSP strains did not harbour this gene, thus suggesting reduced susceptibility to penicillin. Resistance to erythromycin was observed in 47 of the pneumococcal strains while 15 and 58 were intermediate and sensitive to this drug respectively. Susceptibility testing to other beta-lactams (CTX and CRO) also showed reduced susceptibility among the strains within the PISP and PRSP groups but most PSSP strains were sensitive to other antibiotics.

    CONCLUSION: The characterization of pneumococcal isolates for penicillin and erythromycin resistance genes could be useful to predict the susceptibility of these isolates to other antibiotics, especially beta-lactams drugs. We have developed an assay with a shorter turnaround time to determine the species and resistance profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae with respect to penicillin and macrolides using the Real Time PCR format with fluorescent labeled Taqman probes, hence facilitating earlier and more definitive antimicrobial therapy which may lead to better patient management.

  16. Katherason SG, Naing L, Jaalam K, Ismail A
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2008 Oct 01;2(5):364-8.
    PMID: 19745504
    BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections (NIs) have a serious impact on patient outcomes in Intensive Care Units (ICUs).

    METHOD: A prospective cohort-targeted comprehensive surveillance study on NI associated with usage of devices was conducted in three ICUs in Malaysia using a developed NI surveillance form. Patients who developed infection outside an ICU were excluded from the study.

    RESULTS: The device associated NI was 21.1%. The mean duration for development of NI was 10.0 +/- 7.44 days in ICU. The major device-associated infections were nosocomial pneumonia (18.7%) followed by bacteremia (8.5%) and urinary tract infections (4.7%) respectively. NI incidence density rate was 20.6 per 1,000 patient-days. Bacteremia, urinary tract infection (UTI) and nosocomial pneumonia (NP) rates were 8.9, 4.7 and 20.5 per 1,000 patient-days, respectively. Acinetobacter species, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant pathogens isolated from the NIs subjects during the study period in the three ICUs.

    CONCLUSION: Analysis of the rate of the NIs associated with usage of devices in the three ICUs showed that it is highly correlated with the use of mechanical ventilation devices, followed by intravascular devices and usage of indwelling urinary catheters.

  17. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Jamshed SQ, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Reddy PG, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2016 Aug 02;10(7):747-54.
    PMID: 27482807 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.7578
    INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic to be a public health emergency of international concern. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the highest risk of infection, as they may come into contact with patients' blood or fluids. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes of HCWs towards EVD in India.
    METHODOLOGY: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in a multispecialty public sector referral hospital of Telangana, India. Knowledge and attitude of HCWs were evaluated using a pre-validated questionnaire. A sample of 278 participants was selected to participate in this study. The Chi-squared test was used to assess the relationship between attitudes and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression was used examine the association between knowledge and study variables.
    RESULTS: Of 257 participants who responded (92.4% response rate), 157 (61.1%) were females. The majority of the respondents were physicians (n = 117, 45.5%). Radio and television were the major sources of information about EVD reported by participants (89%). Overall knowledge of HCWs was poor (mean knowledge score: 6.57 ± 2.57). Knowledge of physicians and experienced workers (≥ 10 years) was significantly higher than their respective groups. The overall attitude of the participants was positive (mean attitude score: 1.62 ± 0.57). Significant positive correlations between knowledge and attitude were observed.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that participants lack basic understanding of EVD. We recommend future studies be conducted across India to identify and subsequently bridge the knowledge gaps among HCWs.
  18. Lai YM, Zaw MT, Shamsudin SB, Lin Z
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2016 Oct 31;10(10):1053-1058.
    PMID: 27801366 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.6944
    INTRODUCTION: Uropathogenic virulence factors have been identified by comparing the prevalence of these among urinary tract isolates and environmental strains. The uropathogenic-specific protein (USP) gene is present on the pathogenicity island (PAI) of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and, depending on its two diverse gene types and the sequential patterns of three open reading frame units (orfUs) following it, there is a method to characterize UPEC epidemiologically called PAIusp subtyping.
    METHODOLOGY: A total of 162 UPEC isolates from Sabah, Malaysia, were tested for the presence of the usp gene and the sequential patterns of three orfUs following it using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, by means of triplex PCR, the prevalence of the usp gene was compared with other two VFs of UPEC, namely alpha hemolysin (α-hly) and cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf-1) genes encoding two toxins.
    RESULTS: The results showed that the usp gene was found in 78.40% of UPEC isolates, indicating that its prevalence was comparable to that found in a previous study in Japan. The two or three orfUs were also associated with the usp gene in this study. All the PAIusp subtypes observed in Japan were present in this study, while subtype IIa was the most common in both studies. The usp gene was observed in a higher percentage of isolates when compared with α-hly and cnf-1 genes.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings in Japan and Sabah, East Malaysia, were similar, indicating that PAIusp subtyping is applicable to the characterization of UPEC strains epidemiologically elsewhere in the world.
  19. Zueter AM, Abumarzouq M, Yusof MI, Wan Ismail WF, Harun A
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2017 Jan 30;11(1):28-33.
    PMID: 28141587 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.7612
    INTRODUCTION: Melioidosis involving bone, joints, and soft tissue is rare and reported usually following dissemination of disease from infection elsewhere in the body; to a lesser degree, it can also be reported as the primary manifestation of melioidosis.
    METHODOLOGY: The orthopedic registry at Hospital University Sains Malaysia from 2008 until 2014 was retrospectively reviewed and was followed by molecular typing of Burkholderia pseudomallei.
    RESULTS: Out of 20 cases identified, 19 patients were confirmed to have osteoarticular and/or soft-tissue melioidosis. The majority of the patients were males (84%), and 16 patients had underlying diabetes mellitus with no significant estimated risk with the disease outcomes. Bacterial genotype was not associated with the disease as a risk. Death was a significant outcome in patients with bacteremic infections (p = 0.044).
    CONCLUSION: Patients with lung or skin melioidosis require careful treatment follow-up to minimize the chance for secondary osteoarticular infection. Human risk factors remain the leading predisposing factors for melioidosis. Early laboratory and clinical diagnosis and acute-phase treatment can decrease morbidity and mortality.
  20. Tan YF, Teng CL, Chua KB, Voon K
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2017 Mar 31;11(3):215-219.
    PMID: 28368854 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.9112
    INTRODUCTION: Pteropine orthoreovirus (PRV) is an emerging zoonotic respiratory virus that has spilled over from bats to humans. Though initially found only in bats, further case studies have found viable virus in ill patients.

    METHODOLOGY: PubMed was queried with the keywords of Nelson Bay orthoreovirus OR Pteropine orthoreovirus OR Melaka orthoreovirus OR Kampar orthoreovirus, and returned 17 hits.

    RESULTS: Based on prevalence studies, the presence of PRV has been reported in Malaysia and Vietnam, both developing countries. Other case reports also provide further evidence of the presence of PRV in the Southeast Asian region. Despite the absence of PRV in their home countries, travellers from Hong Kong and Japan to Indonesia have returned to their countries ill with this virus, indicating that local communities in Indonesia might be affected by this virus.

    CONCLUSIONS: This work aims to bring to light this emerging zoonotic respiratory virus circulating among developing countries in Southeast Asia. To improve the understanding of PRV of the medical and scientific community in the Southeast Asian region, this work introduces the general features of PRV, reports of imported PRV, prevalence, and clinical features of PRV. Gaps in knowledge about PRV have also been identified in this work, and we hope that future studies can be undertaken to improve our understanding of this virus.

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