The fish parasites collected from Lutjanus erythropterus fish species showed a correlation with parasitic intensity, fish size, and temperature, and statistical model summary was produced using SPSS version 20, statistical software. Statistical model summary concluded that among the variables which significantly predict the prevalence of Neobenedenia melleni parasites are fish length and water temperature, both significant at 1% and 5%. Furthermore, the increase in one unit of fish length, holding other variables constant, increases the prevalence of parasite by approximately 1 (0.7≈1) unit. Also, increasing the temperature from 32°C to 33°C will positively increase the number of parasites by approximately 0.32 units, holding other variables constant. The model can be summarized as estimated number of Neobenedenia melleni parasites = 8.2 + 0.7 ⁎ (fish length) + 0.32 ⁎ (water temperature). Next, this study has also shown the DNA sequence and parasitic morphology of Neobenedenia melleni. Nucleotide sequence for 18s ribosomal gene RNA in this study showed 99% similarity with N. melleni EU707804.1 from GenBank. Finally, all the sequence of Neobenedenia melleni in this study was deposited in GenBank with accession numbers of KU843501, KU843502, KU843503, and KU843504.
Parasitic crustaceans of Lernanthropus latis were isolated from the host, the seabass, Lates calcarifer, obtained from a cage culture in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu. The adult females with egg were kept alive in vials containing 20 mL of filtered seawater and incubated at 30°C. The eggs were monitored every hour and the hatching periods were recorded. Three developmental stages were observed, namely, nauplii I, nauplii II, and infective copepodid. The infective copepodids were then transferred into a tank containing 60 litres of seawater with 150 fingerlings for infection purpose. One fish was sacrificed every 24 hr to inspect the next developmental stage. As a result, six more stages were obtained within 298 hrs starting from the infection day. The stages were known as fixed copepodid I, fixed copepodid II, fixed copepodid III, fixed copepodid IV, preadult, and adult. Parasitic L. latis takes a 483 hr period to complete a life cycle.
Pentastomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis endemic to western and central Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence and public health implications of Linguatulosis in client-owned dogs in Jalingo, North Eastern Nigeria. Seven hundred and seventy seven (777) dogs brought for treatment at the hospital were subjected to buccal (sublingual) examination for pentastomiasis. Parameters such as age, sex, and breeds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. An overall prevalence of 37.45% was recorded. Of the 477 dogs examined in 2010, 184 were positive representing prevalence of 38.57% and in 2011 107 were positive representing prevalence of 35.67%. The infection was higher in the male than in the female which does not differ significantly (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference between sexes (P > 0.05). However, significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between breeds and age of dogs examined. Season did not have much influence on the prevalence of Linguatulosis. The high prevalence of Linguatulosis in dogs and other animals found in this study highlights the need of improving preventative measures to reduce the rate of infection, which may pose a hazard to human health.
Avian coccidiosis is one of the most important diseases of poultry and it is responsible for a large number of poultry mortalities worldwide. This study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and associated risk factors of avian coccidiosis in Osun State, Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected and examined from 5,544 avian species that were brought for treatment at the state veterinary hospitals over a 10-year period. Parameters such as age, sex, season, and species of birds were determined. Also, the months of the year were taken into consideration. Overall prevalence of 41.3% was recorded. The year specific rate for avian coccidiosis was highest in 2007 (97.9%) and lowest in 2006 (0.4%), while the month-specific rate was highest in November (85.7%) and lowest in July 2006 (13.3%). There was a significantly (P < 0.05) higher prevalence in young birds compared to adults, in males compared to females, and during the wet season compared to the dry season. Broilers (99.8%) and cockerels (81.0%) were the bird types with the highest prevalence rate. The high prevalence of avian coccidiosis in the study area shows that the disease is endemic and there is need to embark on a radical preventive measure to curtail the disease.
This study reports the occurrence of Blastocystis in water from two rivers, Sungai Congkak and Sungai Batu, located in recreational areas in Malaysia. This protozoan was detected in samples from both rivers with an average of 33.3% and 22.1%, respectively. It was detected highest at the downstream (73.8% and 33.8%) followed by midstream (17.5% and 25.0%) and upstream (8.8% and 7.5%) stations, with additionally higher detection during holidays (with average 47.5% and 30.8%) than week days (with average 19.2% and 13.3%), in both rivers, respectively. There was a strong association with the daily activities of locals and visitors, who came for water recreational activities, mainly located between midstream and downstream and was observed to be higher at Sungai Congkak. The detection of Blastocystis in these rivers' water implies that this protozoan could potentially be transmitted to humans by the waterborne route. Pearson correlation analysis showed that their occurrence was significantly correlated with faecal coliforms count; inconsistent correlation with dissolved oxygen, temperature and turbidity and no correlation with pH, conductivity and rainfall for both rivers. The correlation of coliforms and Blastocystis suggests the source of the Blastocystis in the water body is likely to be faecal.
Introduction. Malaria is currently one of the most prevalent parasite-transmitted diseases caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Misidentification of human malaria parasites especially P. knowlesi based on microscopic examination is very common. The objectives of this paper were to accurately identify the incidence of human malaria parasites in the interior division of Sabah, Malaysian Borneo, based on small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssrRNA) and to determine the misidentification rate in human malaria parasites. Methods. Nested PCR was used to detect the presence of human malaria parasites. A total of 243 blood spot samples from patients who had requested for blood film for malaria parasite (BFMP) analyses were used in this study. Results. Nested PCR findings showed that there was no P. malariae infection while the highest prevalent malaria parasite was P. knowlesi, followed by P. vivax, P. falciparum, and mixed infection. Only 69.5% of the 243 samples giving consistent nested PCR and microscopic results. Conclusion. The preliminary findings from molecular detection of malaria showed that P. knowlesi was the most prevalent Plasmodium species in the interior division of Sabah. The findings from this paper may provide a clearer picture on the actual transmission of different Plasmodium species in this region.
Dengue is vector-borne diseases with 390 million infections per year extending over 120 countries of the world. Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a primary vector for dengue viral infections for humans. Current focus on application of natural product against mosquito vectors has been the main priority for research due to its eco-safety. The extensive use of chemical insecticides has led to severe health problems, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to human and nontarget species, and development of insecticide resistance on mosquitoes. Azolla pinnata is an aquatic fern and predominantly used as feed in poultry industry and as fertilizer in agricultural field for enhancing the fertility of rice paddy soil. The present study was conducted to explore the larvicidal efficacy of A. pinnata using fresh and powdered form against late third-stage larvae (6 days, 5 mm in larvae body length) of Ae. aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal bioassays were performed using World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test method for different concentration for powdered and fresh A. pinnata. Powdered A. pinnata concentration used during larvicidal bioassay ranges from 500ppm to 2000ppm; meanwhile, fresh A. pinnata ranges from 500ppm to 9,000,000 ppm. The highest mortality was at 1853 ppm for powdered A. pinnata compared with fresh A. pinnata at 2,521,535 ppm, while the LC50 for both powdered and fresh A. pinnata recorded at 1262 ppm and 1853 ppm, respectively. Finally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant difference on Ae. aegypti larval mortality (F=30.439, df=1, p≤0.001) and concentration (F=20.002, df=1, p≤0.001) compared to powdered and fresh A. pinnata at 24-hour bioassay test. In conclusion, the powdered A. pinnata serves as a good larvicidal agent against Ae. aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and this study provided information on the lethal concentration that may have potential for a more eco-friendly Aedes mosquito control program.
This is a retrospective study on bovine fascioliasis infection on cattle in Peninsular Malaysia, spanning from January 2007 to December 2017. Cattle were diagnosed with Fasciola based on the fecal examination and the results were reported to the Veterinary Regional Laboratories in Peninsular Malaysia. These records were analysed for the occurrence of bovine fascioliasis within that 11-year period. Records of annual diagnostic cases from five major Veterinary Regional Laboratories were examined: Bukit Tengah, Pulau Pinang (north); Kuantan, Pahang (east); Johor Bahru, Johor (south); Sepang, Selangor (west); and Kota Bharu, Kelantan (east). A positive fascioliasis infestation was calculated based on a number of positively infected cattle with Fasciola from a number of cattle examined. A total of 1988 cattle were examined during this period and 35 (1.76%) cattle were reported to be positive for bovine fascioliasis. Parasite infection was the highest at Bukit Tengah region (5.55%) where 19 cases were positive from 342 reported cases while, at Kuantan (4.96%), 15 positive cases were reported, unlike Johor Bahru (0.09%), with only 1 positive case from 1136 cattle examined. Sepang and Kelantan had no positive cases. These results showed that bovine fascioliasis was generally prevalent in the northern and southeast parts of the Peninsular Malaysia; however, there was no significant relationship between the region and the occurrence of fascioliasis.
Fascioliasis is a parasitic disease of human and animal caused by Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) and Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica). More than 700 million of grazing animals and over 180 million human population are at the risk of fascioliasis. This study was conducted in Banting, Ipoh, Shah Alam, and Taiping abattoirs within Peninsular Malaysia to determine the occurrence and identify the species of liver flukes, causing liver condemnation in cattle and buffaloes. Within a study period from January to December 2018, a total of 25 condemned bovine livers were collected from Banting, Ipoh, Shah Alam, and Taiping abattoirs and analyzed. Taiping abattoir had the highest occurrence of fascioliasis [14/1014 (1.38%)], and Shah Alam abattoir had the least occurrence [1/3377 (0.03%)]. From all the sampled livers, the average number of adult flukes recorded ranged from 1 to 83. A total of 440 adult flukes were studied morphometrically, using parameters such as body length (BL), body width (BW), cone length (CL), cone width (CL), body area (BA), body perimeter (BP), the distance between the ventral sucker and posterior end of body (VS-P), BL/BW ratio, BL/V-SP, and body roundness (BR). Furthermore, molecular analysis was conducted using PCR-RFLP methods to distinguish between F. gigantica and F. hepatica involving ITS1 primer and RsaI restriction enzyme. RFLP pattern with RsaI produced a consistent pattern of 360,100 and 60 bp fragments in F. hepatica, whereas F. gigantica worms had a profile of 360,170, and 60 bp in size. The morphometric and molecular analysis results indicated that cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at Banting, Shah Alam, Taiping, and Ipoh abattoirs were infected with F. gigantica.