METHODS: All case-control studies published in different languages such as English, Japanese, Korean, Spanish, Chinese, Hungarian, Ukrainian, or Russian were identified from databases. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated via fixed- and random-effect models. Sensitivity analysis, heterogeneity test, Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium, and Egger's regression analyses were performed in this study.
RESULTS: A total of 490 case-control studies with 138,592 cases and 159,314 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Pooled ORs from all the genetic models indicated that MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC, eNOS +894TT and VNTR, PDE4D SNP 83, ACE DD, AGT 235TT, PON1 192RR, and ApoE ε4 polymorphisms were increasing the risks of ischemic stroke. Nevertheless, PDE4D SNP 87 and eNOS -786T>C polymorphisms are not associated with ischemic stroke risks.
CONCLUSIONS: Hence, the evidence from this meta-analysis concluded that MTHFR (677C>T and 1298A>C), eNOS (+894G>T and VNTR), PDE4D SNP 83, ACE I/D, AGT 235M>T, PON1 192Q>R, and ApoE ε2ε3ε4 polymorphisms predispose individuals to ischemic stroke.
METHODS: Patients with cryptogenic stroke referred between August 2014 and February 2017 had ILRs implanted. Episodes of AF >2 minutes duration were recorded using proprietary algorithms within the ILRs, whereupon clinicians and patients were alerted via remote monitoring. All AF episodes were adjudicated using recorded electrograms. Once AF was detected, patients were counseled for anticoagulation.
RESULTS: Seventy-one patients with cryptogenic stroke, (age 61.9 ± 13.5 years, 77.5% male, mean CHA2DS2VASc score of 4.2 ± 1.3) had ILRs implanted. Time from stroke to the ILR implant was a median of 66 days. Duration of ILR monitoring was 345 ± 229 days. The primary endpoint of AF detection at 6 months was 12.9%; and at 12 months it was 15.2%. Median time to detection of AF was 50 days. The AF episodes were all asymptomatic and lasted a mean of 77 minutes (± 118.9). Anticoagulation was initiated in all but 1 patient found to have AF.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of occult AF is high in Asian patients with cryptogenic stroke and comparable to western cohorts. The combination of ILR and remote monitoring is a highly automated, technologically driven, and clinically effective technique to screen for AF.