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  1. Torey A, Vijayarathna S, Jothy SL, Gothai S, Chen Y, Latha LY, et al.
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2016 Jan;6(1):97-104.
    PMID: 26870686 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.11.017
    Candida albicans has become resistant to the commercially available, toxic, and expensive anti-Candida agents that are on the market. These factors force the search for new antifungal agents from natural resources. Cassia spectabilis had been traditionally employed by healers for many generations. The possible mechanisms of the C. spectabilis leaf extract were determined by potassium leakage study and the effect of the extract on the constituents of the cell wall and enzymes as well as the morphological changes on C. albicans cells were studied along with cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity result indicated that the extract is nontoxic as was clearly substantiated by a half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 59.10 μg/mL. The treated cells (C. spectabilis extract) demonstrated potassium leakage of 1039 parts per million (ppm) compared to Amphotericin B (AmpB)-treated cells with a released potassium value of 1115 ppm. The effects of the extract on the cell wall proteins illustrated that there were three major types of variations in the expression of treated cell wall proteins: the presence of new proteins, the absence of proteins, and the amount of expressed protein. The activities of two enzymes, α-glucosidase and proteinase, were determined to be significantly high, thereby not fully coinciding with the properties of the antifungal reaction triggered by C. spectabilis. The morphology of C. albicans cells treated with the C. spectabilis extract showed that the cells had abnormalities and were damaged or detached within the microcolonies. Our study verifies C. spectabilis leaf extract as an effective anti-C. albicans agent.
  2. Embong NH, Soh YC, Ming LC, Wong TW
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2015 Oct;5(4):197-206.
    PMID: 26587391 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2015.08.008
    Reflexology is basically a study of how one part of the human body relates to another part of the body. Reflexology practitioners rely on the reflexes map of the feet and hands to all the internal organs and other human body parts. They believe that by applying the appropriate pressure and massage certain spots on the feet and hands, all other body parts could be energized and rejuvenated. This review aimed to revisit the concept of reflexology and examine its effectiveness, practices, and the training for reflexology practitioners. PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and SpringerLink databases were utilized to search the following medical subject headings or keywords: foot massage, reflexology, foot reflexotherapy, reflexological treatment, and zone therapy. The articles published for the last 10 years were included. Previous systematic reviews failed to show concrete evidence for any specific effect of reflexology in any conditions. Due to its non-invasive, non-pharmacological complementary nature, reflexology is widely accepted and anecdotal evidence of positive effect reflexology in a variety of health conditions are available. Adequate training for practitioners is necessary to ensure the consistency of service provided.
  3. Kadir AA, Hamid AH, Mohammad M
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2015 Jul;5(3):157-60.
    PMID: 26151028 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.11.010
    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) is widely practiced among stroke patients globally. We conducted a study to determine the pattern of CAM use and its associated factors in stroke survivors attending a tertiary hospital in Malaysia within 6 months after the stroke. This was a prospective cohort study that included all stroke patients who were admitted to a tertiary center in Malaysia from December 2009 to December 2010. Patients were interviewed and examined within 72 hours of admission. The sociodemographic data and medical history were collected. Clinical examinations were done to assess the stroke severity using the Scandinavian Stroke Scale and functional status based on modified Barthel index (MBI). Patients were reassessed at 6 months after the stroke on the CAM use and functional status (MBI). The response rate was 92%. The study population consisted of 52 men and 41 women with a mean age of 63.7 ± 10.3 years. Sixty-seven percent practiced CAM. Massage was the most frequently used method (63.4%), followed by vitamins (7.5%). In multiple logistic regression analysis, functional status (MBI score) on discharge (p = 0.004, odds ratio 1.034, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.06) and Scandinavian Stroke Scale score (p = 0.045, odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.01-3.43) were significant predictors for use of CAM. In conclusion, the use of CAM among stroke survivors is high. Patients who have better functional status on discharge and less severe stroke are more likely to use CAM.
  4. Aziz CB, Ismail CA, Hussin CM, Mohamed M
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2014 Oct;4(4):298-302.
    PMID: 25379476 DOI: 10.4103/2225-4110.139115
    Tualang honey ( Fēng Mì) is known to have anti-inflammatory property, but its antinociceptive property has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we examined the preemptive effects on administering different doses of Tualang honey and prednisolone on the nociceptive response in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 7) and each group received either distilled water, Tualang honey (0.2, 1.2 or 2.4 g/kg) or prednisolone (10 mg/kg) for 10 days. The response to noxious thermal stimulus was assessed using tail flick test on Day 10. The well-being of the rats was also assessed by monitoring their food intake and body weight. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with post-hoc Scheffe's test and P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. In tail flick test, the tail flick latency time was significantly higher in the groups that received 1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg of Tualang honey and 10 mg/kg of prednisolone, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). There was significant reduction in the total food pellet intake in the groups receiving prednisolone and Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) compared to controls; however, the body weight gain was only significantly reduced in the prednisolone group. All the parameters were not significantly affected in the group receiving 0.2 g/kg of Tualang honey. In conclusion, preemptive administration of Tualang honey (1.2 g/kg and 2.4 g/kg) and prednisolone (10 mg/kg) had reduced the pain responses. The reduced weight gain in the prednisolone group is an unwanted effect due to its metabolic and central actions. Further studies are required to confirm the antinociceptive effects and elucidate the mechanism of antinociceptive action of Tualang honey in the rats.
  5. Sabaratnam V, Kah-Hui W, Naidu M, Rosie David P
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2013 Jan;3(1):62-8.
    PMID: 24716157 DOI: 10.4103/2225-4110.106549
    Hericium erinaceus a culinary and medicinal mushroom is a well established candidate for brain and nerve health. Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa and Sarcodon scabrosus have been reported to have neurite outgrowth and neuronal health benefits. The number of mushrooms, however, studied for neurohealth activity are few compared to the more than 2 000 species of edible and / or medicinal mushrooms identified. In the on-going search for other potent culinary and / or medicinal mushrooms, indigenous mushrooms used in traditional medicines such as Lignosus rhinocerotis and Ganoderma neo-japonicum are also being investigated. Further, the edible mushroom, Pleurotus giganteus can be a potential candidate, too. Can these edible and medicinal mushrooms be tapped to tackle the health concerns of the aging population which is projected to be more than 80-90 million of people age 65 and above in 2050 who may be affected by age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Scientific validation is needed if these mushrooms are to be considered and this can be achieved by understanding the molecular and biochemical mechanisms involved in the stimulation of neurite outgrowth. Though it is difficult to extrapolate the in vitro studies to what may happen in the human brain, studies have shown that there can be improvement in cognitive abilities of the aged if the mushroom is incorporated in their daily diets.
  6. Singh H, Prakash A, Kalia AN, Majeed AB
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2016 Oct;6(4):370-376.
    PMID: 27774421
    Previously explored combination therapies mostly involved the use of bioactive molecules. It is believed that herbal compounds containing multiple plant products have synergistic hepatoprotective effects and could enhance the desired actions. To investigate the combination of ethanolic fruits extract of Solanum xanthocarpum (SX) and Juniperus communis (JC) against Paracetamol (PCM) and Azithromycin (AZM) induced liver toxicity in rats. Liver toxicity was induced by combine oral administration of PCM (250 mg/kg) and AZM (200 mg/kg) for 7 days in Wistar rats. Fruit extract of SX (200 and 400 mg/kg) and JC (200 and 400 mg/kg) were administered daily for 14 days. The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using liver functional test, oxidative parameters and histopathological examination. The results demonstrated that combine administration of AZM and PCM significantly produced liver toxicity by increasing the serum level of hepatic enzymes and oxidative parameters in liver of rats. Histopathological examination also indicated that AZM and PCM produced liver damage in rats. Chronic treatment of SX and JC extract significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the liver toxicity by normalizing the biochemical factors and no gross histopathological changes were observed in liver of rats. Furthermore, combine administration of lower dose of SX and JC significantly potentiated their hepatoprotective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se. The results clearly indicated that SX and JC extract has hepatoprotective potential against AZM and PCM induced liver toxicity due to their synergistic anti-oxidant properties.
  7. Farooqui M, Hassali MA, Shatar AK, Farooqui MA, Saleem F, Haq NU, et al.
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2016 Oct;6(4):321-326.
    PMID: 27774413
    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) has been rapidly increasing among cancer patients. However, this pervasiveness is still largely unexplored among Malaysian cancer patients. The current study aimed to evaluate the patterns of CAM use among cancer patients from a local hospital in Malaysia. In addition, the study focused on the information-seeking behavior and CAM use disclosure to doctors. Of 393 patients, 184 (46.1%) had used CAM for their cancers. CAM usage was significantly associated with gender (p = 0.021), level of education (p = 0.001), employment status (p = 0.02), and monthly income (p 
  8. Ismail HF, Hashim Z, Soon WT, Rahman NSA, Zainudin AN, Majid FAA
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2017 Oct;7(4):452-465.
    PMID: 29034193 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.12.006
    Natural antioxidants derived from plants have shown a tremendous inhibitory effect on free radicals in actively metabolizing cells. Overproduction of free radicals increases the risk factor of chronic diseases associated with diabetes, cancer, arthritis and cardiovascular disease. Andrographis paniculata, Cinnamon zeylanicum, Curcuma xanthorrhiza, Eugenia polyantha and Orthosiphon stamineus are ethnomedicinal plants used in the Asian region to treat various illnesses from a common fever to metabolic disease. In this study, we have quantified the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content (TFC) in these plants and its inhibitory effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radicals as well as the cytotoxicity effect on cell lines proliferation and zebrafish embryogenesis. Results showed that Cinnamon zeylanicum and E. polyantha have the highest phenolic and flavonoid content. Furthermore, both herbs significantly inhibited the formation of DPPH and ABTS free radicals. Meanwhile, O. stamineus exhibited minimum cytotoxicity and embryotoxicity on tested models. Good correlation between IC50 of 3T3-L1 cells and LC50 embyrotoxicity was also found. This study revealed the potent activity of antioxidant against free radical and the toxicology levels of the tested herbal plants.
  9. Hosadurga R, Boloor VA, Rao SN, MeghRani N
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2018 Jan;8(1):113-119.
    PMID: 29321998 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.04.005
    Background: Plant based toothpastes have received great attention in reducing gingival inflammation. Studies show contrasting results regarding the effectiveness of these toothpastes. In the present study, the effectiveness of two herbal tooth paste formulations in the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation was assessed. Nicotine content in the toothpastes was assessed using GCMS.

    Material and methods: 50 patients with established gingivitis were included in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the test (Parodontax®) or the control (Colgate® herbal) group. There were 5 drop outs in the study in the control group after baseline examination. No prophylaxis was undertaken prior to commencement of the study, and no attempt was made to modify the participant's oral hygiene habits. A brief case history was recorded at baseline. The Turesky (1970) modification of the Quigley, Hein (1962) Plaque index (PI), the Loe and Silness (1963) Gingival Index (GI). Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at baseline and 30th day and the pH was measured using a salivary pH meter (CL-51B; Systronics New Delhi, India).Comparisons (intergroup and intragroup) were analysed by the t-test. Groups were also compared regarding age by means of t test, and association between group and sex was verified by means of the chi-square test. All statistical tests employed a level of significance of α = 0.05. There were reports of presence of nicotine and its derivatives in herbal toothpaste after the study was nearing completion. Hence we assessed for the presence of nicotine in both the toothpaste using the methods described by Aggarwal et al.24.

    Results: When the two groups (test and control groups) were evaluated, after 30 days, the test group presented an average 21.08% reduction in plaque and the control group showed 31.85% reduction in plaque scores. The mean reduction in gingival index (GI) scores was 25.92% and 19.14% in the test and control groups respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups in GI, PI and salivary pH levels. There was no evidence of nicotine or related compounds in both the tooth paste.

    Conclusion: Both herbal based dentifrices reduce plaque levels and gingival inflammation. But, it did not alter the pH of the saliva. However, there were no additional benefits of the Parodontax® toothpaste over Colgate® Herbal toothpaste. There was no evidence of nicotine or related compounds in both herbal toothpaste.

  10. Aigbe FR, Munavvar ASZ, Rathore H, Eseyin O, Pei YP, Akhtar S, et al.
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2018 Jan;8(1):72-80.
    PMID: 29321992 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.02.006
    Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (Aristolochiaceae (AR); mǎ dōu líng) is used traditionally in Nigeria for the management of various disorders including oedema. Preliminary investigation revealed its modulatory effect on the cardiovascular system. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of the aqueous root extract of A. ringens (AR) on haemodynamic parameters of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The effect of oral subacute (21 days) and intravenous acute exposure of SHRs to the extract were assessed using tail cuff and carotid artery canulation methods respectively. In the latter, the effect of chloroform, butanol and aqueous fractions of AR were also evaluated. The extract significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressures in SHRs, with peak reductions of 20.3% and 26.7% respectively at 50 mg/kg by the 21st day of oral subacute exposure. Upon intravenous exposure, AR (50 mg/kg) reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure by as much as 53.4 ± 2.2 and 49.2 ± 2.8 mmHg respectively. A dose-dependent reduction in heart rate, significant at 25 and 50 mg/kg was also observed. Hexamethonium (20 mg/kg) and atropine (1 mg/kg) inhibited the extract's reduction of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate significantly. The extract's butanol fraction produced the greatest systolic and diastolic blood pressures reduction of 67.0 ± 3.8 and 68.4 mmHg respectively at 25 mg/kg and heart rate reduction of 40 ± 7 beats per minute at 50 mg/kg. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and quercetin in AR. The extract's alterations of haemodynamic parameters in this study show that it has hypotensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats.
  11. Nurdiana S, Goh YM, Hafandi A, Dom SM, Nur Syimal'ain A, Noor Syaffinaz NM, et al.
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2018 Jan;8(1):190-202.
    PMID: 29322009 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.05.006
    Despite the fact that Ficus deltoidea and vitexin played important roles in controlling hyperglycemia, an effective mitigation strategy dealing with cognitive deficit observed in diabetes, little is known about its neuroprotective effects. The study is aimed to determine changes in behavioral, gyrification patterns and brain oxidative stress markers in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats following F. deltoidea and vitexin treatments. Diabetic rats were treated orally with metformin, methanolic extract of F. deltoidea leaves and vitexin for eight weeks. Morris water maze (MWM) test was performed to evaluate learning and memory functions. The patterns of cortical gyrification were subsequently visualized using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Quantification of brain oxidative stress biomarkers, insulin, amylin as well as serum testosterone were measured using a spectrophotometer. The brain fatty acid composition was determined using gas chromatography (GC). Biochemical variation in brain was estimated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results showed that oral administration of F. deltoidea extract and vitexin to diabetic rats attenuated learning and memory impairment, along with several clusters of improved gyrification. Both treatments also caused a significant increase in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) values, as well as a significant reduction of TBARS. Strikingly, improvement of cortical gyrification, spatial learning and memory are supported by serum testosterone levels, fatty acid composition of brain and FT-IR spectra.
  12. Shamshuddin NSS, Mohd Zohdi R
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2018 Jan;8(1):39-45.
    PMID: 29321987 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.08.009
    Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the pulmonary airways. Gelam honey has been proven to possess anti-inflammatory property with great potential to treat an inflammatory condition. However, the effect of ingestion of Gelam honey on allergic asthma has never been studied. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of Gelam honey on the histopathological changes in the lungs of a mice model of allergic asthma. Forty-two Balb/c mice were divided into seven groups: control, I, II, III, IV, V and VI group. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. Mice in groups I, II, III, IV, and V were given honey at a dose of 10% (v/v), 40% (v/v) and 80% (v/v), dexamethasone 3 mg/kg, and phosphate buffered saline (vehicle) respectively, orally once a day for 5 days of the challenged period. Mice were sacrificed 24 h after the last OVA challenged and the lungs were evaluated for histopathological changes by light microscopy. All histopathological parameters such as epithelium thickness, the number of mast cell and mucus expression in Group III significantly improved when compared to Group VI except for subepithelial smooth muscle thickness (p 
  13. Petchi RR, Vijaya C, Parasuraman S
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2014 Apr;4(2):108-17.
    PMID: 24860734 DOI: 10.4103/2225-4110.126174
    Glycosmis pentaphylla, Tridax procumbens, and Mangifera indica are well-known plants available throughout India and they are commonly used for the treatment of various diseases including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of the individual plant parts is well known, but the synergistic or combined effects are unclear. The concept of polyherbalism has been highlighted in Sharangdhar Samhita, an Ayurvedic literature dating back to 1300 AD. Polyherbal formulations enhance the therapeutic action and reduce the concentrations of single herbs, thereby reducing adverse events. The aim of the present study is to formulate a polyherbal formulation and evaluate its antidiabetic potential in animals. The polyherbal formulation was formulated using the ethanol extracts of the stem bark of G. pentaphylla, whole plant of T. procumbens, and leaves of M. indica. The polyherbal formulation contains the ethanol extracts of G. pentaphylla, T. procumbens, and M. indica in the ratio of 2:2:1. The quality of the finished product was evaluated as per the World Health Organization's guidelines for the quality control of herbal materials. The quality testing parameters of the polyherbal formulation were within the limits. Fingerprint analysis of the polyherbal formulation showed effective separation at 366 nm, and it revealed that the active compound present in the polyherbal formulation and the active compounds present in all the three extracts were the same. The acute toxicity studies of the polyherbal formulation did not show any toxic symptoms in doses up to 2000 mg/kg over 14 days. The oral antidiabetic activity of the polyherbal formulation (250 and 500 mg/kg) was screened against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg; i.p.) + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p.) induced diabetes mellitus in rats. The investigational drug was administered for 21 consecutive days, and the effect of the polyherbal formulation on blood glucose levels was studied at regular intervals. At the end of the study, the blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation, and the animals were sacrificed and the liver and pancreatic tissues were collected for histopathologic analysis. Polyherbal formulation showed significant antidiabetic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. The antidiabetic activity of polyherbal formulation is supported by biochemical and histopathologic analysis.
  14. Rahim M, Ooi FK, Wan Abdul Hamid WZ
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2017 Apr;7(2):165-171.
    PMID: 28417086 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.06.001
    To date, information on the effectiveness of combined aerobic dance exercise with honey supplementation on immune function in women is lacking. The present study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of combined aerobic dance exercise and honey supplementation on blood immune function parameters in adult women. In this study, forty four healthy sedentary women (25-40 year-old) were assigned into four groups with n = 11 per group: sedentary without supplementation control (Con), honey supplementation (H), aerobic dance exercise (D) and combined aerobic dance exercise with honey supplementation (HD) groups. Aerobic dance exercise was carried out for one hour per session, three sessions per week for eight weeks. Honey drink was consumed by H and HD groups, in a dosage of 20 g of honey diluted in 300 ml of plain water, consumed 7 days a week for 8 weeks. In HD group, the participants were required to consume honey drink 30 min before performing exercise. Before and after 8 weeks of experimental period, blood samples were taken to determine the concentrations of immune parameters which include full blood counts and immunophenotyping measurements. It was found that after 8 weeks of experimental period, there were statistically significant increases in T cytotoxic (CD8) (p 
  15. Embong NH, Soh YC, Ming LC, Wong TW
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2017 Jul;7(3):327-331.
    PMID: 28725628 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2016.08.008
    INTRODUCTION: Reflexology is the systematic practice of applying some pressure to particular points on the feet and hands to impact on health of related parts of the body.

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the practitioners' perspectives of reflexology in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Data was collected using face-to-face semi-structured interviews with practitioners in Malaysia. The interviews were conducted in the Malay language and recorded. Interview conversations were translated and transcribed verbatim. Responses relating to different themes were identified in each of the interviews and a coding frame was developed. For each theme, the relevant data enabled a description of the range of views and experiences. Data collection and analysis were conducted concurrently and recruitment was stopped when saturation had been reached. All respondents gave written consent for their participation.

    RESULTS: The findings show that reflexology treatment nowadays has been accepted as one of the ways to maintain general health. Practitioners believe that reflexology is able to detect some problems in to the body, which can make patients aware of a health condition and seek further treatment. However, if reflexology is not performed correctly, it may cause negative effects such as pain and bruises. Some practitioners voiced concern that illegal activities are taking place in unethical reflexology centers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Empowering the practitioner as a professional would help gain the public's trust and confidence in their treatment. Strict enforcement of regulation related to illegal conduct in reflexology centers will improve people's perception of the practice.

  16. Duangjai A, Goh BH, Lee LH, Saokaew S
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2018 Oct;8(4):515-520.
    PMID: 30302332 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2018.01.003
    Azadirachta indica A. Juss var. siamensis Valeton or commonly known as Siamese neem is one of the most well-known plant in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relaxant effects of A. indica on isolated rat ileum contractions and its potential underlying mechanisms involved. The isometric contractions of ileum segments were investigated in organ baths for spontaneous activity and response to aqueous extract of Siamese neem flower (SNF). The spasmolytic action of the extract was also assessed on contraction induced by acetylcholine and high potassium. Our findings indicate that cumulative concentrations of SNF aqueous extract induced relaxant effect on spontaneous rat ileum contractions. The extract has also suppressed the cumulative concentration response curve for acetylcholine and pottasium ions-induced contraction. The presence and absence of propranol (antagonist of β-adrenergic receptor) and l-Name (antagonist of nitric oxide synthase) in SNF aqeous extract co-treatment demonstrated no significant different in term of contraction activity when compared to SNF extract treatment alone. The treatment of SNF extract caused a significant inhibition in tissue contraction stimulated by accumulation of calcium ions. Our results showed the relaxant effect of SNF aqueous extract on the isolated rat ileum. In short, the SNF aqueous extract exhibited an inhibitory effect on the spontaneous ileum contactions particularly on the contraction stimulated by acetylcholine and high potassium. The observed effect might acted through the modulation of calcium channels. This findings provide a pharmacological basis for the traditional use of SNF for the treatment of gastrointestinal spasms.
  17. Choudhury H, Pandey M, Hua CK, Mun CS, Jing JK, Kong L, et al.
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2018 Jul;8(3):361-376.
    PMID: 29992107 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2017.08.012
    Herbal medicine, phytomedicine or botanical medicine are synonymous, utilizes plants intended for medicinal purposes. Medicinal use of herbal medicine in the treatment and prevention of diseases including diabetes has a long history compared to conventional medicine. Diabetes is one of the major public health concerns over the world. Diabetes or hyperglycemia is considered to be one of the common public health hazard; optimal control of which is still not possible. Persistent hyperglycemia or uncontrolled diabetes has the potential to cause serious complications such as kidney disease, vision loss, cardiovascular disease, and lower-limb amputations which contributed towards morbidity and mortality in diabetes. There are various approaches to treat and prevent diabetes as well as its secondary complications, one of it is herbal medicines. However, the selection of herbs might depends on several factors, which include the stage of progression of diabetes, types of comorbidities that the patients are having, availability, affordability as well as the safety profile of the herbs. This review focuses on the herbal and natural remedies that play the role in the treatment or prevention of this morbid disorder - diabetes, including their underlying mechanisms for the blood glucose-lowering property and the herbal products already been marketed for the remedial action of diabetes.
  18. Bhattamisra SK, Yean Yan VL, Koh Lee C, Hui Kuean C, Candasamy M, Liew YK, et al.
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2019 Jul;9(3):206-214.
    PMID: 31193983 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2018.05.001
    Geraniol, an active constituent of rose and palmarosa essential oils, possesses several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, antibacterial and antiulcer activity. Geraniol was therefore investigated for its antiulcer and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in rats. Ulcers were induced by injecting acetic acid into the sub-serosal layer of the stomach followed by orogastric inoculation of H. pylori for 7 days. Geraniol (15 and 30 mg/kg), vehicle and a standard drug combination (amoxicillin, 50 mg/kg; clarithromycin, 25 mg/kg and omeprazole, 20 mg/kg) were administered twice daily for 14 days. All the parameters were measured at the end of treatment. The ulcer index was significantly (P 
  19. Giaze TR, Shuid AN, Soelaiman IN, Muhammad N, Jamal JA, Fauzi MB, et al.
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2019 Oct;9(4):393-400.
    PMID: 31453136 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2019.01.002
    Background: Marantodes pumilum var. alata (MPva), popularly known as Kacip Fatimah, is widely used to maintain female reproductive health, facilitate post-partum recovery and manage symptoms of menopause and osteoporosis in South-East Asia. This study aims to further evaluate the osteoprotective potential of MPva in view of reports of its bone-protective properties in postmenopausal condition.

    Methods: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were sorted into 5 groups (n = 6) namely: MPv (leaf treatment); MPr (root treatment); ERT (estrogen treatment); OVXC (untreated ovariectomized control) and Sham (untreated sham-operated control). All rats (except the Sham) were ovariectomized to induce a state of estrogen deficiency that simulates menopause. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the rats were treated for 8 weeks with oral gavages of estrogen and plant extracts. The ERT group received 64.5 μg/kg/day dose of estrogen while MPv and MPr groups received 20 mg/kg/day dose of leaf and root extracts, respectively. At the end of treatment, left femora were excised from euthanized rats and investigated for changes in bone micro-architecture, mineral density, and biomechanical properties.

    Results: Bone volume fraction, degree of anisotropy and structure-model-index of bone were significantly improved (p 

  20. Wan Yusuf WN, Wan Mohammad WMZ, Gan SH, Mustafa M, Abd Aziz CB, Sulaiman SA
    J Tradit Complement Med, 2019 Oct;9(4):249-256.
    PMID: 31453119 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcme.2018.05.003
    This is the first study to report on the effects of honey in asymptomatic HIV positive subjects in ameliorating CD4 count, viral load (VL) and quality of life (QOL). It is a randomized, controlled, open labelled study, comparing the effects of Tualang honey (TH) administration for six months at three different doses: 20 g (THL), 40 g (THI) or 60 g (THH) daily compared with control (no administered treatment, THC). Only asymptomatic HIV positive subjects (n=95) having CD4 count 250-600 cell/ml, not on antiretrovirals were enrolled. Blood, (together with QOL questionnaires administration) were investigated at baseline, three and six months (CD4 cell count) while VL was determined only at baseline and six months. Significant reductions in CD4 counts in THL and THC groups (p= 0.003 for both) were seen with no significant reductions in the CD4 counts in THI and THH groups (p=0.447 and 0.053 respectively). There was improvement in VL in THC and THI (130% and 32% respectively) and reductions in THL and THH (26% and 8% respectively). Within and between group analyses for VL indicated significant differences between THL and THH compared to THC. In addition, significant improvement in QOL of groups which received TH was noted. TH has the potential to improve the QOL (physical and psychological) and CD4 counts. There was a trend of lower VL in asymptomatic HIV subjects following TH administration thus supporting the possible role of TH in boosting the immune system by improving CD4 counts, causing VL reductions in HIV positive subjects.
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