Material and methods: 50 patients with established gingivitis were included in the study. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the test (Parodontax®) or the control (Colgate® herbal) group. There were 5 drop outs in the study in the control group after baseline examination. No prophylaxis was undertaken prior to commencement of the study, and no attempt was made to modify the participant's oral hygiene habits. A brief case history was recorded at baseline. The Turesky (1970) modification of the Quigley, Hein (1962) Plaque index (PI), the Loe and Silness (1963) Gingival Index (GI). Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at baseline and 30th day and the pH was measured using a salivary pH meter (CL-51B; Systronics New Delhi, India).Comparisons (intergroup and intragroup) were analysed by the t-test. Groups were also compared regarding age by means of t test, and association between group and sex was verified by means of the chi-square test. All statistical tests employed a level of significance of α = 0.05. There were reports of presence of nicotine and its derivatives in herbal toothpaste after the study was nearing completion. Hence we assessed for the presence of nicotine in both the toothpaste using the methods described by Aggarwal et al.24.
Results: When the two groups (test and control groups) were evaluated, after 30 days, the test group presented an average 21.08% reduction in plaque and the control group showed 31.85% reduction in plaque scores. The mean reduction in gingival index (GI) scores was 25.92% and 19.14% in the test and control groups respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups in GI, PI and salivary pH levels. There was no evidence of nicotine or related compounds in both the tooth paste.
Conclusion: Both herbal based dentifrices reduce plaque levels and gingival inflammation. But, it did not alter the pH of the saliva. However, there were no additional benefits of the Parodontax® toothpaste over Colgate® Herbal toothpaste. There was no evidence of nicotine or related compounds in both herbal toothpaste.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the practitioners' perspectives of reflexology in Malaysia.
METHODS: Data was collected using face-to-face semi-structured interviews with practitioners in Malaysia. The interviews were conducted in the Malay language and recorded. Interview conversations were translated and transcribed verbatim. Responses relating to different themes were identified in each of the interviews and a coding frame was developed. For each theme, the relevant data enabled a description of the range of views and experiences. Data collection and analysis were conducted concurrently and recruitment was stopped when saturation had been reached. All respondents gave written consent for their participation.
RESULTS: The findings show that reflexology treatment nowadays has been accepted as one of the ways to maintain general health. Practitioners believe that reflexology is able to detect some problems in to the body, which can make patients aware of a health condition and seek further treatment. However, if reflexology is not performed correctly, it may cause negative effects such as pain and bruises. Some practitioners voiced concern that illegal activities are taking place in unethical reflexology centers.
CONCLUSIONS: Empowering the practitioner as a professional would help gain the public's trust and confidence in their treatment. Strict enforcement of regulation related to illegal conduct in reflexology centers will improve people's perception of the practice.
Methods: Thirty female Sprague-Dawley rats were sorted into 5 groups (n = 6) namely: MPv (leaf treatment); MPr (root treatment); ERT (estrogen treatment); OVXC (untreated ovariectomized control) and Sham (untreated sham-operated control). All rats (except the Sham) were ovariectomized to induce a state of estrogen deficiency that simulates menopause. Two weeks after ovariectomy, the rats were treated for 8 weeks with oral gavages of estrogen and plant extracts. The ERT group received 64.5 μg/kg/day dose of estrogen while MPv and MPr groups received 20 mg/kg/day dose of leaf and root extracts, respectively. At the end of treatment, left femora were excised from euthanized rats and investigated for changes in bone micro-architecture, mineral density, and biomechanical properties.
Results: Bone volume fraction, degree of anisotropy and structure-model-index of bone were significantly improved (p