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  1. Fallahiarezoodar A, Abdul Kadir MR, Alizadeh M, Naveen SV, Kamarul T
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2014 Dec;22(12):3019-27.
    PMID: 25149643 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-014-3227-7
    PURPOSE: Reproducing the femoral rollback through specially designed mechanism in knee implants is required to achieve full knee function in total knee arthroplasty. Most contemporary implants use cam/post mechanism to replace the function of Posterior Cruciate Ligament. This study was aimed to determine the most appropriate cam and post designs to produce normal femoral rollback of the knee.

    METHODS: Three different cams (triangle, ellipse, and circle) and three different posts (straight, convex, concave) geometries were considered in this study and were analysed using kinematic analyses. Femoral rollback did not occur until reaching 50° of knee flexion. Beyond this angle, two of the nine combinations demonstrate poor knee flexion and were eliminated from the study.

    RESULTS: The combination of circle cam with concave post, straight post and convex post showed 15.6, 15.9 and 16.1 mm posterior translation of the femur, respectively. The use of ellipse cam with convex post and straight post demonstrated a 15.3 and 14.9 mm femoral rollback, whilst the combination of triangle cam with convex post and straight post showed 16.1 and 15.8 mm femoral rollback, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that the use of circle cam and convex post created the best femoral rollback effect which in turn produces the highest amount of knee flexion. The findings of the study suggest that if the design is applied for knee implants, superior knee flexion may be possible for future patients.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

  2. Sharifah MI, Lee CL, Suraya A, Johan A, Syed AF, Tan SP
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2015 Mar;23(3):826-30.
    PMID: 24240983 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-013-2766-7
    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing meniscal tears in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears and to determine the frequency of missed meniscal tears on MRI.

    METHODS: This prospective comparative study was conducted from 2009 to 2012. Patients with ACL injuries who underwent knee arthroscopy and MRI were included in the study. Two radiologists who were blinded to the clinical history and arthroscopic findings reviewed the pre-arthroscopic MR images. The presence and type of meniscal tears on MRI and arthroscopy were recorded. Arthroscopic findings were used as the reference standard. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and positive predictive value (PPV) of MRI in the evaluation of meniscal tears were calculated.

    RESULTS: A total of 65 patients (66 knees) were included. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV, and NPV for the MRI diagnosis of lateral meniscal tears in our patients were 83, 97, 92, 96, and 90 %, respectively, whereas those for medial meniscus tears were 82, 92, 88, 82, and 88 %, respectively. There were five false-negative diagnoses of medial meniscus tears and four false-negative diagnoses of lateral meniscus tears. The majority of missed meniscus tears on MRI affected the peripheral posterior horns.

    CONCLUSION: The sensitivity for diagnosing a meniscal tear was significantly higher when the tear involved more than one-third of the meniscus or the anterior horn. The sensitivity was significantly lower for tears located in the posterior horn and for vertically oriented tears. Therefore, special attention should be given to the peripheral posterior horns of the meniscus, which are common sites of injury that could be easily missed on MRI. The high NPVs obtained in this study suggest that MRI is a valuable tool prior to arthroscopy.

  3. Dashtdar H, Murali MR, Abbas AA, Suhaeb AM, Selvaratnam L, Tay LX, et al.
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2015 May;23(5):1368-77.
    PMID: 24146054 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-013-2723-5
    PURPOSE: To investigate whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded in novel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-chitosan composite hydrogel can provide comparable or even further improve cartilage repair outcomes as compared to previously established alginate-transplanted models.

    METHODS: Medial femoral condyle defect was created in both knees of twenty-four mature New Zealand white rabbits, and the animals were divided into four groups containing six animals each. After 3 weeks, the right knees were transplanted with PVA-chitosan-MSC, PVA-chitosan scaffold alone, alginate-MSC construct or alginate alone. The left knee was kept as untreated control. Animals were killed at the end of 6 months after transplantation, and the cartilage repair was assessed through Brittberg morphological score, histological grading by O'Driscoll score and quantitative glycosaminoglycan analysis.

    RESULTS: Morphological and histological analyses showed significant (p < 0.05) tissue repair when treated with PVA-chitosan-MSC or alginate MSC as compared to the scaffold only and untreated control. In addition, safranin O staining and the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in MSC treatment groups than in scaffold-only or untreated control group. No significant difference was observed between the PVA-chitosan-MSC- and alginate-MSC-treated groups.

    CONCLUSION: PVA-chitosan hydrogel seeded with mesenchymal stem cells provides comparable treatment outcomes to that of previously established alginate-MSC construct implantation. This study supports the potential use of PVA-chitosan hydrogel seeded with MSCs for clinical use in cartilage repair such as traumatic injuries.

  4. Merican AM, Ghosh KM, Baena FR, Deehan DJ, Amis AA
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2014 Mar;22(3):526-33.
    PMID: 23271038 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-012-2312-z
    PURPOSE: To study the effect of increasing patellar thickness (overstuffing) on patellofemoral kinematics in total knee arthroplasty and whether subsequent lateral retinacular release would restore the change in kinematics.

    METHODS: The quadriceps of eight fresh-frozen knees were loaded on a custom-made jig. Kinematic data were recorded using an optical tracking device for the native knee, following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), then with patellar thicknesses from -2 to +4 mm, during knee extension motion. Staged lateral retinacular releases were performed to examine the restoration of normal patellar kinematics.

    RESULTS: Compared to the native knee, TKA led to significant changes in patellofemoral kinematics, with significant increases in lateral shift, tilt and rotation. When patellar composite thickness was increased, the patella tilted further laterally. Lateral release partly corrected this lateral tilt but caused abnormal tibial external rotation. With complete release of the lateral retinaculum and capsule, the patella with an increased thickness of 4 mm remained more laterally tilted compared to the TKA with normal patellar thickness between 45° and 55° knee flexion and from 75° onwards. This was on average by 2.4° ± 2.9° (p 

  5. Samsudin EZ, Kamarul T
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2016 Dec;24(12):3912-3926.
    PMID: 26003481
    PURPOSE: This paper aims to review the current evidence for autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) generations relative to other treatment modalities, different cell delivery methods and different cell source application.

    METHODS: Literature search was performed to identify all level I and II studies reporting the clinical and structural outcome of any ACI generation in human knees using the following medical electronic databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and NICE healthcare database. The level of evidence, sample size calculation and risk of bias were determined for all included studies to enable quality assessment.

    RESULTS: Twenty studies were included in the analysis, reporting on a total of 1094 patients. Of the 20 studies, 13 compared ACI with other treatment modalities, seven compared different ACI cell delivery methods, and one compared different cell source for implantation. Studies included were heterogeneous in baseline design, preventing meta-analysis. Data showed a trend towards similar outcomes when comparing ACI generations with other repair techniques and when comparing different cell delivery methods and cell source selection. Majority of the studies (80 %) were level II evidence, and overall the quality of studies can be rated as average to low, with the absence of power analysis in 65 % studies.

    CONCLUSION: At present, there are insufficient data to conclude any superiority of ACI techniques. Considering its two-stage operation and cost, it may be appropriate to reserve ACI for patients with larger defects or those who have had inadequate response to other repair procedures until hard evidence enables specific clinical recommendations be made.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II.

  6. Lee YS, Howell SM, Won YY, Lee OS, Lee SH, Vahedi H, et al.
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2017 Nov;25(11):3467-3479.
    PMID: 28439636 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-017-4558-y
    PURPOSE: A systematic review was conducted to answer the following questions: (1) Does kinematically aligned (KA) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) achieve clinical outcomes comparable to those of mechanically aligned (MA) TKA? (2) How do the limb, knee, and component alignments differ between KA and MA TKA? (3) How is joint line orientation angle (JLOA) changed from the native knee in KA TKA compared to that in MA TKA?

    METHODS: Nine full-text articles in English that reported the clinical and radiological outcomes of KA TKA were included. Five studies had a control group of patients who underwent MA TKA. Data on patient demographics, clinical scores, and radiological results were extracted. There were two level I, one level II, three level III, and three level IV studies. Six of the nine studies used patient-specific instrumentation, one study used computer navigation, and two studies used manual instrumentation.

    RESULTS: The clinical outcomes of KA TKA were comparable or superior to those of MA TKA with a minimum 2-year follow-up. Limb and knee alignment in KA TKA was similar to those in MA TKA, and component alignment showed slightly more varus in the tibial component and slightly more valgus in the femoral component. The JLOA in KA TKA was relatively parallel to the floor compared to that in the native knee and not oblique (medial side up and lateral side down) compared to that in MA TKA. The implant survivorship and complication rate of the KA TKA were similar to those of the MA TKA.

    CONCLUSION: Similar or better clinical outcomes were produced by using a KA TKA at early-term follow-up and the component alignment differed from that of MA TKA. KA TKA seemed to restore function without catastrophic failure regardless of the alignment category up to midterm follow-up. The JLOA in KA TKA was relatively parallel to the floor similar to the native knee compared to that in MA TKA. The present review of nine published studies suggests that relatively new kinematic alignment is an acceptable and alternative alignment to mechanical alignment, which is better understood. Further validation of these findings requires more randomized clinical trials with longer follow-up.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II.

  7. Lacheta L, Singh TSP, Hovsepian JM, Braun S, Imhoff AB, Pogorzelski J
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2019 Jan;27(1):299-304.
    PMID: 30374569 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-018-5223-9
    PURPOSE: The relationship between posterior shoulder instability and increased glenoid retroversion has been documented. Posterior open wedge glenoid osteotomy is a possible treatment option for patients with increased glenoid retroversion, but outcomes in the literature are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to report the clinical and radiological outcomes following posterior glenoid osteotomy.

    METHODS: Patients that underwent posterior glenoid osteotomy for posterior shoulder instability with a GR angle of more than or equal to 10°, and were at least 12 months out from surgery, were included in the study. General data, medical history, and radiographic data such as the pre- and postoperative glenoid retroversion angle were extracted from the patients' hospital documentation notes. To evaluate the postoperative outcome, the Rowe standard rating scale for shoulder instability and the Oxford shoulder instability score were collected retrospectively.

    RESULTS: A total of 12 shoulders (11 patients) could be included. The mean pre-operative glenoid retroversion was 23.3° (range 12°-35°) and this reduced significantly (p = 0.003) to a mean of 13° (range 1°-28°) postoperatively. At a mean follow-up of 19.8 months (range 14-36), the median Rowe score was 90 points (range 45-100 points) and the median Oxford instability score was 44 points (range 21-48 points). There were no postoperative re-dislocations or revision surgeries; however, one patient reported signs of recurrent shoulder instability and four asymptomatic glenoid neck fractures occurred.

    CONCLUSION: Open wedge posterior glenoid osteotomy provides reliable clinical results with a low rate of clinical failure in a stringently selected patient cohort at short-term follow-up. However, due to the risk of potentially severe complications, we advocate this procedure for experienced shoulder surgeons only, who are familiar with its anatomical and technical considerations.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV (case series).

  8. Thangaraju S, Cepni S, Magosch P, Tauber M, Habermeyer P, Martetschläger F
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2019 Dec;27(12):3821-3826.
    PMID: 31410526 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-019-05662-5
    PURPOSE: Arthroscopically assisted acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) stabilization techniques use bone tunnels in the clavicle and coracoid process. The tunnel size has been shown to have an impact on the fracture risk of clavicle and coracoid. The aim of the present study was to radiographically evaluate the alterations of the clavicular tunnel size in the early post-operative period. It was hypothesized that there would be a significant increase of tunnel size.

    METHODS: Twenty consecutive patients with acute high-grade ACJ (Rockwood type IV-V) injury underwent arthroscopic-assisted ACJ stabilization. The median age of the patients was 40 (26-66) years. For all patients, a single tunnel button-tape construct was used along with an additional ACJ tape cerclage. Radiologic measurements were undertaken on standardized Zanca films at two separate time points, immediate post-operative examination (IPO) and at late post-operative examination (> 4 months; LPO). The LPO radiographs were taken at a median follow-up period of 4.5 (3-6) months. Clavicular tunnel width (CT) and coracoclavicular distance (CCD) were measured using digital calipers by two independent examiners and the results are presented as median, range, and percentage.

    RESULTS: The median CCD increased significantly from 9.5 (8-13) mm at IPO to 12 (7-20) mm at LPO (p 

  9. Thangaraju S, Tauber M, Habermeyer P, Martetschläger F
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2019 Dec;27(12):3797-3802.
    PMID: 30900030 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-019-05482-7
    PURPOSE: Arthroscopic-assisted stabilization surgery for acute acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) disruption shows excellent and reliable clinical outcomes. However, characteristic complications such as fracture of the clavicle and coracoid have been reported to occur during the early post-operative period. The main goal of this study was to highlight the occurrence of fractures as a late post-operative complication. The secondary goals were to describe possible fracture morphologies and treatment outcomes.

    METHOD: Patient records from a single surgery centre were searched for all patients presenting with late fracture complication following arthroscopically assisted acromioclavicular stabilization. Medical reports including the operative notes and pre- and post-operative X-rays were reviewed. A telephone interview was conducted with each patient to access the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder score.

    RESULTS: A total of four patients presented with late fracture complication following arthroscopic-assisted ACJ stabilization surgery. All patients were males and presented following trauma at a median duration of 19.5 months after the index surgery. Fracture morphology differed between patients; the treatment was conservative in three patients, while one patient underwent osteosynthesis.

    CONCLUSION: Traumatic peri-implant fractures can occur, even 2 years after arthroscopically assisted ACJ reconstruction. This needs to be considered when planning for surgical intervention in acute ACJ disruption, especially in a high-risk population.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic study, Level IV.

  10. Yoon KH, Kim JS, Park JY, Park SY, Kiat RYD, Kim SG
    Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc, 2021 Jun;29(6):1936-1943.
    PMID: 32914218 DOI: 10.1007/s00167-020-06266-0
    PURPOSE: To compare clinical and radiological outcomes and failure rates between anatomical and high femoral tunnels in remnant-preserving single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction.

    METHODS: 63 patients who underwent remnant-preserving single-bundle PCL reconstruction between 2011 and 2018 with a minimum 2-year follow-up were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the femoral tunnel position: group A (33 patients with anatomical femoral tunnel) and group H (30 patients with high femoral tunnels). The femoral tunnel was positioned at the center (group A) or upper margin (group H) of the remnant anterolateral bundle. The position of the femoral tunnel was evaluated using the grid method on three-dimensional computed tomography. Clinical and radiological outcomes and failure rates were compared between the groups at the 2-year follow-up.

    RESULTS: The position of the femoral tunnel was significantly high in group H than in group A (87.4% ± 4.2% versus 76.1% ± 3.7%, p 

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