Displaying all 18 publications

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  1. M Didi AL, Azman RR, Nazri M
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2016 May;20:49-52.
    PMID: 27161924 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.04.002
    PURPOSE: The use of Multi Detector Computed Tomography (MDCT) volume measurements of bones for sex determination allows fragile, fragmented human remains to be assessed without compromising the specimen. We set out to assess the ability of MDCT carpal bone volume measurement in determining sex in a Malaysian population.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: 52 healthy volunteers were scanned in a 16-slice MDCT, and the volume of 104 sets of carpal bones was measured using a Syngo workstation (Both CT and workstation-Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany).

    RESULTS: Male carpal bones were of higher volume compared to the female carpal bones (p<0.001). Area under the curve (AUC) assessment of responder-operator characteristics curves showed that the trapezium bone was best able to predict sex with an AUC of 0.986. At a trapezium bone volume of ⩾1.94cm(3), there was a 93.5% probability that the subject was male. Binary logistic regression analysis found that the highest accuracy was derived using the pisiform, trapezium and capitate bones. There was a strong relationship between sex prediction and grouping of the carpal bone volumes (Nagelkerke R(2)=0.923) with an overall prediction accuracy of 97%.

    CONCLUSION: All 8 carpal bones exhibit sexual dimorphism to varying degrees. A binary regression analysis combining the 5 carpal bones with the highest predictive values for sex produces an accurate predictive model.

  2. Darmawan MF, Yusuf SM, Abdul Kadir MR, Haron H
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2015 Mar;17(2):71-8.
    PMID: 25456051 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2014.09.006
    Age estimation was used in forensic anthropology to help in the identification of individual remains and living person. However, the estimation methods tend to be unique and applicable only to a certain population. This paper analyzed age estimation using twelve regression models carried out on X-ray images of the left hand taken from an Asian data set for subjects under the age of 19. All the nineteen bones of the left hand were measured using free image software and the statistical analysis were performed using SPSS. There are two methods to determine age in this study which are single bone method and all bones method. For single bone method, S-curve regression model was found to have the highest R-square value using second metacarpal for males, and third proximal phalanx for females. For age estimation using single bone, fifth metacarpal from males and fifth proximal phalanx from females can be used due to the lowest mean square error (MSE) value. To conclude, multiple linear regressions is the best techniques for age estimation in cases where all bones are available, but if not, S-curve regression can be used using single bone method.
  3. Islam MN, Khan J, Jaafar H
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2009 Apr;11 Suppl 1:S143-6.
    PMID: 19345604 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.02.045
    Series of experiments have been completed with Methamphetamine (MA). Some were with the higher, medium or lower duration of MA administration and some were with acute or chronic doses. Whatever may be the dose or duration the ultimate result came out with the further establishment of cardio-toxic effect of this drug. Cardiovascular symptoms related to MA toxicity include chest pain, palpitations, dyspnoea, hypertension, tachycardia, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and myocardial ischemia. MA abusers often go through a repeated pattern of frequent drug administrations followed by a period of abstinence. Previous studies have focused largely upon the chronic effect of MA intake to major organs, such as the brains and the heart, by using animal experiments. However, there is a lack of research into the effects of acute dose of MA, especially pertaining to the heart. To clarify the effect of MA on myocardium, 22 male Wister rats aged six weeks were divided into MA, Placebo (P) and Control (C) group were examined following single intraperitoneal administration of MA at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight. Normal saline was similarly injected in P group. Light microscopic changes was seen in the myocardium of MA treated group including cellular infiltration, with clusters of macrophage-like cells having large nuclei and little cytoplasm evident in the sub-endocardium region. There were presence of few macrophages, leucocytes, and spindle-like fibroblasts. Bringing in to account of cardiac changes by a single dose of MA, slogan should be voiced out to leave methamphetamine.
  4. Islam MN, Jesmine K, Kong Sn Molh A, Hasnan J
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2009 Apr;11 Suppl 1:S147-50.
    PMID: 19345131 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2009.02.035
    A small amount of Methamphetamine (MA) can produce behavioural changes such as euphoria, increased alertness, paranoia, decreased appetite and increased physical activity. In cardiovascular system, it can produce chest pain and hypertension which can result in cardiovascular collapse. In addition, MA causes accelerated heartbeat, elevated blood pressure. It can also cause irreversible damage to blood vessels in the brain. A number of sympathomimetic amines are capable of causing myocardial damage, but the cardio-toxic action of MA has been of particular interest since standardized dosage consistently produces myocardial lesions. As this drug is a choice of many teenagers and young adults, the damage to their health, as well as their future aspects could be greatly affected, therefore more evidence must be sought to convince them the negative root and show them the optimism of recovery and salvation. To clarify the effect of Methamphetamine (MA) on myocardium, 56 male Wister rats aged four weeks were divided equally into MA, Methamphetamine withdrawal (MW), Placebo (P) and Control (C) group were examined following daily intra-peritoneal administration of MA at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight for 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Normal saline was similarly injected in P group. Light microscopic changes was seen in the myocardium of MA treated group including eosinophilic degeneration, atrophy, hypertrophy, disarray, edema, cellular infiltration, myolysis, granulation tissue, fibrosis and vacuolization. On the other hand, the withdrawal group showed evidence of gradual recovery of those myocardial changes. Optimism is therefore generated about possibility of returning towards normal by withdrawing of this drug by the addicts.
  5. Maruyama S, Minaguchi K, Takezaki N, Nambiar P
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2008 May;10(3):160-2.
    PMID: 18180191 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2007.11.002
    Allele frequencies for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818 and FGA (AmpF/STR Identifiler PCR Amplification kit, PE Applied Biosystems) were obtained from a sample of 110 unrelated individuals from the Malay population living in and around Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and the characteristics of the population was compared with other East Asian populations.
  6. Wong HY, Tang JS, Budowle B, Allard MW, Syn CK, Tan-Siew WF, et al.
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2007 Jan;9(1):33-7.
    PMID: 17150401
    Mitochondrial DNA sequences of the hypervariable regions HV1 and HV2 were analyzed in 205 unrelated ethnic Malays residing in Singapore as an initial effort to generate a database for forensic identification purposes. Sequence polymorphism was detected using PCR and direct sequencing analysis. A total of 152 haplotypes was found containing 152 polymorphisms. Out of the 152 haplotypes, 115 were observed only once and 37 types were seen in multiple individuals. The most common haplotype (16223T, 16295T, 16362C, 73G, 146C, 199C, 263G, and 315.1C) was shared by 7 (3.41%) individuals, two haplotypes were shared by 4 individuals, seven haplotypes were shared by 3 individuals, and 27 haplotypes by 2 individuals. Haplotype diversity and random match probability were estimated to be 0.9961% and 0.87%, respectively.
  7. Yong RY, Gan LS, Coble MD, Yap EP
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2007 Sep;9(5):278-81.
    PMID: 17467323
    MiniSTR loci has demonstrated to be an effective approach to recover genetic information from degraded sample, due to the improved PCR efficiency of their reduced PCR amplicon sizes. This study constructed a partial miniSGM panel and investigated the performance of four miniSTR loci, D2S1338, D16S539, D18S51 and FGA, in three ethnic populations residing in Singapore. The suitability of the miniSTR primers for Singapore populations was assessed for loci D16S539, D18S51 and FGA.
  8. Tai MW, Chong ZF, Asif MK, Rahmat RA, Nambiar P
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2016 Sep;22:42-8.
    PMID: 27591538 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.07.009
    This study was to compare the suitability and precision of xerographic and computer-assisted methods for bite mark investigations. Eleven subjects were asked to bite on their forearm and the bite marks were photographically recorded. Alginate impressions of the subjects' dentition were taken and their casts were made using dental stone. The overlays generated by xerographic method were obtained by photocopying the subjects' casts and the incisal edge outlines were then transferred on a transparent sheet. The bite mark images were imported into Adobe Photoshop® software and printed to life-size. The bite mark analyses using xerographically generated overlays were done by comparing an overlay to the corresponding printed bite mark images manually. In computer-assisted method, the subjects' casts were scanned into Adobe Photoshop®. The bite mark analyses using computer-assisted overlay generation were done by matching an overlay and the corresponding bite mark images digitally using Adobe Photoshop®. Another comparison method was superimposing the cast images with corresponding bite mark images employing the Adobe Photoshop® CS6 and GIF-Animator©. A score with a range of 0-3 was given during analysis to each precision-determining criterion and the score was increased with better matching. The Kruskal Wallis H test showed significant difference between the three sets of data (H=18.761, p<0.05). In conclusion, bite mark analysis using the computer-assisted animated-superimposition method was the most accurate, followed by the computer-assisted overlay generation and lastly the xerographic method. The superior precision contributed by digital method is discernible despite the human skin being a poor recording medium of bite marks.
  9. Ochiai E, Minaguchi K, Nambiar P, Kakimoto Y, Satoh F, Nakatome M, et al.
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2016 Sep;22:58-61.
    PMID: 27591541 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.08.001
    The Y chromosomal haplogroup determined from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) combinations is a valuable genetic marker to study ancestral male lineage and ethical distribution. Next-generation sequencing has been developed for widely diverse genetics fields. For this study, we demonstrate 34 Y-SNP typing employing the Ion PGM™ system to perform haplogrouping. DNA libraries were constructed using the HID-Ion AmpliSeq™ Identity Panel. Emulsion PCR was performed, then DNA sequences were analyzed on the Ion 314 and 316 Chip Kit v2. Some difficulties became apparent during the analytic processes. No-call was reported at rs2032599 and M479 in six samples, in which the least coverage was observed at M479. A minor misreading occurred at rs2032631 and M479. A real time PCR experiment using other pairs of oligonucleotide primers showed that these events might result from the flanking sequence. Finally, Y haplogroup was determined completely for 81 unrelated males including Japanese (n=59) and Malay (n=22) subjects. The allelic divergence differed between the two populations. In comparison with the conventional Sanger method, next-generation sequencing provides a comprehensive SNP analysis with convenient procedures, but further system improvement is necessary.
  10. Asif MK, Nambiar P, Mani SA, Ibrahim NB, Khan IM, Lokman NB
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2019 Feb;36:50-58.
    PMID: 30415192 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2018.10.005
    Forensic odontology plays an important role in human identification and dental age estimation is an integral part of this process. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between chronological age and pulp/tooth volume ratio in a Malaysian population (Malays and Chinese) from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans, enhanced with Mimics software. Three hundred CBCT scans of 153 males and 147 females, aged between 16 and 65 years were divided into 5 age groups. Volumetric analysis of the pulp/tooth ratio was performed in maxillary left canines, maxillary right canines and maxillary right central incisors. Simple linear regression and Pearson correlation analysis indicated the strongest coefficient of correlation (R) values for maxillary right central incisors (0.83) followed by maxillary right canines (0.74) and maxillary left canines (0.73). Fisher's Z test indicated that dental age estimation is gender independent. The derived regression equations were further validated on an independent group of 126 teeth. The results indicated mean absolute error (MAE) values of 6.48 and 8.58 years for maxillary right central incisors and maxillary canines respectively. It was also noticed that MAE values were higher among the age groups ranging from 46 to 65 years. This study showed that a volumetric change in the pulp cavity with age is a valuable assessment method for dental age estimation among Malaysian population.
  11. Ibáñez O, Valsecchi A, Cavalli F, Huete MI, Campomanes-Alvarez BR, Campomanes-Alvarez C, et al.
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2016 Nov;23:59-70.
    PMID: 27890106 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.09.009
    Craniofacial superimposition has the potential to be used as an identification method when other traditional biological techniques are not applicable due to insufficient quality or absence of ante-mortem and post-mortem data. Despite having been used in many countries as a method of inclusion and exclusion for over a century it lacks standards. Thus, the purpose of this research is to provide forensic practitioners with standard criteria for analysing skull-face relationships. Thirty-seven experts from 16 different institutions participated in this study, which consisted of evaluating 65 criteria for assessing skull-face anatomical consistency on a sample of 24 different skull-face superimpositions. An unbiased statistical analysis established the most objective and discriminative criteria. Results did not show strong associations, however, important insights to address lack of standards were provided. In addition, a novel methodology for understanding and standardizing identification methods based on the observation of morphological patterns has been proposed.
  12. Bunyarit SS, Jayaraman J, Naidu MK, Yuen Ying RP, Danaee M, Nambiar P
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2017 09;28:45-53.
    PMID: 28772147 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.07.009
  13. Asif MK, Nambiar P, Ibrahim N, Al-Amery SM, Khan IM
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2019 Jul;39:9-14.
    PMID: 31158731 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2019.05.003
    Three-dimensional imaging has improved the method of analysis in many forensic science investigations. The study aimed to derive regression equation for age estimation by investigating the relationship between chronological age and surface area of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices. Furthermore, other predictor variables: ethnicity (Malay and Chinese), gender and status of the root development completion (open/closed apices) were also investigated in terms of fit to the age estimation model. One hundred and twenty eight training and 55 validation samples of intact mandibular 3rd molars were selected from 183 CBCT scans. The samples comprised of 93 Malays and 90 Chinese, ranging in age from 13 to 24 years. Three-dimensional image modeling and surface area analysis of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices were performed using Mimics and 3-Matics software. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to derive age estimation model using chronological age as a dependent variable and surface area of the apices, ethnicity, gender and status of the root development completion (open/closed apices) as predictor variables. A strong inverse correlation (r = 0.95, SD = 1.144) was observed between chronological age and all the predictor variables. The results showed that 89.6% of the variation in age can be explained by the predictor variables. Mean absolute error (MAE) value of 0.8223 was observed when the derived regression equation was tested on the independent validation sample. In conclusion, three-dimensional surface area analysis of the developing mandibular 3rd molars apices can be used as a reliable method for age estimation.
  14. Asif MK, Ibrahim N, Al-Amery SM, Muhammad AMA, Khan AA, Nambiar P
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2020 Feb 24;44:101690.
    PMID: 32135489 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101690
    The study aimed to develop a novel and reliable age estimation method using three-dimensional surface area analyses of maxillary canine apices among Malaysian children using CBCT data. A validated regression equation for age estimation was derived and correlation between chronological age and the surface areas of the developing maxillary canine's apices were investigated. Variations based on ethnicities, gender and status of root development were also investigated in terms of fit to the age estimation model. CBCT images of the patients ranging in age from 7 to 14 years were included in the study. Training sample of 191 intact permanent maxillary canines was selected from 191 CBCT images belonging to 100 Malays and 91 Chinese. Moreover, an independent validation sample of 96 permanent maxillary canines was selected from 96 CBCT images belonging to 48 Malays and 48 Chinese. Three-dimensional image modeling and surface area analyses of the developing canine's apices were performed using Mimics and 3-Matics software. A strong correlation (r = 0.978) was observed between chronological age and surface area of the developing maxillary canine's apices. 95.6% of the variation in age can be explained by surface area of canine's apices, gender and status of the root development (open/closed apices). However, ethnicity did not contributed to the fit of age estimation model. Female showed advanced development as compared to male. Mean absolute error values indicated that this newly developed 3D surface area analyses of canine apex can be used as a reliable method for age estimation among Malaysian children.
  15. Sakurada K, Ohta H
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2020 Nov;47:101761.
    PMID: 32702607 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101761
    On the battlefields of Syria, many innocent civilians have been killed or injured by sarin poisoning. In Malaysia in February 2017, a North Korean man was assassinated with VX at Kuala Lumpur International Airport. In the face of such threats, a more effective antidote against organophosphonate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors is needed, one that can freely penetrate into the central nervous system (CNS) through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In the 1995 Tokyo subway sarin attack, which produced more than 6,000 victims, 2-pyridinealdoxime methiodide was the most commonly used antidote in hospitals, but it was unable to prevent CNS damage and no other oximes have been approved for use in Japan. Ultimately, 12 people died, and many victims had severe neurological injuries or sequelae. Although more than 25 years have passed since the incident, progress has been slow in the development of a new antidote that can penetrate the BBB, restore AChE activity in the CNS, and definitely prevent brain injury. From the perspectives of countering terrorism and protecting innocent people from nerve agent attacks, the search for nerve agent antidotes should be accelerated with the goals of improving both survival and quality of life. This review gives an overview of a series of our studies on the development of a new antidote since the Tokyo subway sarin attack and emphasizes that there is unfortunately still no promising antidote for saving the CNS in Japan.
  16. Thomas LA, Thomas LR, Balla SB, Gopalaiah H, Kanaparthi A, Sai Sravanthi G, et al.
    Leg Med (Tokyo), 2021 Feb;48:101814.
    PMID: 33246253 DOI: 10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101814
    In the context of dental age assessment, two significant factors can be studied; tooth mineralisation and tooth emergence. Little is known about the role of a second molar eruption in forensic age estimation. This paper aims to contribute to forensic age estimation using an age threshold of 14 years, studying the eruption stages of permanent mandibular premolars and second molars. Totally 640 orthopantomograms (OPGs) of south Indian children, aged between 10 and 18 years, were evaluated using Olze et al. staging of tooth eruption stages (A-D). Spearman's rho correlation showed a strong, positive, and statistically significant correlation between the chronological age and the eruption stages of both sexes' teeth. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and post-test probability values were calculated for all tested teeth. The best performance to discriminate individuals above or below 14 years showed stage D in second molars. The sensitivity varied between 89% and 94% and specificity between 75% and 84%, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed high diagnostic performance for stage D, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of 84% and 85% for tooth 37 and 85% and 83% for tooth 47 in males and females, respectively. In conclusion, it is possible to predict age over 14 years in south Indian children using tooth emergence stages from OPGs with a relatively high interobserver agreement and good diagnostic accuracy. However, there are some limitations and, therefore, must be used in conjunction with other methods.
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