Congenitally T and B cell-deficient SCID mice and T cell-deficient NUDE mice, with BALB/c mice as immunologically normal controls, were inoculated with Rhinosporidium seeberi. At 3 and 16 weeks after inoculation, no evidence of rhinosporidiosis was detected. The reasons for the failure to establish rhinosporidiosis in immunodeficient or normal mice remain obscure.
Oral biofilms comprise of extracellular polysaccharides and polymicrobial microorganisms. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of polymicrobial interactions of Candida albicans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Streptococcus mutans on biofilm formation with the hypotheses that biofilm biomass and metabolic activity are both C. albicans strain and growth medium dependent. To study monospecific biofilms, C. albicans, A. naeslundii, and S. mutans were inoculated into artificial saliva medium (ASM) and RPMI-1640 in separate vials, whereas to study polymicrobial biofilm formation, the inoculum containing microorganisms was prepared in the same vial prior inoculation into a 96-well plate followed by 72 hours incubation. Finally, biofilm biomass and metabolic activity were measured using crystal violet and XTT assays, respectively. Our results showed variability of monospecies and polymicrobial biofilm biomass between C. albicans strains and growth medium. Based on cut-offs, out of 32, seven RPMI-grown biofilms had high biofilm biomass (HBB), whereas, in ASM-grown biofilms, 14 out of 32 were HBB. Of the 32 biofilms grown in RPMI-1640, 21 were high metabolic activity (HMA), whereas in ASM, there was no biofilm had HMA. Significant differences were observed between ASM and RPMI-grown biofilms with respect to metabolic activity (P <01). In conclusion, biofilm biomass and metabolic activity were both C. albicans strain and growth medium dependent.
Disseminated sporotrichosis is uncommon and usually occurs in patients who are immunodeficient. Here we describe a male patient who was otherwise in good physical condition, who presented with disseminated sporotrichosis. The only significant event in his past medical history was lepromatous leprosy which had been treated 42 years earlier.
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous mycosis seen mainly in tropical regions. While malignant transformation rarely occurs, the present report describes a 69-year-old man with a 21-year history of chromoblastomycosis complicated by invasive squamous cell carcinoma requiring amputation of the affected limb. A review of previous reported cases shows malignancy arising after 20-30 years of infection in ≥60-year-old males who have received inadequate treatment of chromoblastomycosis and have had relapses. An immunocompromised state is not an associated feature of such cases. The extremities are commonly affected as carcinomas occur from the most chronic lesions which are generally found on these limbs.
This study was conducted to determine the proteinase, phospholipase, and biofilm forming abilities of Candida isolates in blood cultures of specimens from patients at the University Malaya Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were detected in 93.7% and 73.3%, respectively, of 15 Candida albicans isolates. Amongst the 26 non-C. albicans Candida isolates, proteinase and phospholipase activities were detected in 88.5% and 7.7% of the isolates, respectively. There was no significant difference in the expression levels of proteinase amongst the Candida isolates studied (P = 0.272), but the phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non-C. albicans Candida isolates (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in the biofilm forming abilities of C. albicans and non-C. albicans Candida isolates on the polystyrene microtiter wells (P = 0.379). In addition, the findings of this study demonstrate increased resistance of Candida isolates in biofilms to amphotericin and fluconazole, as compared to their planktonic counterparts.
To review invasive aspergillosis (IA) in developing countries, we included those countries, which are mentioned in the document of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), called the Emerging and Developing Economies List, 2009. A PubMed/Medline literature search was performed for studies concerning IA reported during 1970 through March 2010 from these countries. IA is an important cause of morbidity and mortality of hospitalized patients of developing countries, though the exact frequency of the disease is not known due to inadequate reporting and facilities to diagnose. Only a handful of centers from India, China, Thailand, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, South Africa, Turkey, Hungary, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Argentina had reported case series of IA. As sub-optimum hospital care practice, hospital renovation work in the vicinity of immunocompromised patients, overuse or misuse of steroids and broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of contaminated infusion sets/fluid, and increase in intravenous drug abusers have been reported from those countries, it is expected to find a high rate of IA among patients with high risk, though hard data is missing in most situations. Besides classical risk factors for IA, liver failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, and tuberculosis are the newly recognized underlying diseases associated with IA. In Asia, Africa and Middle East sino-orbital or cerebral aspergillosis, and Aspergillus endophthalmitis are emerging diseases and Aspergillus flavus is the predominant species isolated from these infections. The high frequency of A. flavus isolation from these patients may be due to higher prevalence of the fungus in the environment. Cerebral aspergillosis cases are largely due to an extension of the lesion from invasive Aspergillus sinusitis. The majority of the centers rely on conventional techniques including direct microscopy, histopathology, and culture to diagnose IA. Galactomannan, β-D glucan test, and DNA detection in IA are available only in a few centers. Mortality of the patients with IA is very high due to delays in diagnosis and therapy. Antifungal use is largely restricted to amphotericin B deoxycholate and itraconazole, though other anti-Aspergillus antifungal agents are available in those countries. Clinicians are aware of good outcome after use of voriconazole/liposomal amphotericin B/caspofungin, but they are forced to use amphotericin B deoxycholate or itraconazole in public-sector hospitals due to economic reasons.
The molecular types and genetic heterogeneity of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii clinical isolates in Malaysia were determined in this study. Of 44 C. neoformans collected between 1980 and 2003, 42 (95.5%) were molecular type VNI, 2 (4.5%) were molecular type VNII. Of 17 C.gattii isolates, 13 (76.5%) were molecular type VGI, and 4 (23.5%) were molecular type VGII. A difference was noted when comparing the molecular types of cryptococcal isolates in the earlier and recent cases of cryptococcosis. While both molecular types VNI and VGI were equally predominant in the earlier cases of cryptococcosis, VNI was the most predominant molecular type isolated from the recent cases. VNII was a new molecular type, isolated from 5.1% of the recent cases. All the bird dropping isolates were molecular type VNI. The genetic heterogeneity of the two predominant molecular types, i.e., VNI, VGI clinical isolates and bird dropping isolates of C. neoformans were further determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fingerprinting method, using (GTG)5 as single primer. Two clusters of cryptococcal isolates were distinguished at 68.5% of similarity, with cluster I consisting of VNI isolates and cluster II consisting of VGI isolates. Each cluster was further subdivided into three subtypes at >/=80% of similarity. Fourteen bird dropping isolates were grouped into a subtype within VN1, sharing 82.7% of similarity with the clinical isolates. A higher degree of similarities, ranging from 93.4-97.6% was noted between 3 bird dropping isolates with the clinical isolates in another subtype. This study demonstrated the existence of various molecular types of C. neoformans isolates in Malaysia and the genetic heterogeneity within the predominant molecular types. The study also provides evidence for genetic relatedness of clinical isolates with bird dropping isolates in the environment.
Candida auris has recently emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide and the existence of geographic region-specific discrete clonal lineages. Here we have compared the rDNA sequences of 24 isolates of Candida auris from 14 different hospital centers in the United Kingdom with those of strains from different international origins present in the public sequence databases. Here we show that UK isolates of C. auris fall into three well-supported clades corresponding to lineages that have previously been reported from India, Malaysia and Kuwait, Japan and Korea, and South Africa, respectively.
Cladosporium is one of the most abundant spore. Fungi of this genus can cause respiratory allergy and intrabronchial lesion. We studied the differential expression of host genes after the interaction of Cladosporium sphaerospermum conidia with Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells (BEAS-2B) and Human Pulmonary Alveolar Epithelial Cells (HPAEpiC). C. sphaerospermum conidia were harvested and co-cultured with BEAS-2B cells or HPAEpiC cells for 48 hours respectively. This culture duration was chosen as it was associated with high germination rate. RNA was extracted from two biological replicates per treatment. RNA of BEAS-2B cells was used to assess changes in gene expression using AffymetrixGeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array 2.0. After co-culture with Cladosporium spores, 68 individual genes were found differentially expressed (P ≤ 0.05) and up-regulated ≥ 1.5 folds while 75 genes were found differentially expressed at ≤ -1.5 folds compared with controls. Reverse transcription and qPCR were performed on the RNA collected from both BEAS-2B cells and HPAEpiC cells to validate the microarray results with 7 genes. Based on the findings, infected pulmonary epithelial cells exhibited an increase in cell death-related genes and genes associated with innate immunity.
Sporothrix schenkii is a dimorphic fungus that causes infections in both humans and animals. We report on 25 S. schenkii isolates collected in 2017 from humans and cats clinically diagnosed with sporotrichosis, in Malaysia. These isolates were phenotypically identified as S. schenkii sensu lato and further defined as S. schenckii sensu stricto based on partial calmodulin gene sequence. Isolates from both humans and cats were genotypically identical but displayed phenotypic variation. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial calmodulin sequence showed that the Malaysian isolates clustered with global S. schenkii sensu stricto strains, in particular, of the AFLP type E. This analysis also revealed that partial calmodulin sequence alone was sufficient for classifying global S. schenckii sensu stricto strains into their respective AFLP types, from A to E. The genetically conserved S. schenkii sensu stricto species isolated from humans and cats is suggestive of a clonal strain present in Malaysia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on molecular identification of Sporothrix schenkii strains from human infections in Malaysia. Further studies are required in order to elucidate the clonal nature of Malaysian S. schenkii isolates. Our findings indicate the presence of a predominant S. schenkii genotype in the environment, causing infections in both cats and humans in Malaysia.