Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

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  1. Tan MH, Gan HM, Schultz MB, Austin CM
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2015 Apr;85:180-8.
    PMID: 25721538 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.02.009
    The increased rate at which complete mitogenomes are being sequenced and their increasing use for phylogenetic studies have resulted in a bioinformatic bottleneck in preparing and utilising such data for phylogenetic analysis. Hence, we present MitoPhAST, an automated tool that (1) identifies annotated protein-coding gene features and generates a standardised, concatenated and partitioned amino acid alignment directly from complete/partial GenBank/EMBL-format mitogenome flat files, (2) generates a maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree using optimised protein models and (3) reports various mitochondrial genes and sequence information in a table format. To demonstrate the capacity of MitoPhAST in handling a large dataset, we used 81 publicly available decapod mitogenomes, together with eight new complete mitogenomes of Australian freshwater crayfishes, including the first for the genus Gramastacus, to undertake an updated test of the monophyly of the major groups of the order Decapoda and their phylogenetic relationships. The recovered phylogenetic trees using both Bayesian and ML methods support the results of studies using fragments of mtDNA and nuclear markers and other smaller-scale studies using whole mitogenomes. In comparison to the fragment-based phylogenies, nodal support values are generally higher despite reduced taxon sampling suggesting there is value in utilising more fully mitogenomic data. Additionally, the simple table output from MitoPhAST provides an efficient summary and statistical overview of the mitogenomes under study at the gene level, allowing the identification of missing or duplicated genes and gene rearrangements. The finding of new mtDNA gene rearrangements in several genera of Australian freshwater crayfishes indicates that this group has undergone an unusually high rate of evolutionary change for this organelle compared to other major families of decapod crustaceans. As a result, freshwater crayfishes are likely to be a useful model for studies designed to understand the evolution of mtDNA rearrangements. We anticipate that our bioinformatics pipeline will substantially help mitogenome-based studies increase the speed, accuracy and efficiency of phylogenetic studies utilising mitogenome information. MitoPhAST is available for download at https://github.com/mht85/MitoPhAST.
  2. Polgar G, Zane L, Babbucci M, Barbisan F, Patarnello T, Rüber L, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2014 Apr;73:161-76.
    PMID: 24486991 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.01.014
    This study provides a first description of the phylogeographic patterns and evolutionary history of two species of the mudskipper genus Periophthalmus. These amphibious gobies are distributed throughout the whole Indo-Pacific region and Atlantic coast of Africa, in peritidal habitats of soft-bottom coastal ecosystems. Three sequence datasets of two widely distributed species, Periophthalmus argentilineatus and P. kalolo, were obtained by amplifying and sequencing two mtDNA markers (D-loop and 16S rDNA) and the nDNA rag1 region. The three datasets were then used to perform phylogeographic, demographic and population genetic analyses. Our results indicate that tectonic events and past climatic oscillations strongly contributed to shape present genetic differentiation, phylogeographic and demographic patterns. We found support for the monophyly of P. kalolo, and only shallow genetic differentiation between East-African and Indo-Malayan populations of this species. However, our collections of the morphospecies P. argentilineatus include three molecularly distinct lineages, one of them more closely related to P. kalolo. The presence of Miocenic timings for the most recent common ancestors of some of these morphologically similar clades, suggests the presence of strong stabilising selection in mudskippers' habitats. At population level, demographic analyses and palaeoecological records of mangrove ecosystems suggest that Pleistocene bottlenecks and expansion plus secondary contact events of the studied species were associated with recurrent sea transgressions during interglacials, and sea regressions or stable regimes during glacials, respectively.
  3. Golding RE
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2012 Apr;63(1):72-81.
    PMID: 22210412 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2011.12.016
    Amphiboloidea is a small but widespread group of snails found exclusively, and often abundantly, in mudflat and associated salt marsh or mangrove habitat. This study uses molecular data from three loci (COI, 16S and 28S) to infer phylogenetic relationships in Amphiboloidea and examine its position in Euthyneura. All but two of the named extant species of Amphiboloidea and additional undescribed taxa from across Southeast Asia and the Arabian Gulf were sampled. In contrast to the current morphology-based classification dividing Amphiboloidea into three families, analysis of molecular data supports revision of the classification to comprise two families. Maningrididae is a monotypic family basal to Amphibolidae, which is revised to comprise three subfamilies: Amphibolinae, Phallomedusinae and Salinatorinae. Sequence divergence between Asian populations of Naranjia is relatively large and possibly indicative of species complexes divergent across the Strait of Malacca. Salinatorrosacea and Salinator burmana do not cluster with other Salinator species, and require generic reassignment. In addition, sequences were obtained from an undescribed species of Lactiforis from the Malay Peninsula. Reconstruction of ancestral distributions indicates a plesiomorphic distribution and centre of origin in Australasia, with two genera subsequently diversifying throughout Asia. Increasing the sampling density of amphiboloid taxa in a phylogenetic analysis of Euthyneura did not resolve the identity of the sister taxon to Amphibolidae, but confirmed its inclusion in Pulmonata/Panpulmonata.
  4. Wilting A, Christiansen P, Kitchener AC, Kemp YJ, Ambu L, Fickel J
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2011 Feb;58(2):317-28.
    PMID: 21074625 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.11.007
    Recent morphological and molecular studies led to the recognition of two extant species of clouded leopards; Neofelis nebulosa from mainland southeast Asia and Neofelis diardi from the Sunda Islands of Borneo and Sumatra, including the Batu Islands. In addition to these new species-level distinctions, preliminary molecular data suggested a genetic substructure that separates Bornean and Sumatran clouded leopards, indicating the possibility of two subspecies of N. diardi. This suggestion was based on an analysis of only three Sumatran and seven Bornean individuals. Accordingly, in this study we re-evaluated this proposed subspecies differentiation using additional molecular (mainly historical) samples of eight Bornean and 13 Sumatran clouded leopards; a craniometric analysis of 28 specimens; and examination of pelage morphology of 20 museum specimens and of photographs of 12 wild camera-trapped animals. Molecular (mtDNA and microsatellite loci), craniomandibular and dental analyses strongly support the differentiation of Bornean and Sumatran clouded leopards, but pelage characteristics fail to separate them completely, most probably owing to small sample sizes, but it may also reflect habitat similarities between the two islands and their recent divergence. However, some provisional discriminating pelage characters are presented that need further testing. According to our estimates both populations diverged from each other during the Middle to Late Pleistocene (between 400 and 120 kyr). We present a discussion on the evolutionary history of Neofelis diardi sspp. on the Sunda Shelf, a revised taxonomy for the Sunda clouded leopard, N. diardi, and formally describe the Bornean subspecies, Neofelis diardi borneensis, including the designation of a holotype (BM.3.4.9.2 from Baram, Sarawak) in accordance with the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature.
  5. Matsui M, Hamidy A, Murphy RW, Khonsue W, Yambun P, Shimada T, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2010 Jul;56(1):259-72.
    PMID: 20302957 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2010.03.014
    By investigating genealogical relationships, we estimated the phylogenetic history and biogeography in the megophryid genus Leptobrachium (sensu lato, including Vibrissaphora) from southern China, Indochina, Thailand and the Sundaland. The genealogical relationships among the 30 named and unnamed taxa were estimated using 2009 bp of sequences from the mitochondrial DNA genes 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods. The genus Leptobrachium was a well-supported monophyletic group that contained two major clades. One clade had three subclades primarily from disjunct regions including Borneo, Peninsular Malaysia and Java, and Thailand. The Bornean subclade included one species each from the Philippines and Sumatra. The other major clade consisted of two subclades, one from Indochina and the other from southern China (Vibrissaphora). Divergence times estimated an old evolutionary history of each subclade, one that could not be explained by the geohistory of Southeast Asian major landmasses.
  6. Zheng Y, Fu J, Li S
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2009 Jul;52(1):70-83.
    PMID: 19348953 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2009.03.026
    Several anuran groups of Laurasian origin are each co-distributed in four isolated regions of the Northern Hemisphere: central/southern Europe and adjacent areas, Korean Peninsula and adjacent areas, Indo-Malaya, and southern North America. Similar distribution patterns have been observed in diverse animal and plant groups. Savage [Savage, J.M., 1973. The geographic distribution of frogs: patterns and predictions. In: Vial, J.L. (Ed.), Evolutionary Biology of the Anurans. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, pp. 351-445] hypothesized that the Miocene global cooling and increasing aridities in interiors of Eurasia and North America caused a southward displacement and range contraction of Laurasian frogs (and other groups). We use the frog genus Bombina to test Savage's biogeographical hypothesis. A phylogeny of Bombina is reconstructed based on three mitochondrial and two nuclear gene fragments. The genus is divided into three major clades: an Indo-Malaya clade includes B. fortinuptialis, B. lichuanensis, B. maxima, and B. microdeladigitora; a European clade includes B. bombina, B. pachypus, and B. variegata; and a Korean clade contains B. orientalis. The European and Korean clades form sister-group relationship. Molecular dating of the phylogenetic tree using the penalized likelihood and Bayesian analyses suggests that the divergence between the Indo-Malaya clade and other Bombina species occurred 5.9-28.6 million years ago. The split time between the European clade and the Korean clade is estimated at 5.1-20.9 million years ago. The divergence times of these clades are not significantly later than the timing of Miocene cooling and drying, and therefore can not reject Savage's hypothesis. Some other aspects of biogeography of Bombina also are discussed. The Korean Peninsula and the Shandong Peninsula might have supplied distinct southern refugia for B. orientalis during the Pleistocene glacial maxima. In the Indo-Malaya clade, the uplift of the Tibetan Plateau might have promoted the split between B. maxima and the other species.
  7. Jenkins TM, Jones SC, Lee CY, Forschler BT, Chen Z, Lopez-Martinez G, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2007 Mar;42(3):612-21.
    PMID: 17254806
    Coptotermes gestroi, the Asian subterranean termite (AST), is an economically important structural and agricultural pest that has become established in many areas of the world. For the first time, phylogeography was used to illuminate the origins of new found C. gestroi in the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico; Ohio, USA; Florida, USA; and Brisbane, Australia. Phylogenetic relationships of C. gestroi collected in indigenous locations within Malaysia, Thailand, and Singapore as well as from the four areas of introduction were investigated using three genes (16S rRNA, COII, and ITS) under three optimality criteria encompassing phenetic and cladistic assumptions (maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and neighbor-joining). All three genes showed consistent support for a close genetic relationship between C. gestroi samples from Singapore and Ohio, whereas termite samples from Australia, Puerto Rico, and Key West, FL were more closely related to those from Malaysia. Shipping records further substantiated that Singapore and Malaysia were the likely origin of the Ohio and Australia C. gestroi, respectively. These data provide support for using phylogeography to understand the dispersal history of exotic termites. Serendipitously, we also gained insights into concerted evolution in an ITS cluster from rhinotermitid species in two genera.
  8. Campbell P, Schneider CJ, Adnan AM, Zubaid A, Kunz TH
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2004 Dec;33(3):764-81.
    PMID: 15522802
    Taxonomic relationships within the Old World fruit bat genus, Cynopterus, have been equivocal for the better part of a century. While nomenclature has been revised multiple times on the basis of phenotypic characters, evolutionary relationships among taxa representing the entire geographic range of the genus have not been determined. We used mitochondrial DNA sequence data to infer phylogenetic relationships among the three most broadly distributed members of the genus: C. brachyotis, C. horsfieldi, and C. sphinx, and to assess whether C. brachyotis represents a single widespread species, or a complex of distinct lineages. Results clearly indicate that C. brachyotis is a complex of lineages. C. sphinx and C. horsfieldi haplotypes formed monophyletic groups nested within the C. brachyotis species complex. We identified six divergent mitochondrial lineages that are currently referred to C. brachyotis. Lineages from India, Myanmar, Sulawesi, and the Philippines are geographically well-defined, while in Malaysia two lineages, designated Sunda and Forest, are broadly sympatric and may be ecologically distinct. Demographic analyses of the Sunda and Forest lineages suggest strikingly different population histories, including a recent and rapid range expansion in the Sunda lineage, possibly associated with changes in sea levels during the Pleistocene. The resolution of the taxonomic issues raised in this study awaits combined analysis of morphometric characters and molecular data. However, since both the Indian and Malaysian Forest C. brachyotis lineages are apparently ecologically restricted to increasingly fragmented forest habitat, we suggest that reevaluation of the conservation status of populations in these regions should be an immediate goal.
  9. Matsui M, Shimada T, Ota H, Tanaka-Ueno T
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2005 Dec;37(3):733-42.
    PMID: 15964212
    The genus Rana, notably diversified in Oriental regions from China to Southeast Asia, includes a group of cascade frogs assigned to subgenera Odorrana and Eburana. Among them, R. ishikawae and the R. narina complex represent the northernmost members occurring from Taiwan to the Ryukyu Archipelago of Japan. Relationships of these frogs with the continental members, as well as the history of their invasions to islands, have been unclear. The taxonomic status of Odorrana and related genera varies among authors and no phylogenetic reassessment has been done. Using partial sequences of mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA genes, we estimated phylogenetic relationships among 17 species of the section Hylarana including Odorrana and Eburana, and related species from the Ryukyus, Taiwan, China, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia. We estimate that (1) Odorrana is monophyletic and encompasses species of Eburana and R. hosii, which is now placed in Chalcorana, (2) the ancestor of R. ishikawae separated from other Rana in the middle to late Miocene prior to its entry to the Ryukyu Archipelago, (3) the ancestor of the R. narina complex later diversified in continental Asia, and invaded the Ryukyu Archipelago through Taiwan, (4) the R. narina complex attained its current distribution within the Ryukyus through niche segregations, and (5) vicariance of R. hosii between Malay Peninsula and Borneo occurred much later than the divergence events in the R. narina complex. Current subgeneric classification of Rana, at least of Southeast Asian members, requires full reassessment in the light of phylogenetic relationships.
  10. Fiala I, Hlavničková M, Kodádková A, Freeman MA, Bartošová-Sojková P, Atkinson SD
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2015 May;86:75-89.
    PMID: 25797924 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2015.03.004
    In order to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the main marine myxosporean clades including newly established Ceratonova clade and scrutinizing their evolutionary origins, we performed large-scale phylogenetic analysis of all myxosporean species from the marine myxosporean lineage based on three gene analyses and statistical topology tests. Furthermore, we obtained new molecular data for Ceratonova shasta, C. gasterostea, eight Ceratomyxa species and one Myxodavisia species. We described five new species: Ceratomyxa ayami n. sp., C. leatherjacketi n. sp., C. synaphobranchi n. sp., C. verudaensis n. sp. and Myxodavisia bulani n. sp.; two of these formed a new, basal Ceratomyxa subclade. We identified that the Ceratomyxa clade is basal to all other marine myxosporean lineages, and Kudoa with Enteromyxum are the most recently branching clades. Topologies were least stable at the nodes connecting the marine urinary clade, the marine gall bladder clade and the Ceratonova clade. Bayesian inference analysis of SSU rDNA and the statistical tree topology tests suggested that Ceratonova is closely related to the Enteromyxum and Kudoa clades, which represent a large group of histozoic species. A close relationship between Ceratomyxa and Ceratonova was not supported, despite their similar myxospore morphologies. Overall, the site of sporulation in the vertebrate host is a more accurate predictor of phylogenetic relationships than the morphology of the myxospore.
  11. Kawai K, Nikaido M, Harada M, Matsumura S, Lin LK, Wu Y, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2003 Aug;28(2):297-307.
    PMID: 12878466
    The genus Myotis includes the largest number of species in the family Vespertilionidae (Chiroptera), and its members are distributed throughout most of the world. To re-evaluate the phylogenetic position of East Asian Myotis species with respect to Myotis species worldwide, we analyzed mitochondrial gene sequences of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and cytochrome b from 24 East Asian individuals as well as 42 vespertilionid bats determined previously. The results suggest that: (1) some individuals having the same species name in Europe and Japan do not form a monophyletic clade, indicating that some bat species exhibit morphological convergence, (2) Japanese Myotis mystacinus forms a sister relationship with Myotis brandtii (Palaearctic), and both species are included in the American clade implying that an ancestor of these species originated in North America, and (3) the Black whiskered bat, Myotis pruinosus, is endemic to Japan and forms sister relationships with Myotis yanbarensis and Myotis montivagus collected from Okinawa (Japan) and Selangor (Malaysia), respectively, implying that M. pruinosus originated from the south. The systematics of Japanese and East Asian Myotis bats were revisited by considering their phylogenetic relationships. Our study provides the first extensive phylogenetic hypothesis of the genus Myotis that includes East Asian and Japanese species.
  12. Feldhaar H, Fiala B, Gadau J, Mohamed M, Maschwitz U
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2003 Jun;27(3):441-52.
    PMID: 12742749
    To elucidate the evolution of one of the most species-rich ant-plant symbiotic systems, the association between Crematogaster (Myrmicinae) and Macaranga (Euphorbiaceae) in South-East Asia, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the ant partners. For the phylogenetic analysis partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and II were sequenced and Maximum Parsimony analysis was performed. The analyzed Crematogaster of the subgenus Decacrema fell into three distinct clades which are also characterized by specific morphological and ecological traits (queen morphology, host-plants, and colony structure). Our results supported the validity of our currently used morphospecies concept for Peninsula Malaysia. However, on a wider geographic range (including North and North-East Borneo) some morphospecies turned out to be species complexes with genetically quite distinct taxa. Our phylogenetic analysis and host association studies do not indicate strict cocladogenesis between the subgenus Decacrema and their Macaranga host-plants because multiple ant taxa occur on quite distinct host-plants belonging to different clades within in the genus Macaranga. These results support the view that host-shifting or host-expansion is common in the ants colonizing Macaranga. Additionally, the considerable geographic substructuring found in the phylogenetic trees of the ants suggests that allopatric speciation has also played a role in the diversification and the current distribution of the Decacrema ants.
  13. Yu H, Wang W, Fang S, Zhang YP, Lin FJ, Geng ZC
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 1999 Dec;13(3):556-65.
    PMID: 10620413
    The sequences of the mitochondrial ND4 gene (1339 bp) and the ND4L gene (290 bp) were determined for all the 14 extant taxa of the Drosophila nasuta subgroup. The average A + T content of ND4 genes is 76.5% and that of ND4L genes is 83.5%. A total of 114 variable sites were scored. The ND4 gene sequence divergence ranged from 0 to 5.4% within the subgroup. The substitution rate of the ND4 gene is about 1.25% per million years. The base substitution of the genes is strongly transition biased. Neighbor-joining and parsimony were used to construct a phylogeny based on the resultant sequence data set. According to these trees, five distinct mtDNA clades can be identified. D. niveifrons represents the most diverged lineage. D. sulfurigaster bilimbata and D. kepulauana form two independent lineages. The other two clades are the kohkoa complex and the albomicans complex. The kohkoa complex consists of D. sulfurigaster sulfurigaster, D. pulaua, D. kohkoa, and Taxon-F. The albomicans complex can be divided into two groups: D. nasuta, D. sulfurigaster neonasuta, D. sulfurigaster albostrigata, and D. albomicans from Chiangmai form one group; and D. pallidifrons, Taxon-I, Taxon-J, and D. albomicans from China form the other group. High genetic differentiation was found among D. albomicans populations. Based on our phylogenetic results, we hypothesize that D. niveifrons diverged first from the D. nasuta subgroup in Papua New Guinea about 3.5 Mya. The ancestral population spread to the north and when it reached Borneo, it diversified sequentially into the kohkoa complex, D. s. bilimbata, and D. kepulauana. About 1 Mya, another radiation occurred when the ancestral populations reached the Indo-China Peninsula, forming the albomicans complex. Discrepancy between morphological groupings and phylogenetic results suggests that the male morphological traits may not be orthologous.
  14. Matsui M, Kuraishi N, Eto K, Hamidy A, Nishikawa K, Shimada T, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2016 09;102:305-19.
    PMID: 27374495 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.06.009
    A fanged frog Limnonectes kuhlii was once thought to be wide-ranging in Southeast Asia, but is now confined to its type locality Java through recent phylogenetic studies, which clarified heterospecific status of non-Javanese populations, and monophyly of Bornean populations. However, large genetic differences among Bornean populations suggest occurrence of cryptic species, which we test using dense geographic sampling. We estimated the phylogenetic relationships among samples of Bornean populations together with their putative relatives from the continental Southeast Asia, using 2517bp sequences of the 12S rRNA, tRNA(val), and 16S rRNA of mitochondrial DNA, and 2367bp sequences of the NCX1, POMC, and RAG1 of nuclear genes. In the mtDNA trees, Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs formed a monophyletic group split into 18 species lineages including L. hikidai, with the deepest phylogenetic split separating L. cintalubang from the remaining species. Almost all of these lineages co-occur geographically, and two to three lineages were found syntopically in each locality. Co-occurrence of more than one lineage may be maintained by differential morphology and microhabitat selection. These syntopic lineages should be regarded as distinct species. Our results clearly indicate that taxonomic revision is urgent to clarify many evolutionary problems of Bornean L. kuhlii-like frogs.
  15. Lopes-Lima M, Froufe E, Do VT, Ghamizi M, Mock KE, Kebapçı Ü, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2017 01;106:174-191.
    PMID: 27621130 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.08.021
    Freshwater mussels of the order Unionida are key elements of freshwater habitats and are responsible for important ecological functions and services. Unfortunately, these bivalves are among the most threatened freshwater taxa in the world. However, conservation planning and management are hindered by taxonomic problems and a lack of detailed ecological data. This highlights the urgent need for advances in the areas of systematics and evolutionary relationships within the Unionida. This study presents the most comprehensive phylogeny to date of the larger Unionida family, i.e., the Unionidae. The phylogeny is based on a combined dataset of 1032bp (COI+28S) of 70 species in 46 genera, with 7 of this genera being sequenced for the first time. The resulting phylogeny divided the Unionidae into 6 supported subfamilies and 18 tribes, three of which are here named for the first time (i.e., Chamberlainiini nomen novum, Cristariini nomen novum and Lanceolariini nomen novum). Molecular analyses were complemented by investigations of selected morphological, anatomical and behavioral characters used in traditional phylogenetic studies. No single morphological, anatomical or behavioral character was diagnostic at the subfamily level and few were useful at the tribe level. However, within subfamilies, many tribes can be recognized based on a subset of these characters. The geographical distribution of each of the subfamilies and tribes is also presented. The present study provides important advances in the systematics of these extraordinary taxa with implications for future ecological and conservation studies.
  16. Carter BE, Larraín J, Manukjanová A, Shaw B, Shaw AJ, Heinrichs J, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2017 02;107:16-26.
    PMID: 27744015 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2016.10.002
    Frullania subgenus Microfrullania is a clade of ca. 15 liverwort species occurring in Australasia, Malesia, and southern South America. We used combined nuclear and chloroplast sequence data from 265 ingroup accessions to test species circumscriptions and estimate the biogeographic history of the subgenus. With dense infra-specific sampling, we document an important role of long-distance dispersal in establishing phylogeographic patterns of extant species. At deeper time scales, a combination of phylogenetic analyses, divergence time estimation and ancestral range estimation were used to reject vicariance and to document the role of long-distance dispersal in explaining the evolution and biogeography of the clade across the southern Hemisphere. A backbone phylogeny for the subgenus is proposed, providing insight into evolution of morphological patterns and establishing the basis for an improved sectional classification of species within Microfrullania. Several species complexes are identified, the presence of two undescribed but genetically and morphologically distinct species is noted, and previously neglected names are discussed.
  17. Chua VL, Smith BT, Burner RC, Rahman MA, Lakim M, Prawiradilaga DM, et al.
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2017 Aug;113:139-149.
    PMID: 28545973 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.05.016
    The mountains of Borneo are well known for their high endemicity and historical role in preserving Southeast Asian rainforest biodiversity, but the diversification of populations inhabiting these mountains is poorly studied. Here we examine the genetic structure of 12 Bornean montane passerines by comparing complete mtDNA ND2 gene sequences of populations spanning the island. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic trees and haplotype networks are examined for common patterns that might signal important historical events or boundaries to dispersal. Morphological and ecological characteristics of each species are also examined using phylogenetic generalized least-squares (PGLS) for correlation with population structure. Populations in only four of the 12 species are subdivided into distinct clades or haplotype groups. Although this subdivision occurred at about the same time in each species (ca. 0.6-0.7Ma), the spatial positioning of the genetic break differs among the species. In two species, northeastern populations are genetically divergent from populations elsewhere on the island. In the other two species, populations in the main Bornean mountain chain, including the northeast, are distinct from those on two isolated peaks in northwestern Borneo. We suggest different historical forces played a role in shaping these two distributions, despite commonality in timing. PGLS analysis showed that only a single characteristic-hand-wing index-is correlated with population structure. Birds with longer wings, and hence potentially more dispersal power, have less population structure. To understand historical forces influencing montane population structure on Borneo, future studies must compare populations across the entirety of Sundaland.
  18. Chan KO, Grismer LL, Brown RM
    Mol Phylogenet Evol, 2018 10;127:1010-1019.
    PMID: 30030179 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.07.005
    The family Rhacophoridae is one of the most diverse amphibian families in Asia, for which taxonomic understanding is rapidly-expanding, with new species being described steadily, and at increasingly finer genetic resolution. Distance-based methods frequently have been used to justify or at least to bolster the recognition of new species, particularly in complexes of "cryptic" species where obvious morphological differentiation does not accompany speciation. However, there is no universally-accepted threshold to distinguish intra- from interspecific genetic divergence. Moreover, indiscriminant use of divergence thresholds to delimit species can result in over- or underestimation of species diversity. To explore the range of variation in application of divergence scales, and to provide a family-wide assessment of species-level diversity in Old-World treefrogs (family Rhacophoridae), we assembled the most comprehensive multi-locus phylogeny to date, including all 18 genera and approximately 247 described species (∼60% coverage). We then used the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method to obtain different species-delimitation schemes over a range of prior intraspecific divergence limits to assess the consistency of divergence thresholds used to demarcate current species boundaries. The species-rich phylogeny was able to identify a number of taxonomic errors, namely the incorrect generic placement of Chiromantis inexpectatus, which we now move to the genus Feihyla, and the specific identity of Rhacophorus bipunctatus from Peninsular Malaysia, which we tentatively reassign to R. rhodopus. The ABGD analysis demonstrated overlap between intra- and interspecific divergence limits: genetic thresholds used in some studies to synonymize taxa have frequently been used in other studies to justify the recognition of new species. This analysis also highlighted numerous groups that could potentially be split or lumped, which we earmark for future examination. Our large-scale and en bloc approach to species-level phylogenetic systematics contributes to the resolution of taxonomic uncertainties, reveals possible new species, and identifies numerous groups that require critical examination. Overall, we demonstrate that the taxonomy and evolutionary history of Old-World tree frogs are far from resolved, stable or adequately characterized at the level of genus, species, and/or population.
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