Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

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  1. Tap RM, Ramli NY, Sabaratnam P, Hashim R, Bakri AR, Bee LB, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Aug;181(7-8):531-7.
    PMID: 27010640 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-016-0002-y
    The number of new fungal pathogens is increasing due to growing population of immunocompromised patients and advanced identification techniques. Fereydounia khargensis is a yeast and was first described in 2014 from environmental samples. As far as we know, this is the first report of human infections associated with F. khargensis. The yeasts were isolated from blood of a HIV-positive patient and pleural fluid of chronic renal failure patient. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer and the large subunit regions confirmed the identity of the isolates. Both isolates showed multi-drug resistance to antifungal agents tested.
  2. Jeyaprakasam NK, Razak MF, Ahmad NA, Santhanam J
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Jun;181(5-6):397-403.
    PMID: 26847667 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-016-9984-8
    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p 
  3. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Ramli NY, Hashim R, Mohd Fuat AR, Ng PP, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Apr;181(3-4):285-90.
    PMID: 26493614 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-015-9958-2
    Trichosporon species are opportunistic yeasts which can cause infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. This is a report of Trichosporon ovoides that caused subcutaneous infection in a patient with underlying ischemic heart disease. The identification of fungal isolate was confirmed by PCR sequencing of ITS and large subunit regions in rRNA gene. In vitro susceptibility study showed that the isolate was susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole, and resistant to caspofungin, anidulafungin and itraconazole. The lesion improved after treatment with oral fluconazole and topical miconazole.
  4. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Ahmad NA, Abd Razak MF, Hashim R, Ahmad N
    Mycopathologia, 2015 Aug;180(1-2):137-41.
    PMID: 25894509 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-015-9890-5
    An 11-year-old girl presented with multiple blisters on her the right foot complicated with cellulitis. The conventional and molecular identification were performed on the culture. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rRNA gene of the isolate was amplified by PCR. The sequence of the amplified ITS region matched 99 % with that of Chaetomium globosum in the GenBank. This is the first report describing C. globosum causing cutaneous infection in Malaysia.
  5. Mohd Nor F, Tan LH, Na SL, Ng KP
    Mycopathologia, 2015 Aug;180(1-2):95-8.
    PMID: 25739670 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-015-9879-0
    Rhodotorula species are increasingly being identified as a cause of fungal infection in the central nervous system, especially in patients with compromised immunity. The diagnosis could easily be missed due to low index of suspicion, as cryptococcus meningitis and cerebral toxoplasmosis are more common amongst immunocompromised hosts. To date, there are six cases of Rhodotorula-related meningitis reported, and three are associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. In this report, a case of a Malaysian male with underlying human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed Rhodotorula mucilaginosa meningitis is presented. High-grade fever and severe headaches were the complaints presented in three previous case reports. India ink and nigrosin stainings were performed in the two previous reports and both revealed positive results. R. mucilaginosa were isolated from the culture of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid in all three previous reports. Predominant lymphocyte infiltration in the cerebrospinal fluid examination was documented in two reports. CD4 counts were above 100/µl in two previously published reports, while another report documented CD4 count as 56/µl. Amphotericin B and itraconazole are identified to be the first line of antifungal used and as the maintenance therapy, respectively. The possibility of relapse cannot be excluded as it was reported in the first report. It was also revealed that the current case has almost similar clinical presentation and therapeutic outcome as compared to the published reports, but some differences in diagnostic details were to be highlighted.
  6. Tay ST, Lotfalikhani A, Sabet NS, Ponnampalavanar S, Sulaiman S, Na SL, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2014 Oct;178(3-4):307-14.
    PMID: 25022264 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-014-9778-9
    BACKGROUND: Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis have been recently identified as emerging yeast pathogens which are phenotypically indistinguishable from C. glabrata. However, there is little data on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibilities of these species.

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital.

    METHODS: C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method.

    RESULTS: There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate.

    CONCLUSION: This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.

  7. Tay ST, Chai HC, Na SL, Hamimah H, Rohani MY, Soo-Hoo TS
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jun;159(4):509-13.
    PMID: 15983736
    The occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta in Klang valley, Malaysia was determined in this study. Of 544 samples of bird excreta collected from a local zoo, pet shops and public areas, 20 strains of C. neoformans were isolated. All C. neoformans strains were serotype A and thus identified as C. neoformans variety grubii. All did not produce color changes on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. All were of alpha-mating types, as determined by a pheromone-specific PCR assay. The antifungal susceptibility testing using agar diffusion method Neo-sensitabs showed that all were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole.
  8. Ng KP, Soo-Hoo TS, Na SL, Tay ST, Hamimah H, Lim PC, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jun;159(4):495-500.
    PMID: 15983734
    Hortaea werneckii is an environmental dematiaceous fungus found in the halophilic environment. It causes tinea nigra. We report the isolation of H. werneckii from blood and splenic abscess of two patients with acute myelomonocytic leukaemia. H. werneckii grew at room temperature but not at 37 degrees C, it was identified by biochemical tests, growth characteristics and the presence of conspicuous collarette intercalary on dividing yeast cells. The use of specific oligonucleotide primer Hor-F (5'-TGGACACCTTCA TAACTCTTG-3') and Hor-R (5'-TCACAACGCTTAGAGACGG-3') confirmed the two isolates were H. werneckii. The sequence for 281 nucleotide of HW299 and HW403 were 99% identical but differed only in one nucleotide. In vitro anti-fungal susceptibility testing showed that the isolates were resistant to amphotericin B and flucytosine.
  9. Tay ST, Chai HC, Na SL, Ng KP
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Apr;159(3):325-9.
    PMID: 15883714
    The genotypes of 221 recent isolates of Candida albicans from various clinical specimens of 213 patients admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia was determined based on the amplification of a transposable intron region in the 25 S rRNA gene. The analyses of 178 C. albicans isolated from nonsterile clinical specimens showed that they could be classified into three genotypes: genotype A (138 isolates), genotype B (38 isolates) and genotype C (2 isolates). The genotyping of 43 clinical isolates from sterile specimens showed that they belonged to genotype A (29 isolates), genotype B (10 isolates), genotype C (2 isolates) and genotype D (2 isolates). The overall distribution of C. albicans genotypes in sterile and nonsterile specimens appeared similar, with genotype A being the most predominant type. This study reported the identification of C. dubliniensis (genotype D) in 2 HIV-negative patients with systemic candidiasis, which were missed by the routine mycological procedure. The study demonstrated the genetic diversity of clinical isolates of C. albicans in Malaysia.
  10. Sariah M, Choo CW, Zakaria H, Norihan MS
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jan;159(1):113-7.
    PMID: 15750742
    Basal stem rot of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense is of major economic importance. Observations of the low incidence of disease due to Ganoderma species in natural stands, suggest that the disease is kept under control by some biological means. Trichoderma spp. are saprophytic fungi with high antagonistic activities against soil-borne pathogens. However, their abundance and distribution are soil and crop specific. Trichoderma species have been found to be concentrated in the A1 (0-30 cm) and Be soil horizons (30-60 cm), although the abundance of Trichoderma was not significantly different between the oil palm and non-oil palm ecosystems. Characterisation of Trichoderma isolates based on cultural, morphological and DNA polymorphism showed that T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. longibrachiatum made up 72, 14, 10 and 4% of the total Trichoderma isolates isolated. As Trichoderma species are present in the oil palm ecosystem, but at lower numbers and in locations different from those desired, soil augmentation with antagonistic Trichoderma spp. can be developed as a strategy towards integrated management of basal stem rot of oil palm.
  11. Lim HP, Fong YK
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jan;159(1):171-9.
    PMID: 15750750
    Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these testers to determine the relatedness of the homokaryotic Ganoderma isolates, both from Johor and from Singapore. Results from the compatibility tests showed that Ganoderma from both locations belong to the same species, while the Ganoderma isolates from Singapore share some common alleles. The pathogenicity tests carried out on Chrysalidocarpus lutescens seedlings using inoculum growing on rubber wood blocks showed that dikaryotic mycelia can cause basal stem rot infection.
  12. Susanto A, Sudharto PS, Purba RY
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jan;159(1):153-7.
    PMID: 15750748
    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents.
  13. Ng KP, Soo-Hoo TS, Na SL, Ang LS
    Mycopathologia, 2002;155(4):203-6.
    PMID: 12650596
    A total of 576 dermatophytes were isolated from patients with a variety of skin infections from January 1993 to May 2000. Ten species of dermatophytes were identified: Epidermophyton floccosum (0.7%), Microsporum audouinii (1.1%), M. canis (3.1%), M. gypseum (0.3%), Trichophyton concentricum (3.5%), T. equinum (0.2%), T. mentagrophytes (36.1%), T. rubrum (53.8%), T. verrucosum (0.2) and T. violaceum (1.0%). The body sites most frequently affected by dermatophytes were the buttocks, nails and trunk. Anthropophilic dermatophytes made up 60.1% of the isolates; the most common species was T. rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and M. canis were the two main zoophilic dermatophytes. T. mentagrophytes was isolated from all body sites except the scalp. M. canis was found to be associated with domestic dogs and was not isolated from ethnic Malays. The only geophilic dermatophyte was M. gypseum, an uncommon dermatophyte associated with tinea pedis.
  14. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Salleh MA, Abd Razak MF, Ahmad N
    Mycopathologia, 2012 Mar;173(2-3):173-8.
    PMID: 21948061 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-011-9469-8
    Prototheca wickerhamii isolated from blood of 61-year-old kidney transplant patient was described. Although it is classified as an alga (genus Chlorella), the disease, protothecosis, is included under mycoses because of its clinical pathological presentations. Colony characteristics of P. wickerhamii are indistinguishable from other yeast-like organisms like Cryptococcus and Candida. Fortunately, commercial identification system for yeast can be used to identify this organism to the species level. Electron microscopy demonstrated "morula" or daisy-like appearance of its endosporulating sporangia. The organism was sensitive to amphotericin B by E test method. Even though human protothecosis is uncommon, it cannot be ignored because it is emerging as an opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of disseminated algaemia due to P. wickerhamii in Malaysia.
  15. Ng KP, Saw TL, Madasamy M, Soo Hoo T
    Mycopathologia, 1999;147(1):29-32.
    PMID: 10872513
    The common etiological agents of onychomycosis are dermatophytes, molds and yeasts. A mycological nail investigation of onychomycosis using direct microscopy and culture was conducted by the Mycology Unit, Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya from March 1996 to November 1998. The study involved 878 nail clippings or subungal scrapings from subjects with onychomycosis. On direct microscopy examination, 50% of the specimens were negative for fungal elements. On culture, 373 specimens had no growth; bacteria were isolated from 15 nail specimens. Among the 490 specimens with positive fungal cultures, 177 (36.1%) were dermatophytes, 173 (35.5%) were molds and 130 (26.5%) were Candida. There were 2% (10/490) mixed infections of molds, yeasts and dermatophytes. Trichophyton rubrum (115/177) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (59/177) were the main dermatophytes isolated. The molds isolated were predominantly Aspergillus niger (61/173), Aspergillus nidulans (30/173), Hendersonula toruloidea (26/173) and Fusarium species (16/173). 96.9% of the Candida species identified were Candida albicans.
  16. Ng KP, Madasamy M, Saw TL, Baki A, He J, Soo-Hoo TS
    Mycopathologia, 1999 10 26;144(3):135-40.
    PMID: 10531679
    The distribution of Candida species was examined using 1114 yeasts isolated from various clinical specimens. The isolates were identified by germ tube test, hyphal/pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia production and carbohydrate assimilation test using ten carbohydrates (glucose, sucrose, trehalose, cellobiose, arabinose, galactose, mannitol, raffinose, lactose and maltose). Among the 1114 isolates studied, 9 species of Candida were identified and the relative frequency of isolation was C. albicans (44.2%), C. parapsilosis (26.0%), C. tropicalis (17.7%), C. glabrata (9.6%), C. krusei (1.2%), C. rugosa (0.6%), C. guilliermondii (0.2%), C. lusitaniae (0.08%) and C. kefyr (0.08%). Non-C. albicans was the most common Candida species isolated from blood, respiratory system, urine and skin. The isolate from vaginal swabs was predominantly C. albicans. 82.2% of C. glabrata and 64.2% of C. krusei isolated in this study were from vaginal swabs.
  17. Ng KP, Saw TL, Na SL, Soo-Hoo TS
    Mycopathologia, 2001;149(3):141-6.
    PMID: 11307597
    A total of 102 Candida species were isolated from blood cultures from January 1997 to October 1999. Using assimilation of carbohydrate test, 52 (51.0%) of the Candida sp. were identified as C. parapsilosis, 25.5% (26) were C. tropicalis. C. albicans made up 11.8% (12), 6.9% (7) were C. rugosa, 3.8% (4) C. glabrata and 1% (1) C. guilliermondii. No C. dubliniensis was found in the study. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests showed that all Candida species were sensitive to nystatin, amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Although all isolates remained sensitive to fluconazole, intermediate susceptibility was found in 3 C. rugosa isolates. Antifungal agents with high frequency of resistance were econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole and 5-fluorocytosine. Candida species found to have resistance to these antifungal agents were non-C. albicans.
  18. Abdullah N, Nawawi A, Othman I
    Mycopathologia, 1998;143(1):53-8.
    PMID: 10205885
    In a survey of starch-based foods sampled from retail outlets in Malaysia, fungal colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (100%), followed by rice flour (74%), glutinous rice grains (72%), ordinary rice grains (60%), glutinous rice flour (48%) and corn flour (26%). All positive samples of ordinary rice and glutinous rice grains had total fungal counts below 10(3) cfu/g sample, while among the positive rice flour, glutinous rice flour and corn flour samples, the highest total fungal count was more than 10(3) but less than 10(4) cfu/g sample respectively. However, in wheat flour samples total fungal count ranged from 10(2) cfu/g sample to slightly more than 10(4) cfu/g sample. Aflatoxigenic colonies were mostly detected in wheat flour (20%), followed by ordinary rice grains (4%), glutinous rice grains (4%) and glutinous rice flour (2%). No aflatoxigenic colonies were isolated from rice flour and corn flour samples. Screening of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 using reversed-phase HPLC were carried out on 84 samples of ordinary rice grains and 83 samples of wheat flour. Two point four percent (2.4%) of ordinary rice grains were positive for aflatoxin G1 and 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G2. All the positive samples were collected from private homes at concentrations ranging from 3.69-77.50 micrograms/kg. One point two percent (1.2%) of wheat flour samples were positive for aflatoxin B1 at a concentration of 25.62 micrograms/kg, 4.8% were positive for aflatoxin B2 at concentrations ranging from 11.25-252.50 micrograms/kg, 3.6% were positive for aflatoxin G1 at concentrations ranging from 25.00-289.38 micrograms/kg and 13.25% were positive for aflatoxin G2 at concentrations ranging from 16.25-436.25 micrograms/kg. Similarly, positive wheat flour samples were mostly collected from private homes.
  19. Soon SH
    Mycopathologia, 1991 Mar;113(3):155-8.
    PMID: 2067562
    Two hundred and thirty soil samples from different localities were examined for the presence of geophilic keratinophilic fungi. Six species namely Microsporum gypseum--34 isolates, Chrysosporium keratinophilum--29, C. tropicum--20, Keratinophyton terreum--4, Trichophyton terrestre--8 and Chrysosporium species--3--were isolated. Most of these fungi were recovered from garden, field and river bank soil. The importance of these findings is briefly discussed.
  20. Jayalakshmi P, Looi LM, Soo-Hoo TS
    Mycopathologia, 1990 Jan;109(1):27-31.
    PMID: 2325747
    Nine cases of histologically diagnosed chromoblastomycosis are reported from Malaysia. All the patients were males and ranged in age from 56 to 65 years. The duration of symptoms varied from 5 months to 13 years. All the lesions were noted in the lower limbs. Malignancy was suspected clinically in 5 cases. The diagnosis was established by finding characteristic brown muriform cells in the tissue sections.
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