Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Ahmad NA, Abd Razak MF, Hashim R, Ahmad N
    Mycopathologia, 2015 Aug;180(1-2):137-41.
    PMID: 25894509 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-015-9890-5
    An 11-year-old girl presented with multiple blisters on her the right foot complicated with cellulitis. The conventional and molecular identification were performed on the culture. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in rRNA gene of the isolate was amplified by PCR. The sequence of the amplified ITS region matched 99 % with that of Chaetomium globosum in the GenBank. This is the first report describing C. globosum causing cutaneous infection in Malaysia.
  2. Mohd Nor F, Tan LH, Na SL, Ng KP
    Mycopathologia, 2015 Aug;180(1-2):95-8.
    PMID: 25739670 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-015-9879-0
    Rhodotorula species are increasingly being identified as a cause of fungal infection in the central nervous system, especially in patients with compromised immunity. The diagnosis could easily be missed due to low index of suspicion, as cryptococcus meningitis and cerebral toxoplasmosis are more common amongst immunocompromised hosts. To date, there are six cases of Rhodotorula-related meningitis reported, and three are associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection. In this report, a case of a Malaysian male with underlying human immunodeficiency virus infection who developed Rhodotorula mucilaginosa meningitis is presented. High-grade fever and severe headaches were the complaints presented in three previous case reports. India ink and nigrosin stainings were performed in the two previous reports and both revealed positive results. R. mucilaginosa were isolated from the culture of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid in all three previous reports. Predominant lymphocyte infiltration in the cerebrospinal fluid examination was documented in two reports. CD4 counts were above 100/µl in two previously published reports, while another report documented CD4 count as 56/µl. Amphotericin B and itraconazole are identified to be the first line of antifungal used and as the maintenance therapy, respectively. The possibility of relapse cannot be excluded as it was reported in the first report. It was also revealed that the current case has almost similar clinical presentation and therapeutic outcome as compared to the published reports, but some differences in diagnostic details were to be highlighted.
  3. Tap RM, Ramli NY, Sabaratnam P, Hashim R, Bakri AR, Bee LB, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Aug;181(7-8):531-7.
    PMID: 27010640 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-016-0002-y
    The number of new fungal pathogens is increasing due to growing population of immunocompromised patients and advanced identification techniques. Fereydounia khargensis is a yeast and was first described in 2014 from environmental samples. As far as we know, this is the first report of human infections associated with F. khargensis. The yeasts were isolated from blood of a HIV-positive patient and pleural fluid of chronic renal failure patient. Amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer and the large subunit regions confirmed the identity of the isolates. Both isolates showed multi-drug resistance to antifungal agents tested.
  4. Tay ST, Lotfalikhani A, Sabet NS, Ponnampalavanar S, Sulaiman S, Na SL, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2014 Oct;178(3-4):307-14.
    PMID: 25022264 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-014-9778-9
    BACKGROUND: Candida nivariensis and C. bracarensis have been recently identified as emerging yeast pathogens which are phenotypically indistinguishable from C. glabrata. However, there is little data on the prevalence and antifungal susceptibilities of these species.

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the occurrence of C. nivariensis and C. bracarensis in a culture collection of 185 C. glabrata isolates at a Malaysian teaching hospital.

    METHODS: C. nivariensis was discriminated from C. glabrata using a PCR assay as described by Enache-Angoulvant et al. (J Clin Microbiol 49:3375-9, 2011). The identity of the isolates was confirmed by sequence analysis of the D1D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region of the yeasts. The isolates were cultured on Chromogenic CHROMagar Candida (®) agar (Difco, USA), and their biochemical and enzymic profiles were determined. Antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates against amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin were determined using E tests. Clotrimazole MICs were determined using a microbroth dilution method.

    RESULTS: There was a low prevalence (1.1 %) of C. nivariensis in our culture collection of C. glabrata. C. nivariensis was isolated from a blood culture and vaginal swab of two patients. C. nivariensis grew as white colonies on Chromogenic agar and demonstrated few positive reactions using biochemical tests. Enzymatic profiles of the C. nivariensis isolates were similar to that of C. glabrata. The isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and caspofungin. Clotrimazole resistance is suspected in one isolate.

    CONCLUSION: This study reports for the first time the emergence of C. nivariensis in our clinical setting.

  5. Jeyaprakasam NK, Razak MF, Ahmad NA, Santhanam J
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Jun;181(5-6):397-403.
    PMID: 26847667 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-016-9984-8
    Although non-sporulating molds (NSM) are frequently isolated from patients and have been recognized as agents of pulmonary disease, their clinical significance in cutaneous specimens is relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to identify NSM and to determine the keratinolytic activity of isolates from cutaneous sites. NSM isolates from clinical specimens such as skin, nail, and body fluids were identified based on their ribosomal DNA sequences. Of 17 NSM isolates (7 Ascomycota, 10 Basidiomycota), eleven were identified to species level while five were identified to the genus level. These include Schizophyllum commune, a known human pathogen, Phoma multirostrata, a plant pathogen, and Perenniporia tephropora, a saprophyte. To determine fungal pathogenicity, keratinolytic activity, a major virulence factor, was evaluated ex vivo using human nail samples by measuring dye release from keratin azure, for NSM along with pathogens (Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Fusarium spp.) and nonpathogenic (endophyte) fungi for comparison. This study showed that pathogenic fungi had the highest keratinolytic activity (7.13 ± 0.552 keratinase units) while the nonpathogenic endophytes had the lowest activity (2.37 ± 0.262 keratinase units). Keratinolytic activity of two Ascomycota NSM (Guignardia mangiferae and Hypoxylon sp.) and one Basidiomycota NSM (Fomitopsis cf. meliae) was equivalent to that of pathogenic fungi, while Xylaria feejeensis showed significantly higher activity (p 
  6. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Ramli NY, Hashim R, Mohd Fuat AR, Ng PP, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2016 Apr;181(3-4):285-90.
    PMID: 26493614 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-015-9958-2
    Trichosporon species are opportunistic yeasts which can cause infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. This is a report of Trichosporon ovoides that caused subcutaneous infection in a patient with underlying ischemic heart disease. The identification of fungal isolate was confirmed by PCR sequencing of ITS and large subunit regions in rRNA gene. In vitro susceptibility study showed that the isolate was susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and voriconazole, and resistant to caspofungin, anidulafungin and itraconazole. The lesion improved after treatment with oral fluconazole and topical miconazole.
  7. Mohd Tap R, Sabaratnam P, Salleh MA, Abd Razak MF, Ahmad N
    Mycopathologia, 2012 Mar;173(2-3):173-8.
    PMID: 21948061 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-011-9469-8
    Prototheca wickerhamii isolated from blood of 61-year-old kidney transplant patient was described. Although it is classified as an alga (genus Chlorella), the disease, protothecosis, is included under mycoses because of its clinical pathological presentations. Colony characteristics of P. wickerhamii are indistinguishable from other yeast-like organisms like Cryptococcus and Candida. Fortunately, commercial identification system for yeast can be used to identify this organism to the species level. Electron microscopy demonstrated "morula" or daisy-like appearance of its endosporulating sporangia. The organism was sensitive to amphotericin B by E test method. Even though human protothecosis is uncommon, it cannot be ignored because it is emerging as an opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of disseminated algaemia due to P. wickerhamii in Malaysia.
  8. Jalili M, Jinap S, Radu S
    Mycopathologia, 2010 Oct;170(4):251-8.
    PMID: 20526682 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-010-9320-7
    The concentration of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 120 commercial pepper (84 pre-packed and 36 bulk samples), which consist of local and imported white and black pepper in powder and seed form in Malaysia were determined. The objective of the study was to investigate and compare OTA concentration in black pepper and white pepper being commercialized in Malaysia. Determination method was based on HPLC with fluorescence detection coupled with immunoaffinity column clean-up step. Mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile-water-acetic acid (49.5:49.5:1.0, v/v/v), and flow rate was 1 ml/min. The LOD was 0.02 ng/g, and the average recovery values of OTA ranged from 79.5 to 92.0% in black pepper and 81.2-90.3% in white pepper. A total of 57 samples (47.5%) were contaminated with OTA ranging from 0.15 to 13.58 ng/g. The results showed that there was a significant difference between type of pepper and brands. OTA concentration in black pepper was significantly higher than white pepper (p < 0.05). The highest concentration of ochratoxin, 13.58 ng/g, was detected in a sample of black pepper seed followed by 12.64 ng/g in a sample of black pepper powder, both were bulk samples purchased from open market.
  9. Khodavandi A, Alizadeh F, Aala F, Sekawi Z, Chong PP
    Mycopathologia, 2010 Apr;169(4):287-95.
    PMID: 19924565 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-009-9251-3
    Candidiasis is a term describing infections by yeasts from the genus Candida, and the type of infection encompassed by candidiasis ranges from superficial to systemic. Treatment of such infections often requires antifungals such as the azoles, but increased use of these drugs has led to selection of yeasts with increased resistance to these drugs. In this study, we used allicin, an allyl sulfur derivative of garlic, to demonstrate both its intrinsic antifungal activity and its synergy with the azoles, in the treatment of these yeasts in vitro. In this study, the MIC(50) and MIC(90) of allicin alone against six Candida spp. ranged from 0.05 to 25 microg/ml. However, when allicin was used in combination with fluconazole or ketoconazole, the MICs were decreased in some isolates. Our results demonstrated the existing synergistic effect between allicin and azoles in some of the Candida spp. such as C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, but synergy was not demonstrated in the majority of Candida spp. tested. Nonetheless, In vivo testing needs to be performed to support these findings.
  10. Nghia NA, Kadir J, Sunderasan E, Puad Abdullah M, Malik A, Napis S
    Mycopathologia, 2008 Oct;166(4):189-201.
    PMID: 18568417 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-008-9138-8
    Morphological features and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) polymorphism were employed to analyse 21 Corynespora cassiicola isolates obtained from a number of Hevea clones grown in rubber plantations in Malaysia. The C. cassiicola isolates used in this study were collected from several states in Malaysia from 1998 to 2005. The morphology of the isolates was characteristic of that previously described for C. cassiicola. Variations in colony and conidial morphology were observed not only among isolates but also within a single isolate with no inclination to either clonal or geographical origin of the isolates. ISSR analysis delineated the isolates into two distinct clusters. The dendrogram created from UPGMA analysis based on Nei and Li's coefficient (calculated from the binary matrix data of 106 amplified DNA bands generated from 8 ISSR primers) showed that cluster 1 encompasses 12 isolates from the states of Johor and Selangor (this cluster was further split into 2 sub clusters (1A, 1B), sub cluster 1B consists of a unique isolate, CKT05D); while cluster 2 comprises of 9 isolates that were obtained from the other states. Detached leaf assay performed on selected Hevea clones showed that the pathogenicity of representative isolates from cluster 1 (with the exception of CKT05D) resembled that of race 1; and isolates in cluster 2 showed pathogenicity similar to race 2 of the fungus that was previously identified in Malaysia. The isolate CKT05D from sub cluster 1B showed pathogenicity dissimilar to either race 1 or race 2.
  11. Razak MF, Aidoo KE, Candlish AG
    Mycopathologia, 2009 May;167(5):273-86.
    PMID: 18991016 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-008-9167-3
    Twenty commercial mixed herbal drugs were examined for mycological profile. Aspergillus species were the predominant fungi found in the drugs. Other fungi harboured in the drugs with less frequency were Paecilomyces species, Eurotium species, Monascus species, Acremonium species, Penicillium species, Cladosporium species, Scopulariopsis species, Phialophora species and Fonseceae species. Fungal count was between 1.0 log(10) CFU and 2.4 log(10) CFU per gram of sample. When the drugs were incubated in 85% humidity at 25 degrees C, fungal colonies grew on only two of the drugs. The mixed herbal drugs were extracted with water and the extracts were used to grow Aspergillus parasiticus. All extracts reduced aflatoxin B(1) and aflatoxin G(1) production by 62-97%. All but two of the extracts reduced aflatoxin B(2) and aflatoxin G(2) production by 39-95%. It can be concluded that the commercial powdered mixed herbal drugs contained low number of endogenous fungi, and these drugs are inhibitory to the growth of its endogenous fungi and aflatoxins production by aflatoxigenic fungi.
  12. Yong PV, Chong PP, Lau LY, Yeoh RS, Jamal F
    Mycopathologia, 2008 Feb;165(2):81-7.
    PMID: 18266075 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-007-9086-8
    The incidence of candidemia and invasive candidiasis have increased markedly due to the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. There are five major medically important species of Candida with their frequency of isolation in the diminishing order namely Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata and Candida krusei. In addition, there are numerous other species of Candida which differ in their genetic makeup, virulence properties, drug susceptibilities and sugar assimilation capabilities. In this report, an unusual Candida species was isolated from the blood of two leukaemic patients. Conventional culture and biochemical tests identified the Candida species as C. parapsilosis. Using fungal-specific oligonucleotide primers ITS1 and ITS4, we managed to amplify the ribosomal RNA gene and its internal transcribed spacer region from the genomic DNA of these isolates. The PCR products were then purified and subjected to automated DNA sequencing using BLAST and CLUSTAL sequence analysis identified these isolates to be Candida orthopsilosis. Candida orthopsilosis is a new species recently identified in 2005, being morphologically indistinguishable from C. parapsilosis and was previously classified as a subspecies of C. parapsilosis. This report highlights the importance of complementing traditional culture and biochemical-based identification methods with DNA-based molecular assays such as PCR as the latter is more superior in terms of its discriminatory power and speed.
  13. Tay ST, Chai HC, Na SL, Hamimah H, Rohani MY, Soo-Hoo TS
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jun;159(4):509-13.
    PMID: 15983736
    The occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta in Klang valley, Malaysia was determined in this study. Of 544 samples of bird excreta collected from a local zoo, pet shops and public areas, 20 strains of C. neoformans were isolated. All C. neoformans strains were serotype A and thus identified as C. neoformans variety grubii. All did not produce color changes on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue agar. All were of alpha-mating types, as determined by a pheromone-specific PCR assay. The antifungal susceptibility testing using agar diffusion method Neo-sensitabs showed that all were susceptible to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole.
  14. Ng KP, Soo-Hoo TS, Na SL, Tay ST, Hamimah H, Lim PC, et al.
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jun;159(4):495-500.
    PMID: 15983734
    Hortaea werneckii is an environmental dematiaceous fungus found in the halophilic environment. It causes tinea nigra. We report the isolation of H. werneckii from blood and splenic abscess of two patients with acute myelomonocytic leukaemia. H. werneckii grew at room temperature but not at 37 degrees C, it was identified by biochemical tests, growth characteristics and the presence of conspicuous collarette intercalary on dividing yeast cells. The use of specific oligonucleotide primer Hor-F (5'-TGGACACCTTCA TAACTCTTG-3') and Hor-R (5'-TCACAACGCTTAGAGACGG-3') confirmed the two isolates were H. werneckii. The sequence for 281 nucleotide of HW299 and HW403 were 99% identical but differed only in one nucleotide. In vitro anti-fungal susceptibility testing showed that the isolates were resistant to amphotericin B and flucytosine.
  15. Tay ST, Chai HC, Na SL, Ng KP
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Apr;159(3):325-9.
    PMID: 15883714
    The genotypes of 221 recent isolates of Candida albicans from various clinical specimens of 213 patients admitted to the University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia was determined based on the amplification of a transposable intron region in the 25 S rRNA gene. The analyses of 178 C. albicans isolated from nonsterile clinical specimens showed that they could be classified into three genotypes: genotype A (138 isolates), genotype B (38 isolates) and genotype C (2 isolates). The genotyping of 43 clinical isolates from sterile specimens showed that they belonged to genotype A (29 isolates), genotype B (10 isolates), genotype C (2 isolates) and genotype D (2 isolates). The overall distribution of C. albicans genotypes in sterile and nonsterile specimens appeared similar, with genotype A being the most predominant type. This study reported the identification of C. dubliniensis (genotype D) in 2 HIV-negative patients with systemic candidiasis, which were missed by the routine mycological procedure. The study demonstrated the genetic diversity of clinical isolates of C. albicans in Malaysia.
  16. Lim HP, Fong YK
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jan;159(1):171-9.
    PMID: 15750750
    Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these testers to determine the relatedness of the homokaryotic Ganoderma isolates, both from Johor and from Singapore. Results from the compatibility tests showed that Ganoderma from both locations belong to the same species, while the Ganoderma isolates from Singapore share some common alleles. The pathogenicity tests carried out on Chrysalidocarpus lutescens seedlings using inoculum growing on rubber wood blocks showed that dikaryotic mycelia can cause basal stem rot infection.
  17. Sariah M, Choo CW, Zakaria H, Norihan MS
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jan;159(1):113-7.
    PMID: 15750742
    Basal stem rot of oil palm caused by Ganoderma boninense is of major economic importance. Observations of the low incidence of disease due to Ganoderma species in natural stands, suggest that the disease is kept under control by some biological means. Trichoderma spp. are saprophytic fungi with high antagonistic activities against soil-borne pathogens. However, their abundance and distribution are soil and crop specific. Trichoderma species have been found to be concentrated in the A1 (0-30 cm) and Be soil horizons (30-60 cm), although the abundance of Trichoderma was not significantly different between the oil palm and non-oil palm ecosystems. Characterisation of Trichoderma isolates based on cultural, morphological and DNA polymorphism showed that T. harzianum, T. virens, T. koningii and T. longibrachiatum made up 72, 14, 10 and 4% of the total Trichoderma isolates isolated. As Trichoderma species are present in the oil palm ecosystem, but at lower numbers and in locations different from those desired, soil augmentation with antagonistic Trichoderma spp. can be developed as a strategy towards integrated management of basal stem rot of oil palm.
  18. Susanto A, Sudharto PS, Purba RY
    Mycopathologia, 2005 Jan;159(1):153-7.
    PMID: 15750748
    Basal Stem Rot (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense is the most destructive disease in oil palm, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. The available control measures for BSR disease such as cultural practices and mechanical and chemical treatment have not proved satisfactory due to the fact that Ganoderma has various resting stages such as melanised mycelium, basidiospores and pseudosclerotia. Alternative control measures to overcome the Ganoderma problem are focused on the use of biological control agents and planting resistant material. Present studies conducted at Indonesian Oil Palm Research Institute (IOPRI) are focused on enhancing the use of biological control agents for Ganoderma. These activities include screening biological agents from the oil palm rhizosphere in order to evaluate their effectiveness as biological agents in glasshouse and field trials, testing their antagonistic activities in large scale experiments and eradicating potential disease inoculum with biological agents. Several promising biological agents have been isolated, mainly Trichoderma harzianum, T. viride, Gliocladium viride, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bacillus sp. A glasshouse and field trial for Ganoderma control indicated that treatment with T. harzianum and G. viride was superior to Bacillus sp. A large scale trial showed that the disease incidence was lower in a field treated with biological agents than in untreated fields. In a short term programme, research activities at IOPRI are currently focusing on selecting fungi that can completely degrade plant material in order to eradicate inoculum. Digging holes around the palm bole and adding empty fruit bunches have been investigated as ways to stimulate biological agents.
  19. Kano R, Hsiao YH, Siew HH, Chen C, Hasegawa A, Kamata H
    Mycopathologia, 2018 Jan 16.
    PMID: 29340910 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-018-0242-0
    To clarify the terbinafine (TRF) resistance mechanism in a TRF-resistant strain of Microsporum canis, the expression of the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR1), multidrug resistance (MDR1), MDR2 and MDR4 genes were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis, given the known interaction of the corresponding proteins with antifungals and with the efflux blocker FK506. The expression of the PDR1, MDR1, MDR2 and MDR4 genes was 2-4 times higher in the TRF-resistant strain grown in the presence of 0.14 µg/mL of TRF than in TRF-susceptible strains cultured in the absence of TRF. The TRF-resistant strain exhibited MICs of > 32 µg/mL for TRF alone; this resistance was attenuated to an MIC of 8 µg/mL in the presence of FK506, indicating that the TRF inhibitory concentration index value was
  20. Madhavan P, Jamal F, Pei CP, Othman F, Karunanidhi A, Ng KP
    Mycopathologia, 2018 Jun;183(3):499-511.
    PMID: 29380188 DOI: 10.1007/s11046-018-0243-z
    Infections by non-albicans Candida species are a life-threatening condition, and formation of biofilms can lead to treatment failure in a clinical setting. This study was aimed to demonstrate the in vitro antibiofilm activity of fluconazole (FLU) and voriconazole (VOR) against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa with diverse antifungal susceptibilities to FLU and VOR. The antibiofilm activities of FLU and VOR in the form of suspension as well as pre-coatings were assessed by XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assay. Morphological and intracellular changes exerted by the antifungal drugs on Candida cells were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results of the antibiofilm activities showed that FLU drug suspension was capable of killing C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4× MIC FLU and 256× MIC FLU, respectively. While VOR MICs ranging from 2× to 32× were capable of killing the biofilms of all Candida spp tested. The antibiofilm activities of pre-coated FLU were able to kill the biofilms at ¼× MIC FLU and ½× MIC FLU for C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa strains, respectively. While pre-coated VOR was able to kill the biofilms, all three Candida sp at ½× MIC VOR. SEM and TEM examinations showed that FLU and VOR treatments exerted significant impact on Candida cell with various degrees of morphological changes. In conclusion, a fourfold reduction in MIC50 of FLU and VOR towards ATCC strains of C. glabrata, C. rugosa and C. rugosa clinical strain was observed in this study.
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