METHODS: A total 621 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15-59ml/min/1.73m(2) (CKD stage 3 & 4) were selected and followed up for 10 years or until ESRD or death, whichever occurred first. Subjects who did not meet inclusion criteria were excluded (n=1474).
RESULTS: Annual cumulative decline in eGFR was 3.01±0.40 ml/min/1.73m(2) . Overall disease progression was observed in 60% patients while 18% died. Among patients with CKD stage 3, 21% progressed to stage 4, 10% to stage 5ND (non-dialysis) and 31% to RRT while mortality was observed in 16% patients. On the other hand, 8% patients with CKD stage 4 progressed to stage 5ND, 31% to RRT and mortality was observed in 24% cases. Patients with CVD, higher systolic blood pressure, elevated phosphate levels, heavy proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and use of diuretics were more likely to develop ESRD. Advancing age, low eGFR, low systolic blood pressure, low hemoglobin and baseline diabetes were found to be significant predictors of mortality while being female reduced risk of mortality.
CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that, in this CKD cohort, patients were more likely to develop ESRD than death. Prime importance should be given to mild forms of CKD to retard and even reverse CKD progression.
METHODS: This is a prospective observational study on patients with SIRS. Plasma creatinine (pCr) and NGAL were measured on ICU admission. Patients were classified according to the occurrence of AKI and sepsis.
RESULTS: Of 225 patients recruited, 129 (57%) had sepsis of whom 67 (52%) also had AKI. 96 patients (43%) had non-infectious SIRS, of whom 20 (21%) also had AKI. NGAL concentrations were higher in AKI patients within both the sepsis and non-infectious SIRS cohorts (both P
METHODS: Retrospective data on serum calcium and infusion rates was collected from 2011-2015. The relationship between peak calcium efflux (PER) and time was determined using a scatterplot and linear regression. A comparison between regimens was made based on treatment efficacy (hypocalcaemia duration, total infusion amount and time) and calcium excursions (outside target range, peak and trough calcium) using bar charts and an unpaired t-test.
RESULTS: Fifty-one and 34 patients on the original and new regimens respectively were included. Mean PER was lower (2.16 vs 2.56 mmol/h; P = 0.03) and occurred earlier (17.6 vs 23.2 h; P = 0.13) for the new regimen. Both scatterplot and regression showed a large correlation between PER and time (R-square 0.64, SE 1.53, P
METHODS: This collaborative project will synthesize data and perform meta-analyses of observational studies conducted in Asia. Studies will be identified through a systematic literature search including abstracts, proceedings of meetings, electronic databases such as MEDLINE and EMBASE. Personal enquiry among collaborators and experts in the region will identify additional studies, or other data sources such as registries. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that describe the prevalence of CKD and its complications will be included, as will longitudinal studies that describe important clinical outcomes for people with CKD. Individual participant data will be sought, where possible, from each of the studies included in the collaboration for baseline parameters and subsequent outcomes, in order to maximize flexibility and consistency of data analyses.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is an initiative offering a unique opportunity to obtain information about the prevalence and manifestations of CKD in Asia, as well as its risk factors. The ARC will also provide insights into important outcomes including progression of CKD, CKD complications, cardiovascular disease and death. These findings will improve our understanding of kidney disease in Asia, and thus help inform service provision, preventive care and further research across the region.
METHODS: Renal registries reporting on patients starting RRT per million population for ESRD by PRD from 2005 to 2014, were identified by internet search and literature review. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of the time trends was computed using Joinpoint regression.
RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the incidence of RRT for ESRD due to diabetes mellitus (DM) in Europe (AAPC = -0.9; 95%CI -1.3; -0.5) and to hypertension/renal vascular disease (HT/RVD) in Australia (AAPC = -1.8; 95%CI -3.3; -0.3), Canada (AAPC = -2.9; 95%CI -4.4; -1.5) and Europe (AAPC = -1.1; 95%CI -2.1; -0.0). A decrease or stabilization was observed for glomerulonephritis in all regions and for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in all regions except for Malaysia and the Republic of Korea. An increase of 5.2-16.3% was observed for DM, HT/RVD and ADPKD in Malaysia and the Republic of Korea.
CONCLUSION: Large international differences exist in the trends in incidence of RRT by primary renal disease. Mapping of these international trends is the first step in defining the causes and successful preventative measures of CKD.