Displaying all 15 publications

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  1. Tan KY, van der Beek EM, Chan MY, Zhao X, Stevenson L
    Nutr Rev, 2015 Sep;73(9):634-41.
    PMID: 26269489 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuv029
    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations aims to act as a single market and allow free movement of goods, services, and manpower. The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the current regulatory framework for health claims in Southeast Asia and to highlight the current barriers and opportunities in the regulatory frameworks in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations. To date, 5 countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, have regulations and guidelines to permit the use of health claims on food products. There are inconsistencies in the regulations and the types of evidence required for health claim applications in these countries. A clear understanding of the regulatory frameworks in these countries may help to increase trade in this fast-growing region and to provide direction for the food industry and the regulatory community to develop and market food products with better nutritional quality tailored to the needs of Southeast Asian consumers.
  2. Wong RS, Radhakrishnan AK
    Nutr Rev, 2012 Sep;70(9):483-90.
    PMID: 22946849 DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2012.00512.x
    The vitamin E family consists of eight isomers known as alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocopherols and alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tocotrienols. Numerous studies focused on the health benefits of these isomers have been performed since the discovery of vitamin E in 1922. Recent discoveries on the potential therapeutic applications of tocotrienols have revolutionized vitamin E research. Nevertheless, despite the abundance of literature, only 1% of vitamin E research has been conducted on tocotrienols. Many new advances suggest that the use of tocotrienols for health improvement or therapeutic purposes is promising. Although the mechanisms of action of tocotrienols in certain disease conditions have been explored, more detailed investigations into the fundamentals of the health-promoting effects of these molecules must be elucidated before they can be recommended for health improvement or for the treatment or prevention of disease. Furthermore, many of the studies on the effects of tocotrienols have been carried out using cell lines and animal models. The effects in humans must be well established before tocotrienols are used as therapeutic agents in various disease conditions, hence the need for more evidence-based human clinical trials.
  3. Khambalia AZ, Aimone AM, Zlotkin SH
    Nutr Rev, 2011 Dec;69(12):693-719.
    PMID: 22133195 DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00437.x
    An international perspective of the magnitude of anemia in indigenous peoples is currently lacking. The present systematic review was performed to characterize the global prevalence, severity, and etiology of anemia in indigenous peoples by conducting a systematic search of original research published in English from 1996 to February 2010 using PubMed, Medline, and Embase. A total of 50 studies, representing the following 13 countries, met the inclusion criteria: Australia, Brazil, Canada, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, the United States, and Venezuela. Results indicate major deficiencies in the coverage and quality of anemia monitoring data for indigenous populations worldwide. The burden of anemia is overwhelmingly higher among indigenous groups compared to the general population and represents a moderate (20-39.9%) to severe (≥40%) public health problem. For the most part, the etiology of anemia is preventable and includes inadequate diet, poor living conditions, and high infection rates (i.e., malaria and intestinal parasites). A concerted global effort is needed to reduce the worldwide burden of anemia in these marginalized populations.
  4. Liong MT
    Nutr Rev, 2007 Jul;65(7):316-28.
    PMID: 17695372
    The conventional use of probiotics to modulate gastrointestinal health, such as in improving lactose intolerance, increasing natural resistance to infectious diseases in the gastrointestinal tract, suppressing traveler's diarrhea, and reducing bloating, has been well investigated and documented. Most of the mechanisms reported to date are mainly caused by the suppression of pathogenic bacteria. Currently, the potential applications of probiotics are being expanded beyond alleviating gastrointestinal disorders to include benefits involving antihypertension, immunomodulation, improving serum lipid profiles, and the alleviation of postmenopausal disorders. Although they seem promising, most of these postulated benefits are based on in vitro evaluations, and the lack of in vivo evidence and/or incompatible outcomes between in vitro experiments and in vivo trials has led to inconclusive claims. This present review highlights some of the previous roles of probiotics on gut health and addresses several potential roles currently being investigated.
  5. Deurenberg-Yap M, Deurenberg P
    Nutr Rev, 2003 May;61(5 Pt 2):S80-7.
    PMID: 12828197
    This paper describes body composition and dietary intakes of the three major ethnic groups residing in Singapore and how these are related to cardiovascular risk factors in these groups. When the relationship between body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and body fat percentage was studied, Singaporeans were found to have higher percentage of body fat compared with Caucasians with the same BMI. At BMIs that are much lower than WHO-recommended cut-off values for obesity, both the absolute and relative risks of developing cardiovascular risk factors are markedly elevated for all three ethnic groups. The excessive fat accumulation and increased risks at lower BMIs signal a need to re-examine cut-off values for obesity among Chinese, Malays, and Indians.
  6. Chang AS, Yeong BY, Koh WP
    Nutr Rev, 2010 Apr;68(4):246-52.
    PMID: 20416020 DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2010.00283.x
    Reported here is a summary of the proceedings of the Symposium on Plant Polyphenols: Nutrition, Health and Innovations, which was cosponsored by the Southeast Asia Region branch of the International Life Sciences Institute and the Nutrition Society of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, June 22-23, 2009. The symposium provided a timely update of research regarding the protective effects of polyphenols in chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, as well as the development of innovative polyphenol-containing food products with enhanced nutritive and health properties. Presentations covered polyphenols from a wide range of food sources such as tea, coffee, nuts and seeds, cocoa and chocolate, soy, and Asian fruits, vegetables, and spices. The symposium was attended by a large and diverse group of nutritionists, dietitians, researchers and allied health professionals, as well as management, research and development, and marketing personnel from the food and beverage industry. Their enthusiastic participation was a testament to the increasing awareness and interest in polyphenols in the prevention and control of chronic diseases. Presented here are some of the highlights and important information from the symposium.
  7. Liong MT
    Nutr Rev, 2008 Apr;66(4):192-202.
    PMID: 18366533 DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00024.x
    The long history of safety has contributed to the acceptance of probiotics as a safe food adjunct. Consequently, many probiotic products and their applications have been granted GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status. However, this classification has been frequently generalized for all probiotic strains regardless of their application. Cases of probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Enterococcus, and Bifidobacterium have been isolated from infection sites, leading to the postulation that these probiotics can translocate. Probiotic translocation is difficult to induce in healthy humans, and even if it does occur, detrimental effects are rare. Despite this, various reports have documented health-damaging effects of probiotic translocation in immunocompromised patients. Due to probiotics' high degree of safety and their morphological confusion with other pathogenic bacteria, they are often overlooked as contaminants and are least suspected as pathogens. However, the antibiotic resistance of some strains has increased the complexity of their eradication. Probiotic translocation and infection deserve further investigation and should become a facet of safety assessment so the negative effects of probiotics do not outweigh the benefits.
  8. Loganathan R, Subramaniam KM, Radhakrishnan AK, Choo YM, Teng KT
    Nutr Rev, 2017 Feb 01;75(2):98-113.
    PMID: 28158744 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuw054
    The fruit of the oil palm tree (Elaeis guineesis) is the source of antioxidant-rich red palm oil. Red palm oil is a rich source of phytonutrients such as tocotrienols, tocopherols, carotenoids, phytosterols, squalene, and coenzyme Q10, all of which exhibit nutritional properties and oxidative stability. Mutagenic, nutritional, and toxicological studies have shown that red palm oil contains highly bioavailable β-carotene and vitamin A and is reasonably stable to heat without any adverse effects. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the nutritional properties of red palm oil. The possible antiatherogenic, antihemorrhagic, antihypertensive, anticancer, and anti-infective properties of red palm oil are examined. Moreover, evidence supporting the potential effectiveness of red palm oil to overcome vitamin A deficiency in children and pregnant women, to improve ocular complications of vitamin A deficiency, to protect against ischemic heart disease, to promote normal reproduction in males and females, to aid in the management of diabetes, to ameliorate the adverse effects of chemotherapy, and to aid in managing hypobaric conditions is presented.
  9. Teoh SL, Lai NM, Vanichkulpitak P, Vuksan V, Ho H, Chaiyakunapruk N
    Nutr Rev, 2018 04 01;76(4):219-242.
    PMID: 29452425 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nux071
    Context: Chia seed is a popular dietary supplement, taken mainly for its high content of alpha-linolenic acid, vegetable protein, and dietary fiber, yet information about its clinical effects is lacking.

    Objective: This review aims to summarize the clinical evidence regarding the use of chia seed for a wide variety of health conditions.

    Data Sources: A number of databases, including PubMed and Embase, were searched systematically.

    Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials that assessed the clinical effects of chia seed consumption in human participants were included. The quality of trials was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool.

    Data Extraction: Data on study design, blinding status, characteristics of participants, chia seed intervention, comparator, clinical assessment, duration of intake, interval of assessment, and study funding status were extracted. Meta-analysis was performed.

    Results: Twelve trials were included. Participants included healthy persons, athletes, diabetic patients, and individuals with metabolic syndrome. Pooling of results showed no significant differences except for the following findings of subgroup analysis at higher doses of chia seed: (1) lower postprandial blood glucose level (mean difference [MD] of -33.95 incremental area under the curve [iAUC] [mmol/L × 2 h] [95%CI, -61.85, -6.05] and -51.60 iAUC [mmol/L × 2 h] [95%CI, -79.64, -23.56] at medium doses and high doses, respectively); (2) lower high-density lipoprotein in serum (MD of -0.10 mmol/L [95%CI, -0.20, -0.01]); and (3) lower diastolic blood pressure (MD of -7.14 mmHg [95%CI, -11.08, -3.19]). The quality of all evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was low or very low. All trials employed only surrogate markers as outcomes.

    Conclusions: Future trials with improved methodological quality, well-described clinical events, and validated surrogate markers as outcomes are needed to support the potential health benefits of chia seed consumption.

    Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42015029990.

  10. Premakumar CM, Turner MA, Morgan C
    Nutr Rev, 2019 12 01;77(12):878-889.
    PMID: 31504841 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz049
    CONTEXT: Very preterm neonates (VPNs) are unable to digest breast milk and therefore rely on parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations. This systematic review was prepared following PRISMA-P 2015 guidelines. For the purpose of this review, desirable mean plasma arginine concentration is defined as ≥80 micromoles/L.

    OBJECTIVE: The review was performed to answer the following research question: "In VPNs, are high amounts of arginine in PN, compared with low amounts of arginine, associated with appropriate circulating concentrations of arginine?" Therefore, the aims were to 1) quantify the relationship between parenteral arginine intakes and plasma arginine concentrations in PN-dependent VPNs; 2) identify any features of study design that affect this relationship; and 3) estimate the target parenteral arginine dose to achieve desirable preterm plasma arginine concentrations.

    DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched regardless of study design; review articles were not included.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Only articles that discussed amino acid (AA) intake and measured plasma AA profile post PN in VPNs were included. Data were obtained using a data extraction checklist that was devised for the purpose of this review.

    DATA ANALYSIS: Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. The dose-concentration relationship of arginine content (%) and absolute arginine intake (mg/(kg × d)) with plasma arginine concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Future studies using AA solutions with arginine content of 17%-20% and protein intakes of 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day may be needed to achieve higher plasma arginine concentrations.

  11. Dikeocha IJ, Al-Kabsi AM, Eid EEM, Hussin S, Alshawsh MA
    Nutr Rev, 2021 Dec 08;80(1):22-49.
    PMID: 34027974 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuab006
    CONTEXT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Recently, much attention has been given to the microbiome and probiotics as preventive and therapeutic approaches to CRC and the mechanisms involved.

    OBJECTIVES: To interpret the findings of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of probiotics relative to patients with CRC and to outline challenges of and future directions for using probiotics in the management and prevention of CRC.

    DATA SOURCES: Web of Science, PubMed, ProQuest, Wile,y and Scopus databases were searched systematically from January 17-20, 2020, in accordance with PRISMA guidelines.

    STUDY SELECTION: Primacy RCTs that reported the effects of administration to patients with CRC of a probiotic vs a placebo were eligible to be included.

    DATA EXTRACTION: The studies were screened and selected independently by 2 authors on the basis of prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data extraction and risk-of-bias assessment were also performed independently by 2 authors.

    RESULTS: A total of 23 RCTs were eligible for inclusion. Probiotics supplementation in patients with CRC improved their quality of life, enhanced gut microbiota diversity, reduced postoperative infection complications, and inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production. The use of certain probiotics in patients with CRC also reduced the side effects of chemotherapy, improved the outcomes of surgery, shortened hospital stays, and decreased the risk of death. Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus were the common probiotics used across all studies.

    CONCLUSION: Probiotics have beneficial effects in patients with CRC regardless of the stage of cancer. There is an opportunity for probiotics to be used in mainstream health care as a therapy in the fight against CRC, especially in early stages; however, larger clinical trialsof selected or a cocktail of probiotics are needed to confirm the efficacy, dosage, and interactions with chemotherapeutics agents.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration no. CRD42020166865.

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