The synthesis of a pentacyclic indole compound corresponding to the core structure of the misassigned indole alkaloid, tronoharine (1), is presented. The key reactions were a formal [3 + 3] cycloaddition of an indol-2-yl carbinol with an azadiene for the construction of the 6/5/6/6 tetracyclic system containing an all-carbon quaternary center and an intramolecular substitution reaction of an amine and a triflate for the creation of the bridged azepine ring. In addition, some other interesting transformations discovered during the synthetic studies are also discussed.
Two new indole alkaloids characterized by previously unencountered natural product skeletons, viz., criofolinine (1), incorporating a pyrroloazepine motif within a pentacyclic ring system, and vernavosine (2, isolated as its ethyl ether derivative 3, which on hydrolysis regenerated the putative precursor alkaloid 2), incorporating a pyridopyrimidine moiety embedded within a pentacyclic carbon framework, were isolated from a Malayan Tabernaemontana species. The structures and absolute configuration of these alkaloids were determined on the basis of NMR and MS analysis and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis.
Two new indole alkaloids, voatinggine (1) and tabertinggine (2), which are characterized by previously unencountered natural product skeletons, were isolated from a Malayan Tabernaemontana species. The structures and absolute configuration of these alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS analysis, and X-ray diffraction analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway to these novel alkaloids from an iboga precursor, and via a common cleavamine-type intermediate, is presented.
Two new monoterpene indole alkaloids, characterized by previously unencountered natural product skeletons, viz., arborisidine (1), incorporating indolizidine and cyclohexanone moieties fused to an indole unit, and arbornamine (2), incorporating an unprecedented 6/5/6/5/6 "arbornane" skeleton (distinct from the eburnan or tacaman skeleton), were isolated from a Malayan Kopsia arborea. The structures of the alkaloids were determined based on analysis of the NMR and MS data. Possible biogenetic pathways to these alkaloids from a common pericine precursor (3) are presented.
The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-conolutinine was achieved in 10 steps. The synthesis featured a catalytic asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptamine to forge the tricycle intermediate. Hydration of an alkene catalyzed by Co(acac)2 was also employed as a key step to diastereoselectively introduce the tertiary alcohol moiety. The absolute configuration of (-)-conolutinine was established to be (2S,5aS,8aS,13aR) based on this asymmetric total synthesis.
Successful activation of the pyranonigrin biosynthetic gene cluster and gene knockout in Aspergillus niger plus in vivo and in vitro assays led to isolation of six new products, including a spiro cyclobutane-containing dimeric compound, which served as the basis for the proposed comprehensive pyranonigrin biosynthetic pathway. Two redox enzymes are key to forming the characteristic fused γ-pyrone core, and a protease homologue performs the exo-methylene formation.
A new monoterpene indole alkaloid characterized by an unprecedented pentacyclic cage skeleton, arboridinine (1), was isolated from a Malaysian Kopsia species. The structure and absolute configuration of the alkaloid were determined based on NMR, MS, and X-ray diffraction analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway from a pericine precursor is presented.
A cytotoxic bisindole alkaloid possessing an unprecedented structure constituted from the union of an eburnan half and a novel vinylquinoline alkaloid has been isolated from Leuconotis griffithii. The structure was established by analysis of the spectroscopic data and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway to the novel quinolinic coupling partner is presented from an Aspidosperma precursor.
A cytotoxic bisindole alkaloid possessing an unprecedented structure in which two indole moieties are bridged by an aromatic spacer unit has been isolated from Alstonia angustifolia. The structure was established by analysis of the spectroscopic data and confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. A possible biogenetic pathway from pyrocatechuic acid and pleiocarpamine is presented.
[structure: see text] A new indole alkaloid, arboflorine, possessing a novel pentacyclic carbon skeleton and incorporating a third nitrogen atom was obtained from the Malayan Kopsia arborea. The structure was established by spectroscopic analysis, and a possible biogenetic pathway from a preakuammicine-type precursor is presented.
Two new chlorinated fatty acid amides, columbamides D (1) and E (2), along with apratoxins A and C and wewakazole, were isolated from the organic extract of a Moorea bouillonii sample from Sabah, Malaysia. Structure elucidation was accomplished by a combination of MS and NMR analyses. The total synthesis of all four stereoisomers of 1 was completed, and the absolute configuration was determined by chiral-phase HPLC and Marfey's analysis.
Two new monoterpenoid indole alkaloids, alstoscholactine (1) and alstolaxepine (2), were isolated from Alstonia scholaris. Compound 1 represents a rearranged stemmadenine alkaloid with an unprecedented C-6-C-19 connectivity, whereas compound 2 represents a 6,7- seco-angustilobine B-type alkaloid incorporating a rare γ-lactone-bridged oxepane ring system. Their structures and absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 was successfully semisynthesized from 19 E-vallesamine. Compound 2 induced marked vasorelaxation in rat isolated aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine.