Methods: A systematic review of literature following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses)-statement methodology for clinical practice guidelines was conducted; PROSPERO CRD42019138548. Assessment of selected clinical practice guidelines with the AGREE (Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation)-II methodological quality instrument was performed, and those graded over 60 points were selected for recommendations extraction and evidence analysis.
Results: Only 6 clinical practice guidelines fulfilled criteria, 69 nonpharmacological recommendations were extracted: 13 from American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology guideline, 16 from Malaysian Osteoporosis Society guideline, 15 from the Ministry of Health in Mexico guideline, 14 from Royal Australian College of General Practitioners guideline, 7 from Sociedad Española de Investigación Ósea y del Metabolismo Mineral guideline, and 7 from National Osteoporosis Guideline Group guideline. Percentage by theme showed that the highest number of recommendations were 12 (17.1%) for vitamin D, 11 (15.7%) for a combination of calcium and vitamin D, and 11 (15.7%) for exercise.
Conclusions: These recommendations address integrating interventions to modify lifestyle, mainly calcium and vitamin D intake, and exercise. Other recommendations include maintaining adequate protein intake, identification and treatment of risk factors for falls, and limiting the consumption of coffee, alcohol and tobacco. Considerations on prescription must be taken.
Methods: Six osteoporosis risk assessments tools (the Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation [SCORE], the Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument, the Age Bulk One or Never Estrogen, the body weight, the Malaysian Osteoporosis Screening Tool, and the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians) were used to screen postmenopausal women who had not been previously diagnosed with osteoporosis/osteopenia. These women also underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan to confirm the absence or presence of osteoporosis.
Results: A total of 164/224 participants were recruited (response rate, 73.2%), of which only 150/164 (91.5%) completed their DXA scan. Sixteen participants (10.7%) were found to have osteoporosis, whilst 65/150 (43.3%) were found to have osteopenia. Using precision-recall curves, the recall of the tools ranged from 0.50 to 1.00, whilst precision ranged from 0.04 to 0.14. The area under the curve (AUC) ranged from 0.027 to 0.161. The SCORE had the best balance between recall (1.00), precision (0.04-0.12), and AUC (0.072-0.161).
Conclusions: We found that the SCORE had the best balance between recall, precision, and AUC among the 6 screening tools that were compared among Malaysian postmenopausal women.